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1509. Francisco Pizarro reaches Darien, ii. 506. | 1518. Map of the Pacific, ii. 217. Ojeda at Cartagena, where Cosa is killed, 1519. Enciso's Suma ae geografia, the first
book in Spanish relating to America, where 1510. Diego Alvarez at Bahia, viii. 390.
he gives the first hint of Mexican civilization, Dominican monks reach Hispaniola, ii. 305. i. 173 ; ii. 98, 208. 1510–12. The Lenox globe, ii. 170; iii. 212. Alonso de Pineda on the Florida coast, ij. 1511. Diego Velasquez settles Cuba, ii. 201. 237 ; and names a river, Rio del Espiritu San
The Portuguese reach the Moluccas by to, which is supposed to be the Mississippi, ii. way of the Cape of Good Hope, ii. 441.
292 Ferdinand Columbus maintains the theory Cortés reaches the Yucatan coast, viii. 261; of a westerly passage below South America, the Mexican coast, i. 149; ii. 351 ; and, July
10, writes his first letter about his conquest, ii. The American map in the Ptolemy (Sylva- 402. nus) of this year shows the first instance of Grijalva on the Yucatan coast, viii. 261. type inscription in a woodcut, ii. 122; viii. Panamá founded, ii. 505. 380.
Vera Cruz founded, ii. 356. The Portuguese in Rio de Janeiro bay, ii. Aug. 10. Magellan sails on his famous
voyage, ii. 592. Peter Martyr's earliest publication, i. p. xx ; 1520. The Pompey stone and Spaniards in and map, ii. 109, 232, 283.
New York, iv 434. 1511-17. The Spaniards at Darien receive Theophrastus Paracelsus first advanced
reports of the empire of the Incas, ii. 505. views respecting the plurality of races, insti1512. Sebastian Cabot entered the service of gated by the discovery of new races in AmerSpain, iii. 4.
ica, i. 372. Ponce de Leon empowered to settle Bimini, Oviedo begins his studies of America, ïi.
343. Stobnicza's map, ii. 116; iii, 10, 13.
Map of the Gulf of Mexico, ii. 218.
Apian's map, ii. 182, 183. 1512-16. The so-called Da Vinci map, ii. 124, Schöner's globe, ii. 119 ; iii. 214.
Bordone's maps, viii. 382. 1513. Ptolemy map and that known as the De Ayllon sends an expedition to the Atlan
"Admiral's map” (Columbus's), ii. 111; iv. tic coast of Florida, ii. 238, 285. 34.
June 30. Montezuma dies, ii. 368. Oviedo at Panamá, ii. 563.
July 7. Cortés' fight at Otumba, ii. 370. Apr. 2. Ponce de Leon discovered and
Magellan entered Magellan's named Florida, ii. 233, 283.
Straits, ii. 604; and Nov. 28 reached the Pa. Sept. 25.
Balboa's discovery of the Pacific, cific, ii. 608. ii. 176; viii. 375.
The Portuguese suspected to have reached Map of the Pacific, 440.
America from the Moluccas, ii. 441. 1514. Cross-staff first described, ii. 98.
Oct. 30. Cortés' second letter, ii. 403. Pedrarias at Antigua, ii. 197.
1521. Giovanni da Verrazano as a French cor1514-19. The so-called Tross Gores (map in sair named Juan Florin, iv. 5. gores), ji. 120; iii. 214.
Alleged exploration on the northeastern 1514-20. Portuguese Portolano of the N. coasts of America by Alvarez Fagundes, iv. 37. American coast, iii. 56.
March. Magellan at the Ladrones, ii. 611. 1515. Biru visited, ii. 505.
Ponce de Leon again visits Florida, ii. 234. Reisch's Margarita philosophica and its map,
Panamá made a city, ii. 199. ii. 113, 114
Aug. Mexico City captured, ii. 378. Schöner's or Frankfort globe, ii. 118, 173; 1522. Pascoal de Andagoya's expedition south . 214, 215;
from Darien, ii. 506; and learns of an Inca empire, ii. 199.
The maps in Ptolemy edited by Lorenz 1516. The earliest life of Columbus in a note Friess, ii. 173, 175, 218, 598. to the Giustiniani Psalter, ji. 64.
Map of Nuño Garcia de Toreno, viïi. 383. Las Casas made “ Universal Protector of Cortés' third letter, ir. 410. the Indians,” ii. 307.
Sept. 6. Del Cano returns in the “VictoPeter Martyr's account of Cabot, iii. 15. ria," viii. 382.
January. Solis in the La Plata River, iii. 1523, Dec. Cortés sends Alvarado to Guate5; viii. 375.
mala, ii. 383. January 23. Ferdinand of Spain dies, ii. Garay's expedition to Amichel, ii. 238, 284; 310.
and to Panuco, ii. 503. 1516-17. Alleged voyage of Seb. Cabot, iii. 1523, etc. Norman voyages to Brazil, viii. 384. 26, 28.
1524. Apian published his first cosmographical 1517. Balboa executed, ii. 199, 211.
treatise, ii. 182. Ruins in Cozumel first observed, i. 186.
Jan. Olid sent to Honduras, ii. 383. John Rut on the Newfoundland coast, iii. Oct. Cortés himself goes to Honduras, ii. 170.
384. Hernandes de Cordova on the Florida coast,
Cortés' fourth letter, ii. 411.
May. Congress at Badajos, üii. 4; iv. 10; 1518. Vadianus edits Pomponius Mela, ii. 182. Raron de Léry on the American coast, iv. 5.
Pizarro sails from Panama, ii. Grijalva at Cozumel and Vera Cruz, i. 149; 507
Verrazano supposed the earliest to sail
1515,04 later. The Nordenskjöld gores (map),
directly west in crossing the Atlantic, iii. 172; | 1530. The earliest knowledge acquired by the in seeking a way to Cathay, iv. 6, 17.
Spaniards of the Pueblo Indians, ii. 473. 1524-25. Gomez explores the eastern coasts Guzman's expedition to New Galicia, ii. of the United States, ii. 241 ; iv. 10, 29, 413, 503. 414.
William Hawkins on the Brazil coast, iii. 1524-40. L'Cuy globe, iii. 214.
60. 1525. Map of Lorenz Friess (Frisius), ii. 126, Alfinger's search for Eldorado, ii. 579. 127.
The Brazilian coast first permanently occuLoyasa on the South American coasts, and pied, viii. 350. one of his vessels, commanded by Francis de
June 20. The Moluccas confirmed to PorHoces, discovers Cape Horn, but the discovery tugal, viii. 383. was kept secret, viii. 384.
Peter Martyr's Eight Decades, iii. 18. Nov. Huayna Ccapac, Peruvian Inca, dies, The Sloan MS. map makes America one
with Asia, ii. 432. 1526. The monk Franciscus' map, ii. 431.
Alonso de Santa Cruz's variation chart, – Dominicans in Virginia, iv. 263.
the earliest known, ii. 100. Oviedo publishes his Sumario, ii. 343, 345. 1530-40. Map at Turin, iv. 38. Pizarro's second expedition, ii. 507.
1531.. Papal supremacy denied in England, iii. Nicholas Don on the Newfoundland coast, 236. iv. 62.
Diego Ordaz's search for Eldorado, ii. 579. Sebastian Cabot reaches the La Plata River, Jan. 1. De Sousa alleged to have discovii. 4; viii. 384.
ered the bay of Rio de Janeiro, and to have De Ayllon himself on the coast; reaches named it from the day, viii. 390. Chesapeake Bay, ii. 241, 285; iv. 414.
De Sousa has a captaincy on the Brazil May. Cortés returns to Mexico, ii. 385. coast, viii. 390. Sept. 3. Cortés' fifth letter, ii. 411.
Map of Orontius Finæus, ii. 184, 431 ; iii. 1527. Las Casas begins work on his Historia, II; viii. 387.
Dec. 28. Pizarro again sails from Panamá Glareanus opens the discussion about the for Peru, ii. 514. ancients' knowledge of America, i. 40; ii. 25. 1532. Cartagena founded, viii. 292.
Narvaez's expedition to the upper Gulf of Simon Grynæus' Novis Orbis, i. p. xxiv. Mexico coast, ii. 242, 286.
Sebastian Münster's earliest map of AmerExploring fleet on the Pacific dispatched by ica, i. p. xxv ; ii. 121 ; iii. 199, 201. Cortés, ii. 441.
Ziegler's map of Schondia shows Greenland Guzman at Pánuco, ii. 386.
connected with Europe, ii. 434. Conquest of Yucatan begun, ii. 429.
May. Mendoza sails up the Pacific coast Doubtful stories of Verrazano, iv. 9.
for Cortés, ii. 393. Rut on the Newfoundland coast, iv. 64.
May 18. Pizarro advances from Tumbez, Normans and Bretons at Newfoundland, iv. 62.
Nov. 15. Pizarro enters Coxamarca, ii. 516. Supposed date of the Maiolo or Maggiolo 1532-40. Map from Kunstmann, iv. 46. map, ii. 219; iv. 27, 38, 39, 67.
1533. First printing in Mexico, jj. 400. Thorne's map, iii. 17
Oviedo begins to print his Historia, ii. 343, The so-called Ferd. Columbus map said to 345. be the work of Garcia de Toreno, ii. 43, 220. Guzman's expedition to Sinaloa, ii. 503. La Plata, river, first so named, viii. 375.
Schöner's map, viii. 388. 1528. Latimer and others meet at Cambridge, Cortés' expedition on the Pacific, ii. 441. Eng., iji. 231.
Cortés' map of the California peninsula, ii. The first English sea manual, iii. 206.
442. Alonso de Chaves, royal cosmographer of Cartagena founded, viii. 291. Spain, iv. 81.
Nov. 15. Pizarro enters Cusco, ii. 520. The Baron de Léry at the Isle of Sable, iv. The Inca Atahualpa executed, ii. 517. 63.
Pizarro orders his secretary Xeres to write Pizarro goes to Spain, ii. 512.
an account of the conquest of Peru, ii. 564. Cortés in Spain, made Marques del Valle Nov. Hernando Pizarro's letter on the Conde Qajaca, ii. 388.
quest of Peru, ij. 566. Coppo's map, ii. 127,
Ramusio and the Summario, iji. 19. Oit. 30. Cabeza de Vaca crosses the mouth 1534 (or thereabouts). The Lenox woodcut of the Mississippi, ii. 292.
map, ii. 222, 223. 1529. Treaty of Saragossa gives the Moluccas Jacques Cartier's voyage to Canada, iv. 46, to Portugal, ii. 441; viii. 383.
Hieronimo da Verrazano's map, iii. 194; iv. March. Pedro de Alvarado reaches Peru, 18, 25, 26, 27, 37:
Diego Ribero's map, ii. 221, 242; iii. 16; iv. Xeres' narrative of Peru ends. ii. 564. 30, 38, 413; viii. 386 ; first shows the name Cieza de Leon reaches South America, ii. Peru," ii. 505.
568. Norumbega or its representative begins to 1534-35. Cortés marches up the Pacific coast appear on maps, iii. 169.
and settles Lower California, ii. 393. Sahagún arrives in Mexico, ii. 415.
1534-38. George of Spires searches for EldoEarliest phonetic rendering of the Mexican
rado, ii. 579 tongues, i. 156.
1534-54. Ulrich Schmidel in South America, 1530. Pizarro returns to America, ii. 512.
viii. 389, 407 July 15. Cortés reaches Vera Cruz, ii. 391. 1535, Jan. 6. Pizarro founds Lima, ii. 522.
1535. Pedro de Valdivia reaches Peru, ii. 528. 1541. Cartier's third voyage to Canada, iv.
Spain's first viceroy in America, viii. 191. 56, 65.
Coronado's expedition, ii. 292.
Santiago de Chili founded, ii. 529.
1541-42. Allefonsce, as pilot of Roberval, on
nine years' wandering, from Florida, and re- 1541-45. Many Norman fishermen on the
1541-56. Benzoni in the Spanish provinces, ii.
1542, Jan. 26. Sainterre sails to succor Rober-
Cabrillo's expedition in the Pacific coast of
North America, ii. 444, 481 ; vii. 555.
April. Coronado's army began their return
march, ii. 497 ; viii. 191.
May 21. De Soto dies, ii. 253.
Cabeza de Vaca publishes his story, ii. 499.
Audiencia of Quito, viii. 295.
Asuncion (La Plata) founded, viii. 387. Young Almagro, and the latter is executed, ii.
The “New Laws” respecting the Indians
Nuñez Vela, but he is arrested, ii. 327, 537-8.
and map, ii. 226.
Ulpius' globe, iii. 214; iv. 19, 42. Its “Nova
Gallia" perhaps the earliest use of the name
of New France, iv. 67; and Jean Allefonsce
followed in his MS. in 1545, iv. 69.
The English tongue first used in English
Ulloa explores the Gulf of California, ii. Archives formed at Simancas, ii. p. i.
1543-5. Agnese's map, iv. 82.
Cabot's Landfall at Cape Breton, ii. 227, 447 ;
iii. 6, 20, 22, 45; iv. 76, 82. 84; viii. 385.
Sept. 3. Valparaiso founded, ii. 531.
Orellano's abortive attempt to establish
Münster's Cosmographia, i. p.
1545. Pedro de Medina's Arte de Narrgar and
its map, ii. 98; iv. 83, 85; viii. 395.
New laws revoked, ii. 539.
Alvarado's expedition to the South Sea, ii. 1546, Jan. 18. Blasco Nuñez defeated by the
rebels, ii. 538.
Aug. 11. Pedro de la Gasca reaches Pana-
má, ii. 540.
Freire's map of the Pacific coast, ii. 448; iv.
Henri II. or Dauphin map, made by Desce-
1546-49. The reports of Gasca on Peruvian
affairs, ii. 568.
1547. Gasca drives Gonzalo Pizarro, ii. 541.
created, viii. 193.
1547. Las Casas finally returns to Spain, ii. | 1555. Richard Eden's Decades, i. p. xxiii ; iii. 29,
Pastene, having founded a colony in Chili, Olaus Magnus' map, i. 124.
Guillaume Le Testu's atlas, iv. 77, 90; viii.
Villegagnon at Rio de Janeiro, accompanied
by André Thevet, iv. II; viii. 391.
1555-56. Villagra fought the Araucanians in
1556. Thevet's alleged voyage along the North
Mendoza, Marquis of Cañete, viceroy of
Peru, ii. 545.
Gastaldi's map in Ramusio, ii. 228 ; iv. 90, 91.
Vopellio's map, iv. 90, 436.
Irala, who had opened a route from the La
Sousa made captain-general at Bahia, and in- Hurtado de Mendoza in Chili, ii. 549.
Labazares at Pensacola bay, ii. 256.
The Zeni narrative published, i. 73, 114; iii.
André Thevet's Les Singularités de la
ments the first active manifestation of Puri- Diego Homem's maps, ii. 229, iv. 78, 90,
showing the Bay of Fundy for the first time,
Valdivia again in Chili, ii. 548, but is cap. 1558–80. Bestelli e Forlani's Tavole moderne
Cartrera's revolt in Nicaragua, viii. 232. 1559. A Tunisian map of America, iv. 78.
Spaniards in Florida, viii. 194.
Audiencia of Charcas, viii. 295.
1560. Spaniards in Northern Georgia, v. 359.
Many French ships on the American coasts,
ment at Rio de Janeiro, viii. 394.
Forlani's map connects America with Asia
Gomara's Conquista de México, ii. 412. 1561. Ruscelli's map, iv. 92; viii. 398.
Francisco de Villagra in Chili as governor,
Villafañe at Port Royal harbor (Carolina),
Lone de Aguirre on the Amazon, ii. 582.
Cañete dies, ii. 547.
Royal, ii. 260, 292 ; V. 357.
Yucatan separated from Mexico, viii. 194.
MSS., i. 203.
Diego Gutierro's map, iv. 90, 92; viii. 399.
Ibarra's expedition to Copala, ii. 504.
Martin Cortés in Mexico, viii. 194.
Manoquin dies, viii. 232.
Peru, ii. 551.
1564. The Conde de Nieva, viceroy of Peru, | 1572. Toleration in religion established in Holkilled, ii. 547
land, iii. 231. Spain permanently occupies the Philippines, Drake on the Spanish Main, iii. 65; viii.
195; joins with the Cimarrones, viii. 233. 1565. Royal Audiencia in Chile, ii. 551.
Porcacchi's L'isole, with its maps, published, John Hawkins in the West Indies selling ii. 449, 453; iv. 95, 96. negroes, and on the Florida coast, iii. 60. 1573. A ship's log first described, ii. 98.
Menendez attacks the French settlements, Nov. 19. The first Auto da Fé at Lima, ii. ii. 263, 271, 292.
557 St. Augustine founded by Menendez, ii. 1574. Earliest Auto da Fé in Mexico, viii. 197. 265, 267.
Silva's second Eldorado expedition, ii. 586. Monardes' Dos Libros, i. p. xxix.
First Cimarrone war ends, viii. 233. Benzoni's account of the Spanish provinces Ruscelli's map, iv. 78. published, ii. 347.
Furlano's map of the North Pacific, iii. 68. B. Agnese's atlas, iv. 90.
1575. Oxenham in the Pacific, viii. 233. 1566. Martin de Proveda's search for Eldora- Archbishop Loyasa died at Lima, ii. 557. do, ii. 585.
Thevet's map, iv. 95: Juan Pardo's exped. to Florida, ii. 504.
Ortelius' map, iv. 78. July. Las Casas dies at Madrid, ii. 314. 1576. Apian's map, iv. 101. Nic. Des Liens' map, iv. 78, 79.
Sir H. Gilbert's map, iii. 203. Zaltieri's map is thought to be the earliest Frobisher's first Arctic expedition, iii. 35, engraved one to show the Straits of Anian, ii. 449, 451; iv. 93.
Belleforest's Cosmographie, iii. 36. 1566-73. Spaniards in the Chesapeake, iii. 1577. Frobisher's second voyage to the north,
167. 1567. John Hawkins's third voyage to the Richard Willes' ed. of Eden's Martyr, iii. West Indies, iii. 63.
204. Dominic de Gourgues attacks the Spaniards Dec. 13. Drake begins his voyage round in Florida, ii. 280, 297.
the world, iii. 65. The Solomon Islands discovered from Peru, 1578. Oct. 28. Francis Drake in the Pacific,
iii. 66; viii. 233; sees Cape Horn, viii. 354. Jesuits reach Peru, ii. 552.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert's exped., iii. 126, 171. Second Council of Lima, ii. 552.
Frobisher's third voyage to the north, iii. 88. Jan. 20. The Portuguese finally possess Frobisher's map, iii. 102. Rio de Janeiro and name it San Sebastian, viii. De Léry's account of Brazil published, viii. 351, 394.
392. Olaus Magnus' map, i. 125.
Cellarius's map, iv. 101. 1568. Audiencia at Santiago, viii. 295.
The Martines map, ii. 229, 450; iv. 97; viii. Silva and De Cerpa in the Eldorado region, 386. ii. 586.
1579. Simon Ferdinando on the Norumbega Hawkins at Vera Cruz, viii. 195.
coast, iii. 171. Francisco Cano's exped: to New Mexico, ii. Drake on the California coast, and called it 504.
“New Albion,” ii. 453 ; iii. 72. Adventures of Ingram, Hortop, etc., through Sarmiento sent from Peru to the Straits of the present United States, iii. 170, 186.
Magellan, ii. 557. Bernal Diaz begins his Historia, ii. 414.
Bishop Landa dies, ii. 429. 1569. Francisco de Toledo governor of Peru, 1580. John Walker at Norumbega, iii. 171.
Dr. John Dee's map, iii. 196; iv. 96, 98. Juan de Orozco's exped. to New Galicia, ii. The Dutch first on the Guiana coast, vii. 504
363 Mercator's great map, ii. 449. 452, 470; iv. 1580–1600. Japanese map of the West coast 78, 94, 364-373; viii. 398; and his projection. of America, ii. 460. 1569-89. Ercilla's versified account of the 1581. Martin Henriquez viceroy of Peru, ii. Araucanian war, ii. 571.
557 1570. Earliest Norse maps of Vinland, i. 129. Archbishop Toribio reached Lima, ii. 557.
The original edition of Ortelius' Theatrum Maps by Gemma Frison, iv. 101. published, ii. 93 ; ii. 34 ; iv. 94, 95, 369; viii. Xahila's Memorial de Tecpan-Atitlan writ398; and his list of accessible maps show how ten, ii. 419. jealously the Spanish government had kept Chamuscado's expedition, viii. 254. out of sight their American discoveries, ii. 471. Robert Browne and followers go to Zealand,
Francis Drake in the West Indies, iii. 64. iii. 261.
Supposed date of Forlani's map of South Antonio de Berreo's expedition on the OriAmerica, viii. 400.
noco, ii. 586. The island of Juan Fernandez discovered, A. Millo's map, iv. 101.
Popellinière's map in his Trois Mondes, iii. 1571. Ferdinand Columbus's Life of Columbus 37 ; iv. 95; viii. 399. published, ii. 62, 64, 65, 89.
Michael Lok's map, iii. 40; iv. 44. Inquisition established in Mexico, viii. 197. Richard Hakluyt's Divers Voyages, i. p. xxix; Fernandez's Hist. del Peru published, ii. 569. iji. 37, 189, 204 ; iv. 43. Tupac Amaru's revolt, ii. 553; viii. 315. 1582-84. Ant. de Espejo's expedition to New
Queen Elizabeth denounced as a heretic by Mexico, ii. 504. the Pope, iii. 223.
1583. Sotomayor governor of Chili, ii. 561.