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ARTICLE VII. In civil actions, the right of trial by jury
shall be preserved where the value in controversy exceeds twenty dollars. facts tried by jury are re-examinable
only according to the rules of common law.
nor excessive fines imposed.
ARTICLE IX. The enumeration of rights not to disparage
others retained by the people.
ARTICLE X. Powers not delegated nor prohibited to the
States are reserved to the States or to the people.
ARTICLE XI. The judicial power not to extend to actions
against a State by citizen of another State, or of a foreign State.
ARTICLE XII. Presidential electors to meet in their respective States. and vote by ballot for President and if there be no majority the House of
Vice-President. the ballots for each office to be distinct. distinct lists to be made, signed, certi
fied, and transmitted to the President
of the Senate. the President of the Senate to open the
certificates in presence of both houses of Congress. and the votes shall then be counted. the person having the greatest number of
votes shall be President.
Representatives shall elect from those having the highest number, not exceed
ing three. the votes shall be taken by. States, each
State having one vote. a quorum shall consist of a representa
tion from two-thirds of the States. a majority of all the States necessary to
a choice. if the House neglect to choose a Presi
dent, the Vice-President shall act as
such. the person having the greatest number
of votes for Vice-President shall be Vice-President, if it be a majority of
the electors. if not such majority, then the Senate
shall choose the Vice-President from
the two highest on the list. a quorum shall consist of two-thirds of
the whole number of Senators. a majority shall be necessary for a
choice. constitutional ineligibility for President
renders a person ineligible for VicePresident.
except for crime, shall exist in the United
Congress may enforce this article.
are citizens of the U. S. and of the State
immunities of citizens.
property without due process of law. nor deny to any person the equal protec
tion of the law.
Sec. 2.-Representatives shall be apportioned accord
ing to the whole number of persons in each
male citizens over twenty-one, the
duced accordingly. except for participation in the rebellion
or for other crimes. Sec. 3.-Persons engaged in insurrection or rebellion
having previously taken the oath to sup-
each house remove the disability. Sec. 4.-The validity of the public debt of the U. S.,
authorized by law, shall not be questioned. debts or obligations incurred in aid of
rebellion are illegal and void. claims for loss or emancipation of any
slave are illegal and void. Sec. 5.-Congress shall have power to enforce these
ARTICLE XV. Sec. 1.-The right of citizens to vote shall not be de
nied or abridged on account of race, color,
or previous condition of servitude. Sec. 2.-Congress shall have power to enforce this
WE THE PEOPLE of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this ConSTITUTION for the United States of America.
ARTICLE I. SECTION. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
SECTION. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
2No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
3[Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumera
] tion shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.