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place here. I shall therefore merely observe that it may be distinguished from the Common Redstart by the sooty-black colour of the breast and belly, which parts in the other are orange-brown, and that it generally arrives about the first week in November, and remains until the end of March or beginning of April.

The origin of the specific name "tithys" seems to be somewhat doubtful, although several ornithologists have attempted an explanation. Hemprich and Ehrenberg (" Symbols Physicse," fol. bb), and Von Heuglin (" Orn. NordOst Afrika's," i. p. 334) have referred it to Ti'tjk, tdtor, with which, however, in the opinion of Professor Newton (" Ann. Mag. Nat. History," Ser. 4, x. p. 227), it can have nothing to do. Professor Newton himself, in the magazine just quoted, and in a footnote to his edition of Yarrell's "History of British Birds," i. p. 333, writes: "Sylvia tithys (by mistake) Scopoli, Annus I. Historico-naturalis, p. 157 (1769). This naturalist admittedly took his specific name from Linnaeus, who spelt the word 'tilys1 as did Gesner; but the best classical authorities, Stephanus, Porson, and Passow, consider 'titis' to be right. This originally meant a small chirping bird, and is possibly cognate with the first syllable of our &Vmouse and &'/lark." After the opinion expressed by such authorities, it may appear somewhat presumptuous on my part to offer a suggestion; but there is yet another explanation, which has apparently been overlooked. Might not the word "tithys" (more correctly "tithus") be derived from the Greek adjective nOo?, 8»', Mv, which has the same signification as rdairof, that is, "reared up in the house, domesticated." Compare the domestic hens of Dioscorides, T»8«« opiiifat. The term "domesticated" would be well applied to the Black Redstart, which is a very familiar bird, frequently perching on house-tops and garden walls, and building in holes and crannies in the neighbourhood of man's dwelling.

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T EAVING the woods, gardens, and planta-*—J tions, and proceeding to the river side, we meet with a very different class of birds—the river warblers. This is a very numerous family, and were we about to treat of all the known species, it might be advisable for simplicity's sake to group them into sub-families. As we are confining our attention, however, for the present, to those species only which have been met with in the British Islands, it will be less confusing if we dispense with this subdivision, and notice


them under the same generic name—Salicaria. The various members of this genus may be distinguished by their short wings, rounded tails, tarsus longer than the middle toe, large feet, long and curved claws, and large hind toe with strong curved claw. They differ, too, from other warblers in their habit of singing at night. There are eight species which have all more or less a claim to be included in the British list, although three only can be regarded as regular summer migrants. These three are the Sedge Warbler (S. phragmitis), the Reed Warbler (S. slreperd), and the Grasshopper Warbler (S. locustella). The others are Savi's Warbler (S. luscinoides), the Aquatic Warbler (S. aquaticd), the Marsh Warbler (S. palustris), the Great Reed Warbler (S. arundinacea), and the Rufous Warbler (S. galadoides).

The Sedge Warbler and the Reed Warbler generally arrive much about the same time in April, but, from some unexplained cause, the latter is much more restricted in its distribution than the former. The Sedge Warbler is found throughout the British Islands, but the Reed Warbler is almost unknown in Ireland, and its nest has only once been met with in Scotland.1 As a rule, it is seldom, if ever, to be seen further north than Yorkshire and Lancashire, and does not breed either in Devon or Cornwall. It may thus be said to be almost confined to the eastern, midland, and south-eastern counties of England. Beyond the British Islands, too, it is less erratic in its movements than its congeners. The Sedge Warbler visits Scandinavia, Russia, and Siberia, and is found throughout Europe in summer, and in North Africa and Asia Minor in winter. The late Mr. Andersson sent specimens even from Damaraland, S.W. Africa. The Reed Warbler does not migrate as far north as this; but Mr. Gurney has received a specimen from Natal; and if we may rely on the identification of specimens obtained by Mr. Hodgson, it ranges as far eastward as Nepal.

1 This was in Haddingtonshire, by Mr. Hepburn. See "Ibis," 1865, p. 24.

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