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nakes Government unintelligible : it is left in the clouds. A violent Whig notat. 72. makes it impracticable: he is for allowing so much liberty to every man, that
there is not power enough to govern any man. The prejudice of the Tory is for establishment: the prejudice of the Whig is for innovation. A Tory does not wish to give more real power to Government; but that Government should have more reverence. Then they differ as to the Church. The Tory is not for giving more legal power to the Clergy, but wishes they fhould have a considerable influence, founded on the opinion of mankind: the Whig is for limiting and watching them with a narrow jealousy.”
On Saturday, June 2, I set out for Scotland, and had engaged, as I fometimes did, to pay a visit, in my way, at Southill, in Bedfordiliire, at the hospitable mansion of 'Squire Dilly, the elder brother of my worthy friends the booksellers in the Poultry. Dr. Johnson agreed to be of the party this year, with Mr. Charles Dilly and me, and to go and see Lord Bute's seat at Luton Hoe. He talked little to us in the carriage, being chiefly occupied in reading Dr. Watson's second volume of “ Chemical Essays,” which he liked very well, and his own “ Prince of Abyssinia,” on which he seemned to be intensely fixed; having told us, that he had not looked at it since it was first published. I happened to take it out of my pocket to-day, and he seized upon it with avidity. He pointed out to me the following remarkable passage: “ By what means (faid the Prince) are the Europeans thus powerful; or why, fince they can so easily visit Asia and Africa for trade or conqueft, cannot the Asiaticks and Africans invade their coasts, plant colonies in their ports, and give laws to their natural princes? The same wind that carries them back would bring us hither.”—“ They are more powerful, Sir, than we, (answered Imlac,) because they are wiser. Knowledge will always predominate over ignorance, as man governs the other animals. But why their knowledge is more than ours, I know not what reason can be given, but the unfearchable will of the Supreme Being.” He said, “This, Sir, no man can explain otherwise.”
We stopped at Welwyn, where I wished much to see, in company with Dr. Johnson, the residence of the authour of “ Night Thoughts,” which was then poilefled by his son, Mr. Youny. Here some address was requisite, for I was not acquainted with Mr. Young, and had I proposed to Dr. Johnson that we should send to him, he would have checked my wish, and perhaps been offended. I therefore concerted with Mr. Dilly, that I should steal away from Dr. Johnson and him, and try what reception I could procure from
Mr. Young; if unfavourable nothing was to be faid; but if agreeable I Mould 1781.
We sat some time in the summer-house, on the outside wall of which was
Sir, (said he,) he was too well-bred a man not to be cheerful in company; but he was gloomy when alone. He never was cheerful after my mother's death, and he had met with many disappointments.” Dr. Johnson observed to me afterwards, “ That this was no favourable account of Dr. Young; for it is not becoming in a man to have so little acquiescence in the ways of Providence, as to be gloomy because he has not obtained as much preferment as he expected; nor to continue gloomy for the loss of his wife. Grief has its time.” The lait part of this censure was theoreticaily made. Practically, we know that grief for the loss of a wife may be continued very long, in VOL. II.
1781. proportion as affection has been fincere. No man knew this better than
We went into the church, and looked at the monument erected by Mr. Young, to his father. Mr. Young mentioned an anecdote, that his father had received several thousand pounds of subscription-money for his “ Universal Passion,” but had lost it in the South-Sea. Dr. Johnson thought this must be a mistake; for he had never seen a subscription-book.
Upon the road we talked of the uncertainty of profit with which authours and booksellers engage in the publication of literary works. Johnson. “ My judgement I have found is no certain rule as to the sale of book.” Boswell. “ Pray, Sir, have you been much plagued with authours sending you their works to revise ?” Johnson. “No, Sir; I have been thought a four surly fellow.” Boswell. “ Very lucky for you, Sir—in that respect.” I must however observe, that notwithstanding what he now said, which he no doubt imagined at the time to be the fact, there was, perhaps, no man who more frequently yielded to the solicitations even of very obscure authours, to read their manuscripts, or more liberally assisted them with advice and correction.
He found himself very happy at Mr. Dilly's, where there is always abundance of excellent fare and hearty welcome.
On Sunday, June 3, we all went to Southill church, which is very near to Mr. Dilly's house. It being the first Sunday of the month, the holy facrament was administered, and I staid to partake of it. When I came afterwards into Dr. Johnson's room, he said, “ You did right to stay and receive the communion; I had not thought of it.” This seemed to imply that he did not choose to approach the altar without a previous preparation, as to which good men entertain different opinions, some holding that it is irreverent to partake of that ordinance without considerable premeditation ; others, that whoever is a sincere Christian, and in a proper frame to discharge any other ritual duty of our religion, may, without scruple, discharge this moft solemn one. A middle notion I believe to be the just one, which is, that communicants need not think a long train of preparatory forms indispensibly necessary; but neither should they rafhly and lightly venture upon so aweful and mysterious an institution. Christians must judge each for himself, what degree of retirement and self-examination is necessary upon each occasion.
Being in a frame, which, I hope for the felicity of human nature, many experience—in fine weather at the country-house of a friend-consoled and elevated by pious exercises--I expressed myself with an unrestrained fervour
“ Guide, Philosopher, and Friend ;” “ My dear Sir, I would fain be a good man; and I am very good now. I fear God, and honour the King, I wish
to do no ill, and to be benevolent to all mankind.” He looked at me with a 1781.
The opinion of a learned Bishop of our acquaintance, as to there being
I talked to him of original sino, in consequence of the fall of man, and of the atonement made by our Saviour. After some conversation, which he desired me to remember, he at my request dictated to me as follows:
“ With respect to original sin, the inquiry is not necessary; for whatever is the cause of human corruption, men are evidently and confessedly lo corrupt, that all the laws of heaven and earth are insufficient to restrain them from crimes.
s Dr. Ogden, in his second sermon “ On the Articles of the Christian Faith,” with admirable acuteness thus addresses the opposers of that doctrine, which accounts for the confusion, fin, and misery, which we find in this life: “ It would be severe in God, you think, to degrade us to such a sad state as this, for the offence of our first parents; but you can allow him to place us in it, without any inducement. Are our calamities lessened for not being ascribed to Adam? If your condition be unhappy, is it not still unhappy, whatever was the occasion ? With the aggravation of this reflection, that if it was as good as it was at first designed, there seems to be somewhat the less reason to look for its amendment.”
" Whatever difficulty there may be in the conception of vicarious punish-
[Here he said, “ God bless you with it.” I acknowledged myself much
“ The peculiar doctrine of Christianity is, that of an universal facrifice, and perpetual propitiation. Other prophets only proclaimed the will and the threatenings of God. Christ satisfied his justice.”