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ARTICLE VII. In civil actions, the right of trial by jury

shall be preserved where the value in controversy exceeds twenty dollars. facts tried by jury are re-examinable

only according to the rules of common law.

Excessive bail shall not be required.

nor excessive fines imposed.
nor cruel nor unusual punishments in-


ARTICLE IX. The enumeration of rights not to disparage

others retained by the people.

ARTICLE X. Powers not delegated nor prohibited to the

States are reserved to the States or to the people.

ARTICLE XI. The judicial power not to extend to actions

against a State by citizen of another State, or of a foreign State.

ARTICLE XII. Presidential electors to meet in their respective States. and vote by ballot for President and if there be no majority the House of

Vice-President. the ballots for each office to be distinct. distinct lists to be made, signed, certi

fied, and transmitted to the President

of the Senate. the President of the Senate to open the

certificates in presence of both houses of Congress. and the votes shall then be counted. the person having the greatest number of

votes shall be President.

Representatives shall elect from those having the highest number, not exceed

ing three. the votes shall be taken by. States, each

State having one vote. a quorum shall consist of a representa

tion from two-thirds of the States. a majority of all the States necessary to

a choice. if the House neglect to choose a Presi

dent, the Vice-President shall act as

such. the person having the greatest number

of votes for Vice-President shall be Vice-President, if it be a majority of

the electors. if not such majority, then the Senate

shall choose the Vice-President from

the two highest on the list. a quorum shall consist of two-thirds of

the whole number of Senators. a majority shall be necessary for a

choice. constitutional ineligibility for President

renders a person ineligible for VicePresident.

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,

except for crime, shall exist in the United

Congress may enforce this article.

Sec. 1.-All persons born or naturalized in the U. S.

are citizens of the U. S. and of the State
where they reside.
States cannot abridge the privileges and

immunities of citizens.
nor deprive any person of life, liberty, or

property without due process of law. nor deny to any person the equal protec

tion of the law.

Sec. 2.-Representatives shall be apportioned accord

ing to the whole number of persons in each
State, excluding Indians not taxed.
but when the right to vote is denied to

male citizens over twenty-one, the
basis of representation shall be re-

duced accordingly. except for participation in the rebellion

or for other crimes. Sec. 3.-Persons engaged in insurrection or rebellion

having previously taken the oath to sup-
port the Constitution of the U. S. are dis-
qualified from holding office.
Congress may by a two-third vote of

each house remove the disability. Sec. 4.-The validity of the public debt of the U. S.,

authorized by law, shall not be questioned. debts or obligations incurred in aid of

rebellion are illegal and void. claims for loss or emancipation of any

slave are illegal and void. Sec. 5.-Congress shall have power to enforce these


ARTICLE XV. Sec. 1.-The right of citizens to vote shall not be de

nied or abridged on account of race, color,

or previous condition of servitude. Sec. 2.-Congress shall have power to enforce this





WE THE PEOPLE of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this ConSTITUTION for the United States of America.


ARTICLE I. SECTION. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

SECTION. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

2No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

3[Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumera

] tion shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

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