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To the April day again'. Come, damned earth, Thou common whore of mankind, that put'st odds

If wed is used as a verb, the words mean, duces her second marriage." MALONE.

"that effects or pro

I believe, unwapper'd means undebilitated by venery, i. e. not halting under crimes many and stale. STEEVENS.

Mr. Tyrwhitt explains wap'd in the line cited from Chaucer, by stupified; a sense which accords with the other instances adduced by Mr. Steevens, as well as with Shakspeare. The wappen'd widow, is one who is no longer alive to those pleasures, the desire of which was her first inducement to marry. HENLEY.

I suspect that there is another error in this passage, which has escaped the notice of the editors, and that we should read"woo'd again," instead of "wed again." That a woman should wed again, however wapper'd, [or wappen'd] is nothing extraordinary. The extraordinary circumstance is, that she should be woo'd again, and become an object of desire. M. MASON.

Mr. Malone's remark that wed is frequently used for wedded is one answer to Mr. Mason's objection; another is, that there must be two parties to a marriage, and that the widow could not be wedded unless she could persuade some one to wed her.


9 She, whom the spital-house, and ulcerous sores
Would cast the gorge at,] Surely we ought to read:
She, whose ulcerous sores the spital-house
"Would cast the gorge at-



Or, should the first line be thought deficient in harmonyShe, at whose ulcerous sores the spital-house "Would cast the gorge up▬▬▬▬▬

So, in Spenser's Fairy Queen:

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"And all the way, most like a brutish beast,
"He spewed up his gorge."

The old reading is nonsense.

I must add, that Dr. Farmer joins with me in suspecting this passage to be corrupt, and is satisfied with the emendation I have proposed. STEEVENS.

In Antony and Cleopatra, we have honour and death, for honourable death. "The spital-house and ulcerous sores," therefore, may be used for the contaminated spital-house; the spitalhouse replete with ulcerous sores. If it be asked, how can the spital-house, or how can ulcerous sores, cast the gorge at the female here described, let the following passages answer the question :

"Heaven stops the nose at it, and the moon winks."


Among the rout of nations, I will make thee
Do thy right nature 2.-[March afar off.]-Ha!
drum ?-Thou'rt quick 3,

Again, in Hamlet:

"Whose spirit, with divine ambition puff'd,
"Makes mouths at the invincible event."

Again, ibidem:



till our ground

Singing his pate against the burning zone," &c. Again, in Julius Cæsar:

"Over thy wounds now do I prophecy,

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"Which, like dumb mouths, do ope their ruby lips—."

Again, in The Merchant of Venice:


when the bag-pipe sings i' the nose."

Again, in the play before us :


when our vaults have wept

“With drunken spilth of wine."

In the preceding page, all sores are said to lay siege to nature; which they can no more do, if the passage is to be understood literally, than they can cast the gorge at the sight of the person here described.-In a word, the diction of the text is so very Shakspearian, that I cannot but wonder it should be suspected of corruption.

The meaning is,-Her whom the spital-house, however polluted, would not admit, but reject with abhorrence, this embalms, &c. or, (in a looser paraphrase) Her, at the sight of whom all the patients in the spital-house, however contaminated, would sicken and turn away with loathing and abhorrence, disgusted by the view of still greater pollution, than any they had yet experience of, this embalms and spices, &c.

To" cast the gorge at," was Shakspeare's phraseology. So, in Hamlet, Act V. Sc. I.: "How abhorr'd in my imagination it is! my gorge rises at it."

To the various examples which I have produced in support of the reading of the old copy, may be added these:

"Our fortune on the sea is out of breath,

"And sinks most lamentably." Antony and Cleopatra. Again, ibidem:

"Mine eyes did sicken at the sight."

Again, in Hamlet:

"Even to the teeth and forehead of our faults." Again, ibidem:


we will fetters put upon this fear, "Which now goes too free-footed."

Again, in Troilus and Cressida :

"His evasions have ears thus long."


But yet I'll bury thee: Thou'lt go, strong thief*,
When gouty keepers of thee cannot stand
Nay, stay thou out for earnest.

[Keeping some gold.

Enter ALCIBIADES, with Drum and Fife, in warlike manner; PHRYNIA and TIMANDRA.



What art thou there?

TIM. A beast, as thou art. The canker gnaw thy


For showing me again the eyes of man!

To the APRIL day again.] That is, to the wedding day, called by the poet, satirically, April day, or fool's day.


The April day does not relate to the widow, but to the other diseased female, who is represented as the outcast of an hospital. She it is whom gold embalms and spices to the April day again: i. e. gold restores her to all the freshness and sweetness of youth. Such is the power of gold, that it will


make black, white; foul, fair;

"Wrong, right;" &c.

A quotation or two may perhaps support this interpretation. So, in Sidney's Arcadia, p. 262, edit. 1633: "Do you see how the spring time is full of flowers, decking itself with them, and not aspiring to the fruits of autumn? What lesson is that unto you, but that in the April of your age you should be like April."

Again, in Stephens's Apology for Herodotus, 1607" He is a young man, and in the April of his age." Peacham's Compleat Gentleman, chap. iii. calls youth "the April of nian's life." Shakspeare's Sonnet entitled Love's Cruelty, has the same thought: "Thou art thy mother's glass, and she in thee "Calls back the lovely April of her prime."


Daniel's 31st Sonnet has, the April of my years." Master Fenton "smells April and May." TOLLET.

2 Do thy right nature.] Lie in the earth where nature laid thee.

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Thou'rt quick,] Thou hast life and motion in thee.


4- strong thief,] Thus, Chaucer, in the Pardonere's Tale : "Men wolden say that we were theeves strong.”


ALCIB. What is thy name? Is man so hateful to


That art thyself a man?

TIM. I am misanthropos3, and hate mankind. For thy part, I do wish thou wert a dog,

That I might love thee something.

I know thee well;

ALCIB. But in thy fortunes am unlearn'd and strange. TIM. I know thee too; and more, than that I know thee,


I not desire to know. Follow thy drum;
With man's blood paint the ground, gules, gules ° :
Religious canons, civil laws are cruel;

Then what should war be? This fell whore of thine
Hath in her more destruction than thy sword,
For all her cherubin look.


Thy lips rot off!

TIM. I will not kiss thee; then the rot returns To thine own lips again.

ALCIB. How came the noble Timon to this change?

5 I am misanthropos,] A marginal note in the old translation of Plutarch's Life of Antony, furnished our author with this epithet: Antonius followeth the life and example of Timon Misanthropus, the Athenian." MALONE.


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gules, gules:] Might we not repair the defective metre of this line, by adopting a Shakspearian epithet, and readinggules, total gules;


as in the following passage in Hamlet:

"Now is he total gules." STEEVENS.

7 I will not kiss thee;] This alludes to an opinion in former times, generally prevalent, that the venereal infection transmitted to another, left the infecter free. 1 I will not, says Timon, take the rot from thy lips, by kissing thee. JOHNSON.

Thus, The Humourous Lieutenant says:

"He has some wench, or such a toy, to kiss over,
"Before he go: 'would I had such another,
"To draw this foolish pain down."

See also the fourth Satire of Donne.

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TIM. As the moon does, by wanting light to

give :

But then renew I could not, like the moon ;

There were no suns to borrow of.


What friendship may I do thee?


Maintain my opinion.

Noble Timon,

None, but to

What is it, Timon ?. TIM. Promise me friendship, but perform none: if thou wilt not promise, the gods plague thee, for thou art a man! if thou dost perform, confound thee, for thou art a man!

ALCIB. I have heard in some sort of thy miseries. TIM. Thou saw'st them, when I had pros


ALCIB. I see them now; then was a blessed time 9.

TIM. As thine is now, held with a brace of har


TIMAN. Is this the Athenian minion, whom the world

Voic'd so regardfully?



Art thou Timandra ?

TIM. Be a whore still! they love thee not, that use thee;

Give them diseases, leaving with thee their lust. Make use of thy salt hours: season the slaves

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Thou wilt not promise, &c.] That is, however thou may'st act, since thou art a man, hated man, I wish thee evil.


9 THEN was a blessed time.] I suspect, from Timon's answer, that Shakspeare wrote-thine was a blessed time. MALONE.

I apprehend no corruption. Now, and then, were designedly opposed to each other. STEEVENS.

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