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Glo. Now is the winter of our discontent Made glorious summer by this sun of York?;

And

· Life and Death of King Richard 111.] This tragedy, though it is called the Life and Death of this prince, comprizes, at most, but the last eight years of his time; for it opens with George duke of Clarence being clapped up in the Tower, which happened in the beginning of the year 1477; and closes with the death of Richard at Bosworthfield, which battle was fought on the 22d of August, in the year 1485. THEOBALD.

It appears that several dramas on the present subject had been written before Shakespeare attempted it. See the notes at the conclusion of this

play, which was first enter'd at Stationers' Hall by Andrew Wife, Oct. 20, 1597, under the title of The Tragedie of King Richard the Third, with the Death of the Duke of Clarence. Before this, viz. Aug. 15th, 1586, was entered, A Tragical report of King Richard the Third, a Ballad. It may be necessary to remark that the words, song, ballad, book, enterlude and play, were often synonymously used. STEEVENS.

this fun of York ;] Alluding to the cognizance of Edward IV. which was a fun, in memory of the three suns, which are said to have appeared at the battle which he gained over the Lancastrians at Mortimer's Cross.

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And all the clouds, that lowr'd upon our house,
In the deep bosom of the ocean bury'd.
Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths ;
Our bruised arins hung up for monuments ;
Our stern alarums chang'd to merry meetings },
Our dreadful marches to delightful measures.
Grimn-visag'd war hath smooth'd his wrinkled front;
And now,minstead of mounting barbed' fteeds 4,

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So, in Drayton's Miseries of Queen Margaret:

66 Three suns were seen that instant to appear,
6 Which soon again fhut themselves up in one,
" Ready to buckle as the armies were,

66 Which this brave duke took to himself alone &c."
Again, in the 22d Song of the Polyolbion :
“ And thankful to high heaven which of his caufe had

care,
" Three suns for his device still in his ensign bare."
Again, in the Wrighte's Play in the Chester Collection. M. S. Harl.
1013, the same prodigy is introduced as attending on a more so-
lemn event :

6. That day was seene veramente
66 Three fonnes in the firmament,
" And wonderly together went
66 And torned into one." STEEVENS.

merry meetings,] So, in The tragical Life and Death of King Richard the Third, which is one of the metrical monologues in a collection entitled, The Mirrour of Magistrates. The first edition of it appeared in 1987, but the lines quoted on the pre

sent as well as future occasions throughout this play, are not found : in any copy before that of 1610, so that the author was more probably indebted to Shakespeare than Shakespeare to him :

the battles fought in fields before
Were turn'd to meetings of sweet amitie;

The war-god's thundring cannons dreadful rore,
And rattling drum-founds warlike harmonie,
To fweet-tun'd noise of pleafing' minstrelfie.

God Mars laid by his launce, and tooke bis lute,
And turn'd his rugged

frownies to smiling lookes ;
Inftead of crimson fields, war's fatal fruit,
He bath'd his limbes in Cypris warbling brooks,
And set his thoughts upon her wanton lookes. SteeVENS.

-barbed feeds, j 1. Haywarde, in his Life and Raigne of Henry IV. 1999, says, --The duke of Hereford came to the barriers, mounted upon a white courfer, barbed with blew and green velvet, &c.

So,

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To fright the souls of fearful adversaries,
s He capers nimbly in a lady's chamber,
To the lascivious pleasing of a lute.
But I,—that am not shap'd for sportive tricks,
Nor made to court an amorous looking-glass;
I, that am rudely stamp'd, and want love's ma-

jesty,
To strut before a wanton ambling nymph;
I, that am curtail'd of this fair proportion,

So, in Jarvis Markham's English Arcadia, 1607 :

armed in a black armour, curiously damask'd with intervinding wreaths of cypress and ewe, his barbe upon his horse, all of black abrosetta, cut in broken hoopes upon curled cypress.” Again, in the ad Part of K. Edivard IV. by Heywood, 1626 :

" With barbed horse, and valiant armed foot." Barbed, however, may be no more than a corruption of barded. Equus bardatus, in the Latin of the middle ages, was a horse adorned with military trappings. I have met with the word barded

many

times in our ancient chronicles and romances. An instance or two may suffice. They mounted him surely upon a good and inighty courser, well barded, &c."

Hift. of Helyas Knight of the Swanne, bl. 1. no date. Again, in Hall's Chronicle, King Henry VIII. p. 45: “ —appereilled in ryche armure, on

barded courser &c." Again, in the Miracles of Mofes, by Drayton :

66 There floats the bard iteed with his rider drown’d,

66 Whofe foot in his caparison is cait.” Again, in Warner's Albiaz's England, B. VIII. chap: 38: 6. For whether that he trots, or turns, or bounds his

barded steed." Again, in Barrett's Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580:

Bardes or trappers of horses. Phalere, Lat." Again, Hoiin shed speaking of the preparations for the battle of Agincourt:

to the intent that if the borded horses ran fiercely upon them, &c” Again, p. 802, he lays, that bards and trappers had the fame meaning.

It is observed in the Turkish Spy, that the German cuiratliers, though armed and barbed, man ard horse, were not able to stand against the French cavalry. STLEVENS.

ş He capers) War capers. This is poetical, though a little harsh ; if it be York that capers, the antecedent is at such a distance, that it is almoft forgotten. JOHNSON.

Cheat

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6 Cheated of feature by dissembling nature,
Deform’d, unfinishi’d, sent before my time
Into this breathing world, scarce half made up,
And that so lamely and unfashionably,
That dogs bark at me, as I halt by them ;--
Why I, in this weak piping time of peace,
Have no delight to pass away the time;
Unless to spy my shadow in the sun,
And descant on mine own deformity ? :
And therefore,--since I cannot prove a lover,
To entertain these fair well-spoken days,-
I am determined to prove a villain,
And hate the idle pleasures of these days.
Plots have I laid, 'inductions dangerous,
By drunken prophesies, libels, and dreams,
To set my brother Clarence, and the king,
In deadly hate the one against the other :

Cheated of feature by dissembling nature,] By dissembling is not meant hypocritical nature, that pretends one thing and does an. other : but nature that puts together things of a diffimilar kind, as a brave foul and a deformed body: WARBURTON. Disembling is here put very licentiously for fraudful, deceitful.

JOHNSON, 7 And defcant on mine own deformity:] Defiant is a terın in music, fignifying in general that kind of harmony wherein one part

is broken and formed into a kind of paraphrase on the other, The propriety and elegance of the above figure, without such an idea of the nature of defcant, could not be discerned..

Sir J. HAWKINS. 8 And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover,] Shakespeare very diligently inculcates, that the wickedness of Richard proceeded from his deformity, from the envy that rose at the comparison of his own person with others, and which incited him to disturb the pleasures that he could not partake. Johnson. 9 And hate the idle pleasures-] Perhaps we might read ;

And bate the idle pleasures JOHNSON.

inductions dangerous,] Preparations for mischief. The induction is preparatory to the action of the play. Johnson.

Mariton has put this line, with little variation, into the mouth of Fame : 9. Plots ha' you laid ? inductions dangerous ?”

STEEVENS.

And

1

And, if king ? Edward be as true and just,
As I am subtle, false, and treacherous,
This day should Clarence closely be mew'd up;
About a prophesy, which says—that G
Of Edward's heirs the murderer shall be.
Dive, thoughts, down to my soul ! here Clarence

comes.

Enter Clarence guarded, and Brakenbury. Brother, good day : What means this armed guard, That waits upon your grace ?

Clar. His majesty,
Tendering my person's safety, hath appointed
This conduct to convey me to the Tower.

Glo. Upon what cause?
Cla. Because my name is-George.

Gl. Atack, my lord, that fault is none of yours;
He should, for that, commit your godfathers :
O, belike, his majesty hath some intent,
That you should be new christen'd in the Tower,
But what's the matter, Clarence ? may I know?

Clar. Yea, Richard, when I know; for, I protest, As yet I do not : But, as I can learn, He hearkens after prophesies, and dreams; And from the cross-row plucks the letter G, And says--a wizard told him, that by G His iffue disinherited should be ; And, for my name of George begins with G', It follows in his thought, that I am he:

2

Edward be as true and just,] i. e, as open-hearted and free from deceit. WARBURTON. The meaning is only this; if Edward keeps his word.

JOHNSON. 3. And, for my name of George begins with G, &c.] So, in Nicols's Tragical Life and Death of Richard III:

" By that blind riddle of the letter G,
George lost his life ; it took effect in me." STEEVENS.

These,

B 4

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