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goes at least as far north, however, as Oban, in Argyleshire. To the westward, it was noted at Taunton in the middle of May. It is a regular summer migrant to Ireland, although in 1872 it was not noticed there by any correspondent.
Like several of the preceding, the Turtle Dove is oftener observed in the southern and midland counties of England, although stragglers are occasionally met with as far north as Northumberland, and even in Scotland. In the Hebrides specimens have been shot in Islay and Skye, but not in the outer islands. Dr. Saxby has recorded several instances of its occurrence in Shetland, and it has twice been procured in Orkney. In Ireland it is regarded as an annual summer visitant to the cultivated districts.
The Wood Wren was noticed nowhere earlier than the 23rd of April, on which date it was heard by Mr. Inchbald at Hovingham, near York; and the paucity of observations on this and the four following species show that they must be very local in their distribution, or less frequently seen than many of their more obtrusive congeners. The Wood Wren apparently comes very much later than either the Chiffchaff or the Willow Wren.
Nine observations only on the Pied Flycatcher were forwarded. These, however, contain one or two notes of interest. The bird has become much commoner of late years, or more observed; and in 1872 it appears to have been met with much further north than usual. A specimen was shot at N. Berwick by Mr. W. Patterson, and exhibited at the Glasgow Natural History Society on the 24th of September, 1872; and another was procured at Biora, in Sutherland, on the 31st of May, by Mr. T. E. Buckley. In Yorkshire it seems to have been very numerous, a score being heard at once in one locality, near York, on the 29th of May. It was found nesting in Norfolk, at Sparham, eggs being laid and the hen bird sitting, on the 3rd of June. To the westward, it was noted at Cirencester; and was found nesting, as in previous years, at Llandderfel, in Merionethshire.
The Red-backed Shrike, or Butcher-bird, is almost confined to the southern midland counties of England, and although stragglers have been met with occasionally in Scotland, it is always regarded as a rare bird there; and in Ireland it is quite unknown. Mr. Cordeaux states that he has never observed it in Lincolnshire. It is always a late comer, seldom, if ever, arriving before the first week in May; and the earliest date recorded for its appearance in any of the calendars is May 2, on which day it was seen at Ratham, near Chichester. Mr. Donald Mathews has observed, in the neighbourhood of Redditch, that it commences nidification immediately on its arrival. The custom which now prevails of " plashing," or laying 'the tall hedgerows in which the Butcher-bird delights to dwell, has caused it in many localities to forsake haunts where once it was quite numerous. This has been particularly remarked in Middlesex and the counties adjoining.
The observations upon the Garden Warbler, of which eight only are furnished, do not call for any particular comment, save an expression of surprise that a bird with so good a song should not have attracted more attention. The 21st of April is the earliest date recorded for its arrival, at Burton-on-Trent. One would certainly have expected also to find more notice taken of the Reed Warbler, a noisy little bird, whose incessant babbling by reedy ponds and at the riverside makes it almost impossible to overlook it . Nevertheless, but three notes were forwarded of its occurrence in 1872—two in Norfolk, at Lynn and Hempstead, and one in Wilts, at Marlborough; at the last-named place on the 31st of May, at least six weeks after its usual time for arriving. It is not easy to account for its being so overlooked, for it cannot be regarded as by any means a rare bird, although it may be a local one.
Colonel Irby, who has had opportunities of seeing many of our summer migratory birds on passage, from two good posts of observation, Gibraltar and Tangier, thus refers to the subject in his recently-published volume on the " Ornithology of the Straits of Gibraltar : "—
"Most of the land birds pass by day, usually crossing the Straits in the morning. The waders are, as a rule, not seen on passage; so it may be concluded they pass by night, although I have occasionally observed Peewits, Golden Plover, Terns and Gulls, passing by day.
"The autumnal or return migration is less conspicuous than the vernal; and whether the passage is performed by night, or whether the birds return by some other route, or whether they pass straight on, not lingering by the way as in spring, is an open question ; but during the autumn months passed by me at Gibraltar, I failed to notice the passage as in spring, though more than once during the month of August, which I spent at Gibraltar, myself and others distinctly heard Bee-eaters passing south at night, and so conclude other birds may do the same.