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Copy of a Circular Letter from the Duke of Porrland to the Lieutenants of

Counties on the Sea Coasi, dated Whitehali, November 5, 1796, (159)

A Proclamation of his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland against illegal
and trcafonable Asociations,

(160)

A Proclamation by the Lord Lieutenant and Council of Ireland, deciering

certain parts of the County of Down in a State of Disturbance, (161)

Treaty of Peace, concluded between the French Republic and the King of bar-

dinia, May 151796,

(162)

Treaty of Peace concluded between the French Republic and the King of

the Two Sicilies, Oct. 10, 1796,

(165)

Treaty of Alliance offenfive and defenfive between the French Republic

and the King of Spain, Aug. 19, 1795,

(167)

Treary between the King of Prusia and the French Republic, respecting

the Neutrality of the North of Germany, Aug. 5, 7 796,

(170)

Answer of the President of the United States of America, to the Resolution

passed by the House of Representatives, on the 24th of March 1796, which

kad for its Obje&t to procure a copy of the Instructions granted 10 Mr. Jay

relative to the Treaty with Great Britain,

(171)

Resolutions passed by the House of Representatives of the United States, on the

7th of April, 1796,

(173)

Address of George Washington, President, to the Citizens of the United States,

on bis intended Refignation,

(174)

Note prescried to the American Secretary of State, by Citizen Adet, Dinifter

Plenipotentiary from the French Republic, Oct. 17, 1796, - (186)

Extraci from the Regifter of Resolutions of the Executive Directory of the

1416 Meffiuor, 4th Year of the French Republic, 0:6 and indivisiblia (188)

Answer of the Excutive Government of Ameria to Citizen Adit's Noti, in

clafing the Decree of the Directory respelling Ncutral Vessels, (189)

A Proclamation by George Washington, Presidert of the United States of Ame-

rica,

(191)

Speech of George Washington, President of the United States of America, la

beth Houses of Congrejs, December 7, 1796,

(193)

Address of the Senate, presented by their President, Johın Ailams, to the Presi-

dent of the United States, in Anfeuer 10 ile above Sprech, December 12,

1596,

(197)

The President's Reply,

(199)

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IT

has frequently been remarked, that, in periods of public commotion and of civil anarchy, the noblest energies of the human mind are often called forth to action ; and if we have to witness much calamity, vice, and horror, the prospect is somewhat cheered by examples of virtue uncontaminated by interest, and of genius unfettered by timidity. Yet the short space of time which elapsed from the deposition of the first Charles to the accession of his son, presents us with not many names of eminence in literature, which were unnoticed in the preceding period. There was certainly a large mass of learning deposited at this time in various hands; but that learning was obscured by pedantry; and the science, as well as the morals of the age, was perverted by fanati cism. It was an age of projects, but those projects partook of all the wildness of anarchy; and history and politics were debased, as they too commonly are, by a devo.

tion to party.

The

The rapid transition of the human mind from torpid ignorance to restless speculation, from stupidity to error, was, perhaps, never more strongly instanced than in those ages which immediately succeeded the reformation. A blind devotion to the papal decrees, an averfion to inquiry, an indifference to knowledge and to taste, charac, terized succeflive ages and generations, of which scarcely a monument remains, except upon the tables of chronoJogy. An accidental discovery, the invention of printing, seems to have awakened the European world froin its mental lethargy; and no sooner was religious liberty refored, and the scriptures rescued from the strong and fierile grasp of the papal hierarchy, than a scene of contution ensued, - every man heard them in his own tongue; or, more properly, he forced them to speak a language congenial to the caprices of his own imagination.

The ardour for theological speculation was somewhat repressed, as we have already seen, by the arbitrary interference of government during the reigns of Elizabeth and her immediate fucceffor. But these impediments were no sooner removed by the downfall of Charles, and the severe, though not wholly unmerited, punishment of Laud, than the utmost latitude was given to the excurfions of the imagination ; and there was scarcely a doctrine or text of scripture which could be perverted, that did not serve as the foundation on which some class of enthusiasts erected a new form of religion. The disciples of Calvin were divided into various parties; many of them embraced with avidity the tenets of the anabaptists, and a still larger party of the old puritans discovered that even the presbyterian church was not sufficiently democratical ; that the church of Corinth had a complete independent jurisdiction within itself; and they determined, in consequence, that every particular and di{tinet congregation of christians must have a full power to regulate all its own concerns without the aid of either bishops or fynods, and independent of all connexion with other churches. This party, from their particular

tenets,

tenets, were termed Independents; and with this party it was, that the artful and ambitious Cromwell thought proper to connect himself. Where there exists no regular principle of atiociation, where there is no connected government or fubordination in any fociety, that society, whether civil or religious, will more readily be reduced under the yoke of llavery. The prefbyterian party under Cromwell, therefore, lost all its weight and importance in the state ; fome of its members were subjected to the severity of persecution ; the independents, of all the greater fects, were alone admitted to the favour of the protector, while fone of the weaker and least numerous of the other fećts enjoyed perfect toleration, if not protection, from the court.

It is difficult to stop the progress of innovation, and it is most difficult in religious fpeculation. The independents themselves divided, after some time, into a number of subordinate sects; and some of them, by interpreting the obscure parts of scripture in a literal sense, embraced and propagated the wildest doctrines, and the most abfurd delulions. The Ranters received their name from the violence of their extemporaneous harangues, and from their ridiculous and unnatural gesticulation. The Antinomians, not content with rejecting entirely the Jewish dispensation, and cancelling even the moral precepts of the law, extended the doctrine of justification by the death of Christ to an unwarrantable extreme, and allirted that justification precedes the birth of the individual, and that it is impoflible that by any part of his conduct lie can become obnoxious to future punishment. The Fifthmonarchy-men, exulting in the overthrow of temporal sovereignty, applicd the prophecies which relate to the advent of Christ in their literal sense ; they asserted that this was the feason indicated by the prophets, in which Chritt was to reign with lis elect upon earth; some of them even assumed the prophetic character, proclaimed themselves the precursors of the Lord, and pronounced potitively the speedy downfall of all other principalities

and powers.

Among

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