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Prince. That Julius Cæsar was a famous man; With what his valour did enrich his wit,

His the formal-wife antiquity, and has endeavoured to support this capricious and violent alteration of the text by a very long note, which I have not preserved, as in my apprehension it carries neither conviction, nor information with it. To accommodate the next line to his read. ing, he altered the punctuation of it thus :

like the formal-wise antiquity, I moralize ;-(wo meanings in one word. which has been adopted, I think, improperly, by the subsequent edi. tors, who yet did not adopt the reading to ttrengthen which this alte. tation was made.

The Vice, Iniquiry, cannot with propriety, be said to moralize in general; but in the old Moralities he, like Richard, did often « mea relize iwo meanings in one word.”

Our authour has again used moralize as a verb active in his Rape of Lucrece:

6 Nor could fie moralize his wanton fight,

“ More than his eyes were open to the light." In which passage it means, “ to interpret or investigate the latene meaning of his wanton looks," as in the present paflage, it fignifies either to extract the double and latent meaning of one word or sentence, or to couch two meanings under one word or sentence. So moral is used by our authour in Mucb ado about Norbing, for a secret mean. ing. " There is some moral in this Benedictus." See Vol. II. p. 265, n. 7; and Vol. V. p. 601, n. 5. The word which Richard uses in a double sense is live, which in his former speech he had used literally, and in the present is used metaphorically. Mr. Mason conceives, because what we now call a motto, was formerly denominated the mot or word, that word may here signify a whole sentence. But the argument is defe&tive. Though in tournaments the motto on a knight's hield was formerly called The word, it never at any period was called “ One word."

The Vice of the old moralities was a buffoon character, (See Cot. grave's Di&. “ Badia, A foole or Vice in a play.-Mime, A vice, foole, jester, &c. in a play."] whose chief employment was to make the audience laugh, and one of the modes by which he effected his purpose was by double meanings, or playing upon words. In these moral representations, Fraud, INIQUITY, Covelousness, Luxury, Gluttony, Vanity, &c. were frequently introduced. Mr. Upton in a differtation which, on account of its length, is annexed at the end of this play, has hewn, from Ben Jonson's Staple of News, and ibe Devil's an Ass, that Iniquity was sometimes the Vice of the Moralities. Mr. Steevens's note in the subsequent page, thews, that he was not always so. The formal Vice perhaps means, the forewd, the sensible ViceYOL. VI.


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His wit set down, to make his valour live:
Death makes no conquest of this conqueror 8 ;
For now he lives in fame, though not in life.-
I'll tell you what, my cousin Buckingham.

Buck. What, my gracious lord?

Prince. An if I live until I be a man,
P'll win our ancient right in France again,
Or die a soldier, as I liv'd a king.

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In the Comedy of Errors, " a fermai man" seems to mean, one in his fenses ; a rational man. Again, in I welftb Night, Vol. IV. p. 56. “ - this is evident to any formal capacity.” MALONE.

This alteration (of Dr. Warburton's) Mr. Upton very justly censures. Dr. Warburton, has, in my opinion, done nothing but correct the punctuation, if indeed any alteration be really necessary. See the dirfertation on the old vice at the end of this play.

To this long collection of notes may be added a question, to what equivocation Richard refers? The position immediately preceding, that fame lives long without chara&ters, that is, without the help of letters, feems to have no ambiguity. He must allude to the former line:


young, so wife, ibeg Jay, do re'er live long, in which he conceals under a proverb, his defign of haftening the prince's death. JOHNSO

. From the following stage-direction, in an old dramatick piece, en. tituled, Hiftriomaftix, or ibe Player wbipt, 1610, it appears, that the Vite and Iniquity were sometimes distinct personages :

“ Enter a roaring devil, with the Vice on his back, Iniquiry in one hand, and Juventus in the other." The devil likewise makes the distinction in his first speech:

Ho, bo, bo ! these babes mine are all,

" The Vice, Iniquitie, and Child Prodigal." The following part of this note was obligingly communicated by the Rev. Mr. Bowle, of Idmestone near Salisbury. "I know no writer who gives so complete an account of this obsolete character, as archbishop Harfnet, in his Declaration of Popish Impoftures, p. 114, Lond. 1603; • It was a pretty part (he tells us) in the old church-playes, when the nimble Vice would skip up nimbly like a jackanapes into the devil's necke, and ride the devil a courfe, and belabour him with his wooden dagger, till he made him roare, where at the people would laugh to rec the devil ro vice-haunted.' STEEVENS.

8 — of this conqueror;] For this reading we are indebted to Mr. Theobald, who probably derived it from the original edition in 1597. All the subsequent ancient copies read corruptly-of bis conqueror.



Glo. Short summers lightly have a forward spring'.

[Afidea Enter York, HASTINGS, and the Cardinal, Buck. Now, in good time, here comes the duke of

York. Prince. Richard of York! how fares our loving brother? York. Well, my dread lord'; so must I call you now,

Prince. Ay, brother; to our grief, as it is yours : Too late he died”, that might have kept that title, Which by his death hath loft much majesty.

Glo. How fares our cousin, noble lord of York?

York. I thank you, gentle uncle. O, my lord,
You said, that idle weeds are fast in growth:
The prince my brother hath outgrown me far.

Glo. He hath, my lord.
York. And therefore is he idle ?
Glo. O, my fair cousin, I must not say so.
York. Then is he more beholding to you, than I.

Glo. He may command me, as my sovereign;
But you have power in me, as in a kinsman.

Fork. I pray you, uncle, give me this dagger.
Glo. My dagger, little coulin ? with all my heart.
Prince. A beggar, brother?

9 Sbort fummers lightly bave a forward spring.] That is, short sume mers are usually preceded by a forward spring ; or in other words, and more appofitely to Glofter's lacent meaning, a premalure spring is usually followed by a short summer. MALONE.

- lightly) Commonly, in ordinary course. JOHNSON. So, in the old proverb : “ There's lightning lightly before thunder." See Ray's Proverbs, p. 130, edit. 3. Again, in Ben Jonson's Cyntbia's Revels: “ He is not ligbtly within to his mercer." STEEVENS.

'- dread lord ;-) The original of this epithet applied to kings has been much disputed. In some of our old fatutes, the king is called Rex metuendiffimus. JOHNSON,

2 Too late be died;] i. e. too lately, the loss is too freth in our memory. WARBURTON. So, in our authoor's Rape of Lucrece:

I did give that life, " Which the coo early, and too late hath spill'd," Again, in King Henry V :

“ The mercy that was quick in us but lase," &c. MALONT," VOL. VI. L 16


and me;

York. Of my kind uncle, that I know will give;
And, being but a toy, which is no grief to give

Glo. A greater gift than that I'll give my cousin.
York. A greater gift! O, that's the sword to it?
Glo. Ay, gentle cousin, were it light enough.

York. O then, I fee, you'll part but with light gifts ; In weightier things you'll say a beggar, nay.

Glo. It is too weighty for your grace to wear.
York. I weigh it lightly, were it heavier4.
Gl. What, would you have my weapon, little lord ?
York. I would, that I might thank you as you call me.
Glo. How?
York. Little.

Prince. My lord of York will still be cross in talk ;Uncle, your grace knows how to bear with him.

York. You mean, to bear me, not to bear with me :Uncle, my brother mocks both

you Because that I am little like an apes, He thinks that you Thould bear me on your shoulders.

Buck. 3 - wbich is no grief to give.] Wbicb to give, or the gift of which, induces no regret. Thus the authentick copies, the quarto, 1598, and the first folio. A quarto of no authority changed grief to gift, and the editor of the second folio capriciously altered the line thus:

And being a toy, it is no grief to give. Maloni. 4 I weigb it ligbely, &c.] i. e. I should still esteem ic but a trifling gift, were it heavier. WAR BURTON. So, in Love's Labour's Loft, Act V, sc. ii :

“ You weigb me not, - that's, you care not for me." STEEV. 5 Because ibat I am little like an ape,] The reproach seems to confift in this: at country thews it was common to let the monkey on the back of some other animal, as a bear. The duke therefore, in calling himself ape, calls his uncle bear. JOHNSON,

To this custom there seems to be an allusion in Ben Jonson's Masque of Gipfies :

“ A gypsy in his hape,
“ More calls the beholder,
6. Than tbe fellow with ebe ape,

Or she ape on bis Moulder.". Again, in ebe firf pare of tbe eigbtb liberal science, entituled Ara adulandi, &c. devised and compiled by Ulpial Fulwel, 1576: “ - thou haft an excellent back to carry my lord's ape."

York also alludes to the hump on Glofter's back, which was commodious for carrying burthens, as it served instead of a porter's knot.


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Buck. With what a sharp-provided wit he reasons!) To mitigate the scorn he gives his uncle, He prettily and aptly taunts himself: So cunning, and so young, is wonderful.

Glo. My gracious lords, will't please you pass along? Myself, and

my good cousin Buckingham, Will to your mother; to entreat of her,... 1884 side's To meet you at the Tower, and welcome you. 11 T

York. What, will you go unto the Tower, my lord, 1
Prince. My lord protector needs will have it so 1. mod
York. I hall not sleep in quiet at the Tower. 11
Glo. Why, what should you fear?

York. Marry, my uncle Clarence' angry ghoft;
My grandam told me, he was murther'd there,

Prince. I fear no uncles dead.
Glo. Nor none that live, I hope.

Prince. An if they live, I hope, I need not fear, Martin But come, my lord, and, with a heavy heart,

11 Thinking on them, go I unto the Tower,

[Exeunt Prince, York, Hast. Card. and Attendants.

Buck. Think you, my lord, this little prating York. '; Was not incensed by his subtle mother, To taunt and scorn you thus opprobriously?

Glo. No doubt, no doubt: 0, 'tis a parlous boy ; Bold, quick, ingenious, forward, capable?;

I don't believe that the reproach is what Dr. Johnson fupposes, or that York meant to call his uncle a bear. He merely alludes to Richard's deformity, his high shoulder, or hump-back, as it is called. That was sbe scorn he meant to give bis uncle. In the third act of the Third Part of K. Henry VI. the fame thought occurs to Richard himself, where describing his own figure, he says,

“ To make an envious mountain on my back,
*** Where hits deformity, to mock my body.” MASON.

My gracious lord,] For the insertion of the word gracious, I am answerable. Gloster has already used the same address. The defect of the metre Thews that a word was omitted at the press. MALONE.

-- needs will bave it fo.] The word needs was added, to com;leie the metre, by Mr. Theobald. MALONE.

6 Was not incenfed-] i.e. incited. So, in Mucb ado abour No. rbing : “--how Don John your brother incensed me to Nander the lady here." MASON.

-capable;] here, as in many other places in these plays, means intelligent, quick of apprehension. See p. 504, D. 5. MALONE.


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