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From these sources it appears that in the en-fifty to two hundred feet long, and say twentylargement of the Erie canal about seventy miles three feet wide, have been in successful operation of the eastern section, being the first portion en thereon for the last twelve or fifteen years. larged, was constructed with what are termed | Their average speed, including lockages, being wall-benches, and is from six to ten feet narrow. three miles per hour, at which they are limited er on the bottom than the remainder of the chao. by the regulations upon the canal." nel. The reverse should be the case, and the This change will diminish the cost of transporeastern the wider portion, to accommodate the tation, give to the public the full use of the en. accumulation of boats as they come in from the larged channel of the canals, and secure to us the other canals and approach the Hudson river. The rapidly increasing commerce of the West and removal of these wall-benches, so as to make this Northwest. Already the opening gates of other portion of the canal as wide at least as the re- avenues are turning on their hinges, and unless maining portion, is indispensable to secure the we act promptly and wisely the flood may pass full navigable capacity of the Erie canal. in other directions.

They are also of opinion that the present locks We must depend mainly upon this commerce upon the Erie, Oswego and Cayuga and Seneca for our future revenues. The history of cabal canals do not furuish to the canals more than oue. transportation abundantly proves this. quarter of such navigable capacity. The locks In 1837 there was only 56,255 tons from the will not admit of the passage of boats carrying over West reaching tide-water, while from within the about two hundred tong, and for considerable por. State the quantity was 321,251 tons. In 1866 tions of the seasons of navigation they are not suffi- the amount from within the State had diminished cient to accommodate the business now offered. to 287,948 tons, while that from the West had in

The published estimates and tables, based upon creased to 2,235,716 tons. This was the largest an equal distribution of lockages through the en quantity ever received, save in the exceptional tire season of such bavigation, show that not years of 1862 and 1863, when the greatest delays over seventy-five or eighty per cent of the ca. occurred in the navigation of the caual. With pacity of the locks has yet been reached. these exceptions the increase has been gradual

But these estimates are fallacious in practice, and almost uniform from the cpening of the Erie as the main business is crowded into a much canal to the present time, as will appear by the shorter period of time. The lockages cannot, iu following table, giving the tonnage arriving at practice, be so distributed, and when boats are tide-water by the Erie canal for the last thirty crowding for lockage, the time of passing will years, and the portions from within the State and always be more or less delayed by irregularities from the Western States and Canada. which unavoidably will occur. In the mode in which the business is now doce,

From

From this
YEARS. Western

Total tong. the locks are taxed, during the season fronu harvest

States, tons.

State, tons. to near the close of navigation, to their full capacity, and at times, beyond that. This is shown to have

1837 been the case for several years, resulting at times 1838

56,255 821,951 587,500

83, 233 3:36,016 419, 249 in serious and protracted delays in navigation. 1839

121, 671 261,596

836, 267 To obviate this and to secure to the public the 1840,

158, 148 309, 167 467,315 1841

224,176 308,314 use of the navigable capacity of the canals, it is

632,520 1842

221,477 258, 672 480,149 proposed to construct a single tier of locks of 1843

256,376 378,969 635, 345 suficient size to pass boats twenty-three feet in 1844

308,025 491, 791 799, 816 width and two hundred feet in length, capable of

1845,

304,551 655,039 959, 590 1846 506,830 600, 662

1,107, 270 Carrying six hundred tons. The boats now in 1847,

912, 840 618,412 1, 431, 252 use can be passed through such locks with the 1818,

650, 154 534,183 1,184, 3:37 same facility as through those at present existing.

1849,

768, 659 498,068 1, 266,724 1850,

773,858
598,001

1,371,859 The materials, where there are double locks, are 1851,

966,993 541,6184 1,508, 677 nearly, perhaps quite, sufficient for the new struc- 1862

1,151, 978 492,721 1, 644,699 tures. To do an equal amount of business the

1, 213, 690 637,748 1,81,438

1854, number of lockages will be diminished; carriers 1855,

1,100,526 602,167 1,702, 693

1,092,876 827,839 1, 420,715 will be enabled to take freight at reduced prices, 1856,

1,212,550 874, 580 1,587, 130 and steam can be used as a propelling power,

1857

918, 998 197, 201 1,117, 199

1858, The following extract from the report of the Com.

1,273,099 223,588 1,496,697 1859

1,036, 634 414,699 1,451, 333 mittee on Canals, to which reference has been made, 1860,

1,896,975 379,086 2, 276,061 and which has been furnished to the members of 1861

2, 158,425 291,184 2,449, 609 the Convention, is pertinent

1862 this connection:

2,594,837 822, 257 2,917, 094 1863.

2,279, 252 368,437 2,647,689 " If any are of the opinion that the proposed 1864,

1,907, 136 239, 498 2, 146, 634 work is of doubtful utility, after what has already

1865,

1,903, 642 173,588 2,077, 180 been stated herein, the committee respectfully

1866,

2,235,716 287, 948 2,523,664 refer all such to the Delaware and Raritan canal, So the statistics show a like gratifying increase in the State of New Jersey, a canal of about the upon the tontage of all the canals during the same same sized prism as the Erie; with locks two period. In 1837 there was carried upon all the hundred and twenty feet long, and twenty-four canals 1,171,296 tons, valued at only $55,809,288, feet wide, two boats the size of those now in use and producing a revenue in tolls of $1,292,623, upon our canals will pass one of those locks at while in 1866 we reached the enormous amount the same time, full as quickly as one will through of 6,775,220 tons, valued at $270 963,676, and our locks; and steamers from one hundred and producing a revenue in tolls of $4,436,639.

1853,

The following table will show the remarkable What is to be done with all this property when steadiness and uniformity of this increase : transported to New York by rail? The Atlantic

docks and the immense expenditure which has YEAR. Tons. Value. Tolls. been made to furnish facilities for this commeres,

by water, what is to be done with those? The

increased expense by rail is another insuperable 1837...

1,171,296 $55, 809,288 $1,292, 623 objection. The actual cost to the railroad from 1838,

1,833,011 65,746,559 1,590,911 1839, 1,435, 713 73,399,764 1,616,882 Dunalo 10

382 Buffalo to New York for the past three years, as 1840,

1,416,046 66,803, 892 1,775,749 appears by the returns made under oath, on be

1,621, 661 92, 202,929 2,034, 882 half of the New York Central railroad company, 1842,

1,236,931 60, 016,608 1,749, 196 1843,

1,513, 439 76, 276, 909 2031'590 has been double all the charges upon the Erie 1844,

1,816, 586 90, 921, 152 2,446,874 canal, and in excess of the water carriage from 1845,

1,985,011 100, 553, 245 2,646,181 Chicago to New York. 1846,

2, 268, 662115,612, 109 7156, 106
1,869,810 | 151,563, 428

06 1847

The following is a statement of such cost and

3,635, 381 1848,

2,796, 230 140,086, 157 3,252, 212 charges : 1849,

2.894, 732 144 732, 285 3,268, 226 1850,..

3,076,617 156,397, 929 3,273,899 1851,

3,582, 783159, 981,801 8,329, 727 1852, .

3,863, 441196,603,517 3,118, 244 1853..

4,247, 852 207,119,570 3, 204,718 1854,

4, 165, 862 210, 284, 312 2,773,566 1855,

4,022, 617204,390, 147 2,805,077 1856,

4,116,082 218,327, 062 2,748, 203 1857,

3,343,061 186,997,018 2,045, 641 1858,

3, 665, 192 138 568 844 2,110, 754 1859,

8,781,684 132,160, 768 1,723, 945 1860,

4,650, 214170, 849, 198 8,079,597 1861,

4,507,685 130, 115,893 3,908, 785 1862,

5,598,785 203, 234,331 5,188,943 1863.

5,557, 692 240,046, 461 4,645, 207 1864,

4,852,941 274,400,639 3,983,982 1865,

4,729, 654 256, 237,104 3,839,955 1866,

5,775, 220 270,968, 676 4,436,639

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The reports also show that the cost of repairs ducts and bridges, the estimates heretofore made upon the track of railroads is equal to about ten are, in substance, adopted. per cent upon the cost of the road track, while A survey and estimate of the cost of enlarging the cost of superintendence and repairs upon the the locks and making improvements, as proposed, Erie canal, with all the waste of money which were made in 1863. An experienced engineer, has occurred, is only about one-tenth of that who assisted in making them, as the agent of the sum, or less than one per cent.

general government, was examined as a witness It will be an unfortunate day for the people of before us. From his evidence, it appears that the this State when they adopt and act upon the idea work was projected with a view of affording a that the canals have " fulfilled their mission,” passage for gun-boats to the lakes. The plan and that " we have outgrown their more import- was to construct a series of new locks, all of new ant use." The Central road, during the periods material, of the highest finish used in structures aforesaid, carried all the freight its cars would of that character, leaving one tier of the present hold or its motive power propel, at the time when locks for permanent use. In arriving at the cost freights were pressing, and yet the quantity, ex- of twelve millions for such work, the cost prices cept animals, was only about one-fifth part of of 1860 were adopted aud fifty per cent added that taken by the canal, and including live stock thereto. less than one-third.

Three items of the same, for deepening the The Auditor has reported to this Convention in canal one foot, for land damages and removal of response to a resolution of inquiry the aggregate buildings, and engineering and contingencies cost of all the canals and feeders, both productive make $3,417,421. By changing the masonry and unproductive, with all cost of maintenance from the full finish therein contemplated to what and repairs, and interest at seven per cent upon all is termed rough dress or hammered masonry, and such expenditure. (Manuai, vol. 2, 450, 451.) The by using the materials on hand, which are beentire cost and interest foots at $200,093,502.25. lieved to be ampie, where there are double locks,

The entire income, with interest, has been that estimate is greatly reduced. The materials $202,619,510.08. This leaves the canals debtors equal about one-half the cost of masonry. to the State in the sum of $7,473,992.27. As

Recapitulation. suming this statement to be correct, it follows For Champlain canal, .

$300,000 00 that what are now termed canal debts have been Enlarging locks......

4,000,000 00 arbitrarily fixed as such. In no estimate or state- Additional water and basins,

Enlarging aqueducts and bridges,.. 300,000 00

400,000 00 which has fallen under our observation, Removal of wall-benches, etc......... 1,644,314 00 except in this of the Auditor, have the canals been credited with the $200,000 per annum

Estimated total cost,.....

$6,644,314 00 which has been paid for the support of the State

The canal debts for payment of which provision gorernment out of their revenues since 1846.

is made, are as follows: This account of receipts and expenditures, and

Canal debt of 1846,

$3,265,000 00 interest on each, appears to be the true mode of Canal enlargement debt,

10,807, 000 00 determining the extent to which the canals are in- Floating debt,.

1,700,000 00 debted to the State. In either view of the subject the question may

Total.............

$15,772,000 00 well be asked, what system of public works of The following statement shows the mode in equal magnitude can compare with our canal sys- which the cbligation to pay the above debts may ter in the remuneration they have furnished for be sacredly observed, the interest on the general the expenditures made in their construction and fund debt paid, the contemplated improvements maintenance ?

mude, and upon the basis of $3,000,000 net rev. The canals we propose to have improved are enue in each year, which is about the average of creditors to the amount of over thirty-eight mil. the last seven years : lions of dollars.

Cash on hand May 1, 1867, applicable to the In determining the question whether the pro- payment of said debts, and the general fund debt, posed improvement can be made without taxation, as stated by the Auditor as follows: your committee have provided in the foregoing. In the sinking fund, under section 12 of article for the payment of the principal and inter article 7,

$324, 982 02 est as they fall due of the canal debt, the enlarge. In the sinking fund, under section 3 of ment debt, the floating debt, and the interest on In the sinking rind, under section 1 of

608,852 33 the general fuud debt. The appropriation al article 7,....

1,076,900 00 ready made for the Champlain canal is supposed to be sufficient for the work, as now authorized Interest May 1, 1867, to January 1, 1868, at

$2,010,734 35 by law; but an additional sum is set apart to 4 per cent,

53,619 58 meet any contingency, and save a resort to taxation. Net tolls, season of 1807,.... $3,000,000 00

They have estimated the cost of building the Less interest on enlarged works at $40,000 per lock, or $4,000,000. from April 1, Witnesses have testified that price is ample for 1867, to July

1, 1888 (nine An experienced contractor and former canal

months).,.... $684,808 75

Interest on genofficer, on his examination, stated he wou:d be eral fund debt willing to do the work at the sum named.

Oct.1, 1566. to For the removal of the wall-benches; for addi

Jan. 1, 1868,.. 403,082 94 1,087,881 69 1,012,118 81 tional water and basins, and for enlarging aque Balance, January 1, 1868,..

$3,976,472 24

canal

debt

the purpose.

Interest on balance, 1 year at 4 per cent, $169,068 89 Principal canal debt, November 1, 1873,. $2,250,000 00
Net tolls, scuson of 1868... $3,000.000 00
Less interest on

$20,460 15 general fund

Borrow at 6 per cent, January 1, 1874, for debt, 1 year,.. $322,418 28

three years, ...

3,500,000 00 Less interest ou canal debt, 1

$3,520, 460 15 year, 909,932 50

Principal canal debt, January 1, 1874,... $3,000,000 Lees principal on canal debt,

Balance January 1, 1874,...

$520, 460 15 due October

Interest at lour per cent, one year,

20,818 4 1, 1868, 257,000 00 1,489, 350 85 1,510,649 15 Net tolls, season of 1874,..-$3,000,000 00

Less

interest Balance, January 1, 1860,..

$5,646,180 28 on general Interest'l year on balance at 4 per cent, 225, 847 21

lund debt, 1 Net tolls, season of 1869,... $3,000,000 00

year,

$322,418 85 Less interest on

Less interest general fund

on canal debt; debt 1 year,.. $322,418 35

1 year,.....

185,250 00 Lees interest on

Less int. on decanal debt, 1

ficiency loan year,... 900,295 00 1,222, 713 35 1,7722.86 75 of $3,500,000,

made Jan. 1, Balance, January 1, 1870,

$7,644, 314 24 1874, at six Appropriate for canals as before stated, 6, 614,314 24 per cent., 1

year, ......... 210,000 00 717,668 35 2,282,331 65

$1,000,000 00 Interest 1 year at 4 per cent to January 1,

$2,823,610 21 1871, ..

40,000 00 Principal canal debt, October 1, 1874,..... 2,250,000 00 Net tolls, season of 1870,... $3,000,000 00 Less interest on

Balance January 1, 1875,...

$573,610 A general fund

Interest at 4 per cent for one year,....... 22,944 4 debt 1 year,.. $322,418 35

Net tolls for the season of Less interest on

1875..

$3,000,000 00 canal debt, 1

Less int. on year, ......... 900,295 00 1,222,713 35 1,777,286 65 gen.

fund debt, 1 year,

$822,418 88

$2,817,286 65 Less int. on Principal canal debt, January 1, 1871,. 57,000 00

canal debt,
1 year,.....

84,000 00 Balance, January 1, 1871,.

$2.760,288 65 Lens Int. on Interest 1 year at 4 per cent, .....

110,411 47 desc'y loan Not tolle for season of 1871, $3,000,000 00

of $3,500,000 Less interest on

made Jan., general fund

1874, for 1 debt 1 year,.. $322,418 35

year, at 6 Less interest on

per cent,.. 210,000 00 616,418 85 2,383,581 65 canal debt, 1 year,........ 897,445 00 1,219,863 35 1,780,136 65

$2,980,136 27 Principal due October 1, 1875,

500,000 00 Balance. January 1, 1872...

$4,650,834 77 Interest six months to July 1, 1872, at 4

Balance Jan. 1, 1876,

$2,480,136 27 per cent,.... 93,016 70 Interest at 4 per cent., 1 year.

29,203 45 Net tolls for scason of 1876, $3,000,000 00

$4,743,851 47 Less int. on Principal canal debt, July 1, 1872....... 2,800,WO 00

gen.

rund
debt, 1 year,... $322,418 85

Legg int. on

$1,943, 851 47 Intercat six months to January 1, 1873, at

canal debt, 4 per cent, .....

38,877 03

1 year,.... 54,200 00 Net tolls for season of 1872, $3,000,000 00

Less int. on Less interest on

defic'y loan general fund

of $3,500,000 210,000 00 586,418 35 2,413,681 65 debt 1 year,.. $322,418 35 Lets interest on

$4,992,923 37 canal debt, 1

Deficiency loan made January 1, 1874, .. 3,500,000 (0 year,......... 813,445 00 1,135,863 35 1,864, 136 06 Balance, January 1, 1877,...,

$1,492, 923 37 Interest at 4 per cent, 1 year, $3,846, 865 15

59, 716 93 Principal canal debt, January 1, 1873,....

Net tolls for reason of 1877,.. $3,000,000 1,000,000 00

Lers interest on Balance, January 1, 1873,..

$2,846,805 15

general fund Interest six months to July 1, 1873, at 4

debt, 1 year,.. $322,418 35

Less interest on per cent,.....

56,937 30

canal debt.... 49,500 00 $2,903, 802 45

Less principal Principal canal debt, July 1, 1873, ..., $2,750,000 00

on canal debt, 900,000 00 1,271, 918 85 1,728,081 06 Balance, January 1, 1878,.

$8,280,721 45 $153,802 45 Interest at four per cent,,

131,228 88 Interest six months to January 1, 1874,

Net tolls for season of 1878, $3,000,000 00 at 4 per cent....

3,076 05 Less interest Net tolls, season of 1873,... $3,000,000 00

on general Less interest

fund deur general fund

one yea..

822,418 35 debt, 1 year, $322, 418 35

Less principai Lens interest

canal debt canal debt,

due Oct. 1.
year,.... 564,000 00 886,418 35 2,113,681 65 1868.omited 900 00

Less principal $2,370, 460 16

canal debt,

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debt,.......

...............

dne Jan. 1,

adopted, would have produced in excess of the 1874, omitted $8,000 00

actual receipts, at the rates since charged, $30,Less principal canal debt,

703,454. due in 1837,

This sum would have more than paid the en. probly lost, 160 00

tire debts chargeable upon the canals, and the Lese principal canal debt,

improvements since made, and have left them the duc in 1860,

creditors of the State. probly lost. 10, 000 00

In considering the subject of the care and Less interest

management of the canals, we have arrived at on the $8,000 and $900,... 1,960 00 343, 438 8 2,656,561 65 the conclusion that concentration of power and a

clearly defined responsibility furnish the surest

$6,068,612 48 January 1, 1879, principal of general fund

guarantees for a more economical and efficient 5,636,622 22 administration.

| This end they hope to secure by the abolition Balance January 1, 1879,... ............. $431,890 26 of the offices named and by placing the canals

| under the charge of a single superintendent, with It will be observed that a deficiency loan of assistants amenable to himself, and employees three and a half million dollars, to extend for the of his selection, and always subject to his control. term of three years, will become necessary in The combinations which have been strengthening 1874. Two installments of the general fund and forming for so many years, and which havo debt, amounting to $1,642,961, will also have to resulted so disastrously to the interests of the be provided for in like manner. Provision is also State, as shown by the recent investigations, will made for the ultimate repayment to the State of thus be broken up. the general fund debt, and of all advances hereto- The committee regard the appointment of the fore made, or hereafter to be made to the canals, Superintendent by the Governor and Senate, to with interest thereon at current rates.

hold for a term of eight years, subject to removal If the annual revenues shall increase, at the for cause, as the most advisable mode of selection. rate per cent contemplated, these loans will not It will place such officer in a position of independ. become necessary; but the debts, including the ence of political organizations, and above the general fund aebt, will all have been paid by the vicissitudes and changes resulting from party year 1877, and a large balance will be left in the contests. treasury, as will appear by the statement and es. Who can doubt what would have been the timate of the canal committee, to which reference result had the New York Central railroad comhas been made.

pany, at the date of its organization, resolved to It will be observed that the above mentioned select its superintendent at short stated periods. provisions supersede the State loan, to pay the by a vote of all the stockholders, instead of leav. interest on the floating debt, and to that extent ing his selection to the executive board ? Com. relieve the people.

binations for the promotion of favored persons, Your committee believe a larger annual revenue without due regard to their fitness for the posithan $3,000,000 will be realized. The expenses tion, would have been the inevitable result, and of maintenance and repairs will, we hope, be ma- inefficiency and want of success in the manageterially diminished. With an increase of tonnagement would doubtless have been the consequence s. even at the average rate of the last twenty years, It is in no spirit of hostility to the elective prinand with undiminished tolls for which we have ciple that we make this recommendation. The provided, such increase is certain.

people elect the Governor and Senators, by whom A glance at the past, on this subject of tolls, the selection is to be made, and the duties of the will be instructive.

position are such that fitness alone should control At the rate existing in 1846, when the present the choice, and the interests at stake are too vast Constitution was adopted, the receipts for tolls to be left to the capricious choice of nominating for the year 1866 would have been $6,930,264, or conventions. $2,477,039 in excess of the sum actually ob- The recommendation as to the appointment of tained. It is the opinion of your committee that the Auditor is in conformity to the usage which the tonnage will not be materially affected by a has prevailed since the office was created and to change of tolls within the range of prices charged which we have heard no objection. since 1852. The capacity of the canals to afford Your committee feel constrained to notice the facilities for transportation, so that forwarders can proposal that the revenues of the canals shall be lessen the expense of their labor, will do far devoted to the payment of the bounty or war more to attract tonnage to the canals than any debt before any of the improvements demanded adjustment of the tolls which may be made by the public necessity shall have been made.

The experiment adopted in 1858 to 1860 to in- There are many reasons why this should not be vite additional tonnage, by a reduction of tolls, done, prominent among which are the following: resulted in no substantial increase by the samel First. It is to be hoped the goneral governwhile the State sustained a loss of revenue of ment will refund to each State and locality the $1,998,966, or more than the entire floating debt, entire debt contracted for war purposes, thus in those three years; and before the State re- placing the States upon an equal footing in destored the present rates, the loss was over $2,- fraying the expenses of the contest for national 600,000.

life. The tonnage since 1846, at the rates of toll Second. The Western and Northwestern States existing when the present Constitution was havo not only contributed largely to our revenues

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