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The plan of this work was developed and arrangements were made for its progress in March, 1881, while the Editor had still in hand another coöperative work, The Memorial History of Boston. When his purpose was brought to the attention of the Massachusetts Historical Society, that body marked its interest in the undertaking by appointing an advisory committee, which consisted of Robert C. WinTHROP, then its President, GEORGE E. Ellis, and CHARLES DEANE, then VicePresidents, HENRY W. TORREY, then the leading professor of history in Harvard University, and FRANCIS PARKMAN, the historian of New France. Affiliations were sought and obtained with other historical societies here and in other countries through some of their members, who had given special attention to the fields of research that it was purposed to cover. In this way the assistance has been obtained of thirty-nine different writers.

The Editor had a definite purpose in his mind when he undertook this History, which was to add a distinctly critical treatment to the combined authorship which had characterized the earlier work. His intention was not to offer a model for the general writing of history, based on a coöperative and critical method. There is no substitute for the individuality of an historian.

His experience during many years in charge of large libraries resorted to by scholars, had made it very clear to his own mind that there was a value, at intervals of time, both for the writer and for the student, in grouping the original material which had come to light, so that the facilities of the historian should be understood. There was an almost equal advantage in making apparent what had already been done in the use of such material.

The Editor had also learned the importance of the monograph as rounding the treatment of any phase of history, in a way rarely accomplished in more comprehensive work. He thought, too, that he had discovered how the


which surveys the broader field loses in some degree its sense of adjustment to narrower details, both of action and record, which characterize the monograph and which belong to the province of the specialist in historical research. It might, he thought, be no small gain to bring such specialists into unison, side by side, in the elucidation of the broader aspects of American history.

It was further believed that the field of historical geography was more intimately connected with that of history in general than had usually been recognized; and that it was difficult to see how any period of discovery could be understood without a constant apprehension of the geographical conditions which the discoverers supposed they were dealing with.

It was felt also that there is a necessary sympathy between the graphic illustrations belonging to a period under observation and the progress of its events; and that a certain wrong is done to the critical sense if other pictorial associations are established.

It was to be expected that the plan would show in its development certain deficiencies, that are more easily avoided in the ordinary methods of writing history. While the several narratives aimed to be condensations of existing knowledge, the degree of compression would vary with the mental characteristics of the several writers; and comparing one narrative with another, there might be want of continuity, change of style, and contrasts of treatment. There was likely, too, to be disproportion in the critical essays and their attendant notes; since the amplitude of detail was to be determined quite as much by the material to be worked upon as by the importance of the topic, and the two were not sure to be in accurate correlation.

In reference to his own functions, the Editor would say, that, while he has attempted, from the vantage-ground naturally belonging to such a supervisor, to do something towards unifying the several chapters, in regard to spirit and general scope, beyond what was possible for the several writers to do, who were not generally in correspondence with one another, he has at the same time left them free in the expression of opinions ; so that in one chapter and another a diversity of view may appear. If the intent of the book be considered, this will not appear an unfortunate conjunction, inasmuch as one of its chief purposes is to reflect the opinions of those most entitled to be heard, - and these may often be at variance. In such matters as Old and New Style in chronology, and in the spelling of proper names, he has not thought it necessary to make the different writers conform, but has allowed their several preferences to prevail.

Necessarily much of the Editor's work is not patent; but he has made some parts palpable by affixing his mark, to relieve his fellow-workers of any responsibility which should attach to himself alone. These supplements to the well-directed labors of his coadjutors have been seen in proof by the several writers, and they have kindly and freely given the Editor the benefit of their judgment. Upon no one of his friends, however, has he been more constantly dependent than upon Dr. DEANE.


September, 1889.



Treatment of the geological and prehistoric periods will be found in Volume I. Events of other continents associated with the progress of opinion as respects the existence of a western world and associated with the course of history in America are also included, so far as they are mentioned in the present work. The publication of books, cardinal in regard to the progress of historic knowledge, has also been noted, as well as the making of maps defining the condition of geographical views at their respective dates.

X Cent. B. C. Homer's geographical views, VI Cent. A.D. King Arthur in Iceland, i. 60.

i. 39 ; Brasseur de Bourbourg begins Mexican The Toltecs reach Mexico, and the building history 955 B. C., i. 155.

of Teotihuacan, i. 139, 182. VII Cent. B. C. The Greeks under Colæus 503. Mexican history begins according to Ixsail west, i. 25.

tlilxochitl, i. 156. VI Cent. B. C. Spherical shape of the earth 577. May 16. St. Brandan died, i. 48. taught, i. 2.

596. Mexican history begins according to V Cent. B. C. The Carthaginians sail west Clavigero, i. 155. under Hanno and Hamilco, i. 25.

VII Cent. A. D. Harrisse claims that the The Pirua dynasty is held to have begun in Basques frequented the American coast, i. 75. Peru, i. 225.

697. Vetia begins Mexican history, i. 155. IV Cent. B. C. Plato and the story of Atlan- VIII Cent. A. D. The Venerable Bede taught

tis, i. 15, 41; Aelian cites Theopompus about the sphericity of the earth, i. 31. Western islands, i. 21 ; Pytheas and Euthym- Northmen said to be in Greenland, i. 61. enes explore the Western ocean, 26; views of 714. Antillia, or the Island of the Seven Cities, Aristotle, 28, 37 ; of Pytheas, 34.

settled from Spain, i. 31. III Cent. B. C. Eratosthenes measures the IX Cent. A. D. The Irish in Iceland, i. 60. size of the earth, i. 4.

830. The Pirua dynasty fell, in Peru, i. 225. II Cent. B. C. Geographical ideas of Marinus 835. Greenland inhabited, i. 61.

of Tyre, Polybius, and Hipparchus, i. 8, 34. 875. The Norse in Iceland, i. 61. I Cent. B. C. Sertorius hears of the Atlantic 876. Gunnbjorn sees a western land, i. 61.

islands, i. 26; references in Virgil and Horace, X Cent. A. D. 983-85. Eric in Greenland, i. 27 ; geographical ideas of Strabo and Posido- 61. nius, 27, 34; the dream of Scipio in Cicero, 986. Bjarni's voyage S. W. from Greenland, 36; Diodorus Siculus on the Carthaginian

i. 63. discovery of America, 41; strange men cast Are Marson finds Huitramannaland, i. 82. on the German coast, 26.

The Totul Xius held to be in Yucatan in the

tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries, i. 153. I Cent. A. D. Plutarch's Morals and the XI Cent. A. D. End of the Toltec power in Saturnian continent, i. 23; Seneca's proph- Mexico, i. 140. ecy, 27, 29; Roman voyages to America, 41; The Arabs explore the Atlantic in this and the Pomponius Mela's Cosmographia, i. 35; ii. following century, i. 72. 180.

1000. Leif in Vinland, i. 63, 87. II Cent. A.D. Ptolemy's geographical views, 1006. Thorfinn Karlsefne in Vinland, i. 65.

i. 34; ii 95, 165; St. Clement and the world XII Cent. A. D. Edrisi, Arab geographer, i. beyond the ocean, i. 37.

72. III Ćent. A. D. The geographical views of Bandelier holds thai Mexican tradition stops, i. Solinus, i. 35; ii. 182.

155. IV Cent. A. D. The compass known in the

The Quiches and Cakchiquels in Guatemala,
Indian Ocean, ii. 94.
From the fourth to the seventh century the The Catalans and Basques use the compass,

Nahuas occupy the Mexican plateau, i. 137.
V Cent. A. D. The cosmological theories of The Heimskringla and other Sagas first writ-

Macrobius, i. 11; ii. 28; Proclus and the At- ten, i. 84, 91.
lantis myth, i. 35.

1121. A bishop in Vinland, i. 65. The Chinese alleged to have reached Fou- 1135. Existing rues on an island in the Baltic sang, i. 78.

attest Norse occupancy, i. 87.

i. 150.

ji. 94.

ii. 24.

ii. 90.

ji. 27

1153, Indians said to have been thrown on 1459. Fra Mauro's map of the Atlantic, i. 117, the German coast, i. 26, 74.

120; ii. 94. 1170. Prince Madoc and the Welsh sail 1460. The Cape de Verde islands found, ii. westerly, i. 71, 109, III.

39. XIII Cent. A. D. — 1240. The Inca rule be- 1461-90. Atlantic charts of the Benincasas, i.

gins in Peru and lasts till 1523, i. 225, 232. 56.

Kublai Khan supposed to visit Peru, i. 82. 1463-64. Cortereal on the Newfoundland 1267. Roger Bacon completed his Opus Major coasts, ii. 33.

and held to the sphericity of the earth, i. 31 ; The Dutch said to be on the Newfoundland ii. 28.

coast, i. 75.

1467. Map discovered by Nordenskjöld shows XIV Cent. A. D. The Codex Flatoyensis and Greenland, i. 117.

other oldest existing Sagas written, i. 84, 89, 1470. Columbus dreaming of a Western land, 90. The Basques said to frequent the Newfound. 1470-84. Columbus in Portugal, ii. 1, 2. land coast, i. 75.

1470 (?). Nicholas Donis' map (Ptolemy of The Zeni hear of Drogeo and Estotiland, i. III. 1482), — the earliest engraved map to show 1306. Map of Marino Sanuto, the beginning Greenland, i. 118; ii. 28. of Atlantic cartography, i. 53:

1471. Earliest edition of Pomponius Mela, ii. 1325. Mexico city founded, - the earliest 28, 180.

fixed date in ancient Mexican history, i. 133, 1472. Edition of Strabo, ii. 25. 144.

1472–83. The first edition of Pierre d'Ailly 1327-78. Madeira discovered between these falls between these dates, ii. 28. dates by Machin, ii. 38.

1473. Leonardo da Vinci said to have written 1347. Latest tidings of Vinland, i. 65.

to Columbus respecting a Western passage, ii. 1349, Eskimos appear in Greenland, i. 107. 31. 1351. A Portolano shows the Azores, ii. 38. Harrisse's date for Columbus leaving Italy,

Brazil (island) shown in a map, i. 49. 1357. Techotl, a Chichimec ruler, dies, i. 146. Solinus first printed, i. 35: 1367–73. Pizigani’s maps of the Atlantic, i. 1474. Columbus corresponds with Toscanelli, 54, 55.

i. 51; ii. 2, 30; and sees his map, i. 56 ; ii. 101, 1375. Catalan Mappemonde, i. 55; ii. 38.

103 1380. The Memorial of Tecpan-Atitlan begins, Bartholomew Las Casas born, ii. 303. according to Brinton, i. 167.

1475. Latin version of Ptolemy printed, i. 34; XV Cent. A. D. Communication with Green- 1475-1506. The Ephemerides of Regiomonland ceases, i. 68.

tanus, the calculations probably used by 1402. Béthencourt settles the Canaries, ii. 36. Columbus, ii. 96. 1409. The Latin version of Ptolemy first | 1475. Works of L. Annaeus Seneca first made, ii. 27.

printed, i. 35. 1410. Pierre d'Ailly's Ymago Mundi written, 1476. Skolno on the Labrador coast, i. 76;

ji. 28, 29; with a map, 95.. 1415. The Tepanecs (Mexico) invade Tezcuco, 1477. Æneas Sylvius' Historia, - used by Coi. 146.

lumbus, ii. 31. 1418-20. Madeira rediscovered by the Por- Feb. Columbus in Iceland, i. 61,96; ii. 33. tuguese, ii. 38.

Marco Polo's travels first printed, ii. 30. 1418. Prince Henry's school of nautical ob- 1480. Brazil island searched for, i. 50. servation at Sagres, ii. 40.

1482. Toscanelli died, ii. 3o. 1424. Antillia first in maps, i. 49.

1484. Regiomontanus adapts the astrolabe for 1427. The Claudius Clavus map gives the sea use, 11. 97.

earliest delineation of any part of America Columbus goes to Spain, ii. 90. (Greenland), i. 117; ii. 28.

The pilot died, who had been driven west, 1434. The Portuguese push their discoveries and had seen land, of which he spoke to down the African coast beyond Cape Bojador, Columbus, ii. 33.

1485. Columbus in the French piratical ser1435-1456. Columbus born between these vice, ii. 1.

dates, ii. 83. Harrisse says about 1445, ii. 89. Latin version of Marco Polo - the one 1436. Variation of the needle shown on maps, probably seen by Columbus, ii. 30. ii. 94.

1485-86. Columbus announces his views to Andrea Bianco, map of the Atlantic, i. 54, Ferdinand and Isabella, ii. 3. 55; ii. 38, 94.

1486. Laon globe made, but dated 1493, i. 58, 1439. Valsequa's chart of the Atlantic, ii. 174. 119; iü. 212. 1440-69. Montezuma I. (Mexico), i. 147. 1487. Diego Cam reaches the Cape of Good 1444. Biscayans said to have discovered West- Hope, ii. 41. ern lands, i. 75.

1488-89. Cousin on the South American 1447. Antillia rediscovered, i. 31.

coast, i. 76; ii. 34; viii. 374. A Portuguese ship driven westward to land, 1489. Alleged visit of Behaim to the Ameri

can coast, ii. 34. 1451. Mar. 9. Vespucius born, ii. 129.

1491. Bristol vessels sailing westward, i. 75. 1455. Sea chart of Bart. Pareto, i. 56.

Harrisse's date for Columbus's securing the 1457. The Cape of Good Hope prefigured in royal ear, ii. 91. maps, ii. 41.

1492. Behaim globe, i. 58; ii. 35, 104, 105; 1458, etc. The maps of Leardo, i. 56.

iii. 21-2.

ji. 34.

ii. 40.

i. 75.

ii. 21, 59:


p. xviii.


1492, Apr. 17. Agreement of Columbus with | 1502. Miguel Cortereal sails in search of GasFerdinand and Isabella, ii. 5.

par Cortereal, iv. 2. Aug. 3. Columbus sails from Palos, ii. 6. Franciscans in Hispaniola, ii. 305.

Oct. 11-12. Columbus discovers land, ii. 9, Ojeda's second voyage, ii. 189, 204, 207. 52.

Cantino map, i. 120; ii. 107, 231 ; viii. 369. 1493, Jan. 4. Columbus sails homeward, ii. 11. May 9. Columbus sails on his last voyage,

Feb.-Mar, Columbus writes his account of his discovery, ii. 46; and reaches Palos, 11, 46. 1503. May. Vespucius again sails from LisColumbus's letter published first in Latin, ii. bon, ii. 151.

Possible knowledge of the South Sea by Peter Martyr begins his Decades, ii. 57. the Spaniards, ii. 21. Nuremberg Chronicle published, ii. 34.

Portuguese chart of the Cortereal region of May 3-4. Bull of demarcation, ii. 45, 141,

the American coast, iv. 35. 592 ; viii. 356.

Coelho on the South American coast, viii. Sept. 25.

Columbus sails on his second 380. voyage, ii. 16, 57.

Jaques discovers the bay of San Salvador 1494. Alleged earliest Cabot voyage, iii. 24, 44. (South America), viii

. 373. June 4-7. Convention at Tordesillas, ii. 14, Reisch's map uses latitude and longitude in 45.

the modern way, ii. 95. 1494-1507. Alleged improbable voyage of 1503-6. Other Portuguese mariners on the

Behaim to the South American coast, viii. 376. South American coast, viji. 374. 1495-6, Mar. 5. Patent to John Cabot and his 1504. The Breton fishermen on the Newfoundthree sons, iii. 38.

land coast, iv. 4. 1497, Feb. 3. License to John Cabot, iii. 43. Earliest collection of voyages to America, i.

June 24. John Cabot discovers the N. A. continent, ii. 136, 137, 231 ; iii. I, 53, 55; iv. Cortés comes to the New World, ii. 349. 1, 412.

Brazil begins to be the name for South Vasco da Gama doubles the Cape of Good America, viii. 375. Hope, ii. 42.

Jan. 5. Alleged visit of Gonneville to the Vespucius's alleged voyage, ii. 137, 142, 155,

Brazilian coast, viii. 374. 174, 231.

Sept. 12. Columbus leaves the New World 1497-8. Alleged visits of the Normans to the forever, ii. 23. Brazilian coast, viii. 374.

Nov. 26. Queen Isabella of Spain dies, ii. 1498. Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff, ii. 58. Second Cabot voyage, iii. 17, 57;

1506. Alleged visit of Spaniards to the St. May 30. Columbus sails on his third voyage, Lawrence, iv. 74. ii. 19, 58, 133

Jean Denys said to be in the St. Lawrence Aug. Columbus at the mouth of the Ori. Gulf, iv. 4, 64. noco, i. I.

Pinzon on the Yucatan coast, viii. 261. 1499. Vespucius's first undisputed voyage, ii. May 20. Columbus dies, ii. 23. 149, 153, 187.

1507. The Cosmographia Introductio of Wald1499-1500. Ojeda at the Orinoco, ii. 109, 187; seemüller (Hylacomylus) assigns the name

Nino and Guerra at Paria, ii. 109; Pinzon at America to the new continent, ii. 145, 164. the Amazon, ii. 109; Diego de Lepe to Cape Waldseemüller's or the Admiral's map supSt. Augustine, ii. 109; viii. 371.

posed to have been made, ii, 113. 1499, June. Ojeda said to have touched South The Paesi Novamente retrovati published, ii.

America near Cape St. Augustine, viii. 369. 70; iv. 12.
1500. Gaspar Cortereal sails to the Northwest, 1507-8. La Cosa's Voyage, ii. 189, 208.

iv. 2; supposes Hudson's Straits to lead 1508. Alleged map of Jean Denys, iv. 36. through the continent, ii. 445; on the New- Cuba found to be an island, ij. 201. foundland coast, ii. 107.

Normans at Newfoundland, iv. 64. La Cosa's map shows America for the first Thomas Aubert on the American coasts, time, ii. 106, 206; iii. 8 ; viii. 369.

iv. 5. Jan. 20. Pinzon said to have seen Cape St. Strange men picked up in a boat off the Augustine, viii. 369.

English coast, i. 26. Jan.-Apr. Brazil coast first visited, ii. 150. Earliest description of Brazil, viii. 349. March. Cabral leaves Portugal, and April South America first called “Terra Sanctæ 22 sights the South American coast; and Crucis ” in Ruysch's map, viii. 37!. May 3 named the country “ Terra Sanctæ The Portuguese reach the 50° S. lat. on the

Crucis,” and May 22 leaves the coast, viii. 371. South American coast, viii. 375. 1500-1. Confused order of the Cortereal voy- Carvalho and João de Lisbon on the South ages, iv. 13.

American coast, viii. 380. 1500-2. Voyage of Bastidas to Panamá, ii. 109. N. American Indians baptized in France, Spanish explorations of the Atlantic coast

iv. 263. of North America, ii. 109.

Ruysch's first engraved map showing Amer1500-3. Lorenzo Friess's maps of the Brazil ica, ii. 115; iii. 9.

coast represent the earliest explorers, viii. 373. 1508-9. Pinzon and Solis on the South Amer1501. Second Gaspar Cortereal voyage, iv. 2. ican coast, viii. 375.

Coelho on the South American coast, viii. 1508–27. Suit conducted by Diego Columbus 372.

to recover his father's offices, etc., ii. 88, 144. 1501-3. Claims of Vespucius to have been on 1509. First English publication to mention

the South American coast, ii. 156; viii. 372, America, iii. 199. 375, 381.

Tierra Firme colonized, ií. 209. VOL. VIII.

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