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notes; he is then to proceed to the exchange for specie. It then goes Rotunda, to partake of a dejeuné a on to mention the inconveniencies la fourchette, consisting chiefly of which arose to industry and proper. prize meats; a great deal of good ty from this state of things, prosinging is expected--Mr. R. Jackson ceeding from the “ excess of a worthis to favour the company with less paper-money.”-In order to re'money in both pockets;' two mer- move this evil, the edict circummaids have kindly came forward to scribes the mass of paper-money, offer their gratuitous assistance-- and fixes it at 1,060,798,753 florins, they are to sit in bathing tubs, at which is the whole sum to remain each side of the president, and have in circulation, and to be afterwards promised coexecute some appropriate funded. But the mass so diminshed airs, ' Cease rude Bureas,' and Wa- is not to be realised, or to pass at ter parted from the Sea,' Sir John its nominal value; and on this head being re-seated on his ram - the the edict contains the following re. whole to conclude with a grand cho- gulations:-1. The Vienna banka rus in praise of Pitt and pound paper shall not remain in circulation notes, in which all the stock jobbers, after the last day of January, 1812. contractors, clerks, directors, and -2. Till then it shall pass current the entire corps papieritique are to in payments at the fifth part of its join. Medals of the great man now nominal value.--3. From the 15th do more, struck on pasteboard, are of March, 1811, the bank-paper in to be distributed amongst the per- all redemption bonds and payments formers, who are to fire a feu de shall be fixed at one-fifth of its nojoie in honour of his memory, pro minal value; that is to say, viding the ram be found sufficiently Bank-money of 5 florins, at 1 florin. steady to bear the explosion, other. ..... 10.... at 2. wise it is to be omitted.--I shall re
....... 25.,.. at 5...
50.... at sume the subject of the scarcity of "...
10... silver it a future period which ....... 100 ....at 20...
ta jurure period, which, ....... 500 .... at 100 ... with some other particulars, I shall and at this rate it shall be taken by be happy to communicate to you; the public treasury, and by private meantime, I remain,
individuals, till the end of January, Your obedient Servant, 1812. 4. From the 1st of February, TIMOTHY TINKER. 1812, the Vienna bank-paper shall
be taken out of circulation, and pay* AUSTRIAN FINANCES.
ments in it shall cease with the 31st
of January, 1812.-5. RedemptionThe Emperor of Austria has is- bonds can no longer be circulated sued a long edict, for the purpose but in exchange for bank-paper at of regulating the current value of the one-fifth of its nominal value. By Vienna bank-paper, which is well this means the amount of l'edmption. known to have suffered a great de- bonds can in no case rise higher than preciation. This edict, which is da- 212,159,750 florins. The edict then ted the 201h of February, 1811, 'sets goes on to state, that the Emperor out with enumerating the measures will adopt means for placing these which were taken for supporting the redemption-bonds under the guafinances of Austria in September last, rantee of the hereditary states, for by imposing a tax of 10 per cent. on funding and gradually annihilating moveable and on real property.- the paper-money, and establishing a Notwithstanding this, however, the sinking-fund ; and that he will pubvalue of the paper-money continued lish new regulations to that effect as to fall, and sunk so low as 1,200 in soon as he has come to a settlement.
with the Diets of Hungary and indulge in any degree of pride, we
Transylvania in relation to the pre- still venture to think that we enter * sent matter. In the mean time he not as a vulgar territory, as an obdeclares to his faithful subjects, scure acquisition, into that immense
that the money arising from the circle of provinces, struck with ad· SALE OF THE PROPERTY OF THE miration, and happy in obeying a
CHURCH CONTINUES TO BE APPRO- single master. PRIATED TO THE EXTINCTION OF REPLY OF HIS MAJESTY. THE PAPER-MONEY!--Then follow a Gentlemen, Deputies of the Hanse variety of minor regulations with Towns of Hamburgh, Bremen, and respect to the payment of debts due Lubeck.--You formed part of the to individuals and to the state, ac- Germanic Empire; your constitucording to the value affixed to the tion terminated with its existence. bank-paper by the edict.
Since that time your situation was uncertain. I intended to reconsitute
your cities under an independent EXTRACT FROM THE ADDRESS administration, when the changes
OF THE DEPUTATION FROM produced in the world by the new THE CITY OF HAMBURGH &c. laws of the British conncil rendered TO THE FRENCH EMPEROR, the object impracticable. It was WITH HIS ANSWER. impossible for me to give you an in
dependent administration, since you Sire, at all times we have been could no longer have an independent Frenchmen in our hearts, and from flag... preference. - If the anarchy which The decrees of Berlin and Milan preceded your Majesty's reign, re- are the fundamental lawys of my emlaxed, for a momenl, ties of such pire. They cease only to have eflong standing aud su agreeable, we fect as to these nations which defend hastened to draw them closer the their sovereignty, and maintain the instant your accession to power re- religion of their flag. England is in assured the world social order : and a state of blockade as to those nayour new subjects, Sire, cannot swear tions which submit to the orders of to be more faithful to you than they 1806, because the flags thus submit. have shewn themselves to be for ting to the English laws are denathese ten years past; more devoted tionalized ; they are English. Those to your pleasure, more obedient to nations, on the contrary, which feel your system, and more disposed to their own dignity, and find in their contribute to the accomplishment of courage and power sufficient resouryour designs, by every effort and ces to disregard the blockade by sacrifice in their power; and it is a notification, commonly called a papleasing consolation to the honour- per blockade, and to approach all able remembrances of our country, the ports of my empire, except those to reflect, that our independence under a real blockade, according to could yield only to him to whom the known usage and the stipulations every thing has yielded, and that of the treaty of Utrecht; may hold our political existence was to cease communications with England. As only at that epuch when the destin to them, England is not blockaded. nies had determined that the Tiber The decrees of Berlin and Milan, and the Elbe should flow under the flowing from the nature of things, same laws.
shall continue to form the public If your Majesty, from that devoted code of my empire, as long as En. point whence you take a view of hu- gland maintains her orders in coun• man affairs, permit our feebleness to cil of 1806 and 1807, and violates
the stipulations of the treaty of and arm 25 sail of the line yearly, Utrecht upon this subject. .
is, without the slightest delay or obEngland acts upon the principle. structions from the existence of a of seizing the enemy's merchandize, maritime war. under whatever flag it might be." The accounts that have been given The empire has been compelled to me of the good disposition which admit the principle of seizing Eng- animates your fellow.citizens have lish merchandize, or proceeding from afforded me pleasure; and I hope, the commerce of England, in what- ' in a short time, to have to praise the ever territory it may be. England . zeal and bravery of your seamen. seizes in every sea the pasengers, merchants, and carriers belonging to the nation she is at war with. France
AMERICA. is compelled to seize the English travellers. merchants, and carriers. Mr. Pinckney to Lord Wellesley.--Great
Cumberland Place, Dec. 10, 1810. in whatever part of the continent
My Lord, they may be, and wherever she can In compliance with the request conreach them; and 'if in this system tained in your note of the oth instant, there he any thing more consonant to I proceed to recapitulate in this letter, the spirit of the age, it is the injus- ' (with some variations, however,) the tice of the new English laws that statements and remarks which I had the must be charged with it.
honour to make in our conference of the
ini . 5th, respecting the revocation of the I have been pleased to enter into
French decrees, as connected with a these explanations with you, to con- change of system here on the subject of vince you that your union with the neutral rights. empire is the necessary result of the Your lordship need not be told, that British laws of 1806 and 1807, and I should have been happy to offer at a not the effect of any ambitious cal- much earlier moment every explanation culation. In my civil laws you will
in my power on matters of such high
concern to the rights and commerce of find a protection, which, in your
VTTCT, " your my country, and the future character maritime position, you can no longer of its foreign relations, if I had been find in the political code. That made to understand that explanation maritime commerce, which consti- was desired. . tuted your prosperity, cannot hence- My written communications of Au, forth he revived, but in conjunction gust and November were concise, but with the restoration of my maritime
they were not intended to be insufficient.
They furnished evidence which I thought power. The rights of nations, the com
I ne rights of nations, the conclusive, and abstained from laboured liberty of the seas, and a general cominentary, because I deemed it supeace, must be re-conquered at one perfluous. I had taken up an opnion, and the same time. When I shall which I abandoned reluctantly and late, have upwards of 100 sail of the liue, that the British government would be I shall subiugate England in a few eager to follow tbe example of France,
in recalling, as it had professed to do campaigns. The seamen of your
in promulgating, that extraordinary syscoasts, and the materials conveyed
nais conveyed tem of maritime annoyance, which in . to the mouths of your rivers, are 1807 presented to neutral trade in alnecessary to my purpose. France, most all its directions the hopeless alwithin her old limits, could not ternative of inactivity or confiscation; construct a marine in time of war. which considered it as a subject to be When her coasts were blockaded.. regulated, like the trade of the United she was compelled to receive the
Kingdoms, by the statutes of the Bri
e tish parliament, and undertook to bend law. Now from the increase my and fashion it by every variety of exempire has received within the last pedient to all the purposes and even the six years, I can build, equip, and caprices of Great Britain. I had no
idea that the remnant of that sistern, English blockade of the poru and places productive of no conceivuble advantage of Spain from Gijon to the French ler to England, and deservedly odious forritory (itself known to my government its theory and destructive effects to only through a circular notification to others, could survive the public declara- mne, recited afterwards in the London tion of France that the edicts of Berlin Gazette) was declared to the Americho and Milan were revoked. Instructed at and other governments in exactly the length, however, by your lordship's con- same mode. tinued silence, and alarmed for the pro- I think it demonstrable that the terms perty of my fellow-citizens, now more in which the French revocation was an than ever exposed by an erroneous con- nounced are just as free from well foun. fidence to the ruinous operation of the ded objection as the manner.Yoar British orders, I was preparing to sup- lordship's view of them is entirely unport my general representations by de known to me; but I am not ignorant tailed remonstrance, when I received that there are those in this country, the honour of your note of the 4th in- who, professing to have examined them stant. In the conference which ensued, with care, and having certainly examiI troubled your lordship with a verbal ned them with jealousy, maintain that communication, of which the follow- the revocation on the ist of November ing is nearly the substance. The doubts was made to depend, by the obvious which appear to stand in the way of meaning to those terms, upon a condithe recal of the British orders in council tion precedent, which has not been ful(under which denomination I include filled, namely, the revocation by Great certain orders of blockade of a kindred Britain of her orders in council, incluprinciple and spirit) must refer to the ding such blockading orders as France manner, or the terms, or the practical complains of as illegal.-If this were effect of the alleged repeal of the decrees even admitted to be so, I am yet to of France. That the manner of the learn upon what ground of justice the proceeding is satisfactory to the British British government could decline to government cannot be questioned; since meet, by a similar act on its part, an it is precisely that in which its own nu- advance, thus made to it by its advermerous orders for establishing, modify- sary in the face of the world, towards a ing, or removing blockades and other co-operation in the great work of remaritime obstructions, are usually pro- storing the liberty of the ocean ; so far claimed to neutral states and merchants. at least as respects the orders in council
-The French repeal was officially po- of 1807 and 1809, and such blockades tified on the 5th of August to the mi as resemble them. It is not necessary, nister plenipotentiary of the United however, to take this view of the quesStates at Paris by the French minister tion; for the French revocation turns of foreign affairs, as I had the honour on no condition precedent, is absolute, to inform your lordship in my letter of precise, and unequivocal. What conthe 25th of the same month, which not struction of the document which deonly gave the impost, but (as the en- clares that revocation might be made closed cmpy will shew) adopted the by determined suspicion and distrust, words of General Armstrong's statement I have no wish and am not bound to to me of the tenour and effect of that enquire. Such interpreters would not notice.
be satisfied by any form of words, and On the 9th of August the notification would be likely to draw the same conof Gen. Armstrong was published in the clusion from perfect explicitness and Moniteur, the official journal of the studied obscurity. It is enough for me French government, as the act of that that the fair and natural and necessary governnient; and thus became a formal import of the paper affords no colour declaration and a public pledge to all for tbe interpretation I am about to exwho had an interesi in the matter of it. amine.--The French declaration, “ that
It would be a waste of time to par- the decrees of Berlin and Milan are tlcularize the numerous instances of ana- revoked, and that from the 1st of Nologous practices in England, by which vember they will cease to have any efthis course is countenanced; but a re- fect," is precision itself : but they are cent example happeus to be before me, followed by these words~" bien entenand may therefore be mentioned. The du qu'en consequence de cette declarapartial recall, or modification, of the tion les Angluis retoqueront leúrs urrets de Conseil, et renonceront aux nouveaur mit was meant to be plausible. It was principes de blocus qu'ils ont voulu eta- a palpable and notorious impossibility blis, ou bien que les Etats Unis, confor- that the United States' should, before mement a l'acte que vous venez de come the 1st of November, execute any conmuniquer, feront respecter leurs Droits dition, no matter what the nature of it, par les Anglais." -If these words state the performance of which was to follow any condition, they state two, the first the ascertained failure of a condition, depending upon Great Britain, the last to be executed by Great Britain, at any upon the United States; and, as they time before the same 1st of November. are put in the disjunctive, it would be That the act expected from the United extravagant to hold that the non-per- States was to be consequent upon the formance of one of them is equivalent failure of the other is apparent. It is to the non-performance of both. I shall also apparent that upon any interpretatake for granted, therefore, that the ar- tion, which would make the act of Great guments against my construction of the Britain a condition precedent to the Duke of Cadore's letter must be mould. French repeal, consequently precedent ed into a new form. It must deal with to the 1st of November (when the retwo conditions, instead of one: and, peal was, if ever, to take effect,) that considering them equally as conditions condition could not be said to have precedent, to be performed (disjunctive- failed before the whole period, from the ly) before the day limited for the opera- 5th of August to the 1st of November, tive commencement of the French re- had elapsed. But if Great Britain had peal, niust maintain, that, if neither of the whole time within which to elect them should be performed before that the course which she would pursue, day, the decrees were not to be revoked, what opportunity would be left to the and consequently that, as neither of United States (equally bound, upon this them has been so performed, the de- idea of conditions precedent, to act crees are still in force. .
their part within the same period) to If this hypothesis of previous condi- become acquainted with that election, tions, thus reduced to the only shape and to decide upon and take their it can assume, be proved to be unsound, own course in consequence; to say nomy construction is at once established; thing of the transmission of such intel. since it is only upon that hypothesis that ligence of it to Europe as would be inany doubt can be raised against the dispensable to the efficacy of the conexact and perspicuous assurances that ditional revocation. the decrees were actually repealed, and This general view would alone he sufthat the repeal would become effectual ficient to discredit the arbitrary construcon the 1st of November. This hypo- tion under consideration : but it will be thesis is proved to be unsound by the more completely exposed by an explanafollowing considerations. It has clearly tion of the nature of the act, which the no foundation in the phraseology of the letter professes to expect from the United paper, which does not contain a sylla- States, in case Great Britain should otuit ble to put any condition before the re- to revoke. This act is the revival of the peal. The repeal is represented as a non-intercourse law against England; step already taken, to have effect on a France remaining exempt from it, as day specified. Certain consequences well as from the provisions of the subseare, indeed, declared to be expected quent law, commonly called the non-infrom this proceeding; but no day is gi- tercourse act. Now, it is too plain upon ven, either expressly or by implication, the face of the last mentioned law (co within which they are to happen. It is which the letter expressly refers) to eso not said “ bien entendu que les Anglois cape the most negligent and unskilful auront revoque," &c. but “ que les An- observer, that this revival could not by glois revoqueront, &c. indefinitely as to any industry or chance be accomplished time. The notion of conditions prece- before the time fixed for the cessation of dent is, therefore, to say the least of it, the French decrees, or even for a consiperfectly gratuitous; but it is also ab- derable time afterwards; it certainly surd. It drives us to the conclusion, cannot be allowable to assume, that the that a palpable and notorious impossió revival was required by the letter, (whatbility was intended to be prescribed as ever was the object of the writer or his a condition, in a paper which they, who government) to precede the cessation. think it was meant to deceive must ad. And if this was not required, it is inconVOL, IX,