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descriptions of a few extralimital forms,” “Descriptions of New Insufficiency of Facts to establish a Scientific Law," character. American Phalænidæ,” “Notes on North American Moths of ised by considerable acuteness and knowledge. A paper read the Families Phalanidze and Pyralidæ in the British Museum,” before this Society by Dr. Ricketts, F.G.S., on “Fissures, On the Cave Fauna of Indiana,” and “Record of American Faults, Contortions, and Slaty Cleavage,” has been printed in a Entomology for 1872."

separate form. The Dundee Advertiser is a daily paper of wide circulation and The Annual Report for 1872 of the Birmingham Natural His. of considerable influence in the north, and is, therefore, we tory and Microscopical Society, is on the whole very satisfactory. presume, able to keep a competent “London Correspondent." | Prefixed to the Report is a very able and extremely interesting That gentleman, however, in writing in a recent number of the address by the retiring President, the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Advertiser about Mr. Prestwich's paper on tunnelling the Chan- F.G.S., on some of the general principles on which geology as nel, is made to make the extraordinary statement that "in order a science depends. Some of his illustrations are very forci-le to get under the chalk to the Palaogovic rocks the Company and ingenious. would have to go to a depth of ten miles on either side !” We had recently occasion to point out that science is at a discount in

The Mining Commission, consisting of Savot Buy and Osm un Dundee.

Bey, sent into the district of Lom, in the Danubian viceroyalty

of Turkey in Europe, has been compelled, on account of the The Berdeaux district branch of the French Association for winter, to bring its labours to a close. It has, however, dis. the Promotion of Science has resolved to hold its meetings weekly covered two good coal mines, one ten and the other twenty miles on Mondays.

from Lom. There are other mines of iron, copper, and bitumen. GOVERNMENT has sanctioned the appointment of a Professor On November 26, at ui P.M., a smart shock of earthquake of Physical Science at the Madras Presidency College, on a was felt at Prevesa, in European Turkey. Though reported to salary of 500 rs., rising to 700 rs. per month.

have been violcnt, the shock only lasted a few seconds and did The New York papers have lately contained quite a number

no damage. The earthquake of November 10, in Anatolia, of articles urging the propriety of establishing an Aquarium in

extended to Ak Hissar, where it did some damage, and also in

the village of Suleimanieh. On October 11, there was a slight Central Park, on the same scale as that at Brighton.

shock at Lima, in Peru. We learn from La Revue Scientifique that two specimens of the

The following statistics relating to Swedish Universities are Ibis, a bird found only in Egypt and at the mouths of the

from the Medical Record :-In the University of Upsala there Danube, were recently shot by a hunter in the department of the

are 52 ordinary and 2 extraordinary professors, 24 ordinary and Somme.

2 extraordinary assistant professors, and other teachers, making We can only briefly refer to the following new books and new

a total of 109 persons engaged in instruction. The number of editions : -" Where there's a Will there's a Way ; or, Science | pupils is 1,607, of whom 172 belong to the faculty of medicine. in the Cottage” (Hardwicke), is the title of a little volume | The University of Lund has 64 teachers, including 28 ordinary by Mr. James Cash, containing an interesting collection of and I extraordinary professor, and 28 ordinary assistant-prolives of persons in humble life who have to some purpose pursued sessors. There are 545 students, of whom 33 are medical. the study of science, especially of Natural History.-"Mountain,

The Journal of the Society of Arts informs us that from a Meadow, and Mere, a series of Outdoor Sketches of Sport

recent report to the Congress by the Inspector general of Public Scenery, Adventures, and Natural History,” by Mr. G. C. Davies

Instruction in Chili, some idea of the educational condition of (Henry S. King & Co.), is a series of articles which originally

that republic may be formed. There are 1, 190 schools in Chili, appeared in the field and some magazines. The sketches are

of which 726 are public and 464 private. It appears from the generally graphic and racy, and contain information that, we

latest census that the population of the towns is 520,668, being should think, would be valuable to sportsmen of various kinds,

at the rate of one school for every 1,769 inhabitants; and in with occasional observations on the natural history of the dis

the country, with a population of 1,298,560, there would be one tricts referred to by the author.--Mr. John Murray has just

school for every 3,020 inhabitants. In 1872 these schools were published third editions of Mr. H. W. Bates' “Naturalist on the

attended by 82,162 children and young persons of both sexes, River Amazons,” and Mr. J. G. Bertram's interesting work, “The

and the amount expended by the Government for education purHarvest of the Sea, including Sketches of Fisheries and Fisher

poses amounted to 414,127 piastres. The number of teachers in Folk.” The latter work, which has been the means of doing

the primary schools was 1,544, of which 896 were male and 657 good service to our fisheries, has been revised, and a considerable

female teachers. amount of new matter added.

ACCORDING to the “Reports of the Mining Surveyors and A Times telegram dated Rome, Dec. 20, states that Colonel

Registrars,” the yield of gold in the colony of Victoria for the Gordon, who has accepted from the Khédive the leadership of a

quarter ending June 30, was :- from Alluviums 123,643 oz. scientific expedition into Upper Egypt, is furnished by his High

6 dwt. ; from quartz reefs, 159,604 oz. 17 dwt; total 283,248 ness with a credit of 100,000).

oz. 3 dwt. We are glad to hear that a Section for Microscopical Invez. | We have received No. 3 of Albert Müller's Contributions to tigation has been formed in connection with the Leeds Natu Entomological Bibliography,” up to 1862. ralists' Field Club and Scientific Association, one of the most efficient of local scientific societies. An excellent microscope The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the has been purchased by liberal subscriptions among the members. last week include an Alpaca (Lama pacos) from Peru, and a

Pileated Parraket (Platycerus pileatus) from Australia, pure We have received the Report of the 16th Session, 1872-3, of chased ; a Violaceous Plaintain-cutter (Musophagi vizlacea) from the Birkenhead Literary and Scientific Society, which numbers West Africa, received in exchange; a Puma (Felis concolor) from 134 members. The Report, among other papers, contains an America, and two Tuberculated Iguanas (Iguana tuberculata) address by the President, the Rev. G. II. Hopkins, on “the from the West Indies, deposited.

SCIENTIFIC SERIALS

Verhandlungen der k. k. geologischen Reichsanstalt. Nos. I

to 6. (1873.) Amongst many other papers of interest contained The Journal of the Franklin Institute, November 1873.-In / in these numbers of the Proceedings we note the following: this number Mr. Richards, mechanical engineer, communicates On the occurrence of a new genus and new species of palm seedthe first part of a treatise on “The Principles of Shop Manipu- | vessel (Lepidocaryopsis Westphaleni) in the cretaceous sandstone lation for Engineering Apprentices;" the points dealt with being | of Kaunitz in Bohemia, by D. Stur.-Notices of the earthquake these : plans of studying (and here he advocates the order, first, at Vienna on the 3rd January, by Dr. G. Stache.-Hugo Rittler's machine functions, next, plans or adaptations of machines, | sketches of the rothliegende in the environs of Rossitz, by D. third, construction of machines), nature of mechanical engineer | Stur.-On the analogies of the three carboniferous resins, anthraing, engineering as a calling, and the conditions of apprentice. cox, middletonite, and tasmanite, and their probable origin, by ship.-Dr. Coolley, in a lecture-extract, shows how convection 0. Feistmantel.-On the geological position and distribution of may be usefully applied in detection of heat. He has an instru the silicified woods in Bohemia, by the same author.-The usual ment somewhat like a Coulomb electrometer; in a glass case, a literary notices and other matters accompany each part of the thin glass tube with black pith ball at one end is suspended hori- | Proceedings. zontally by a silk fibre over a graduated disc. A heated body is

Ocean Highways, December. This number commences with introduced near the ball, which immediately swings towards it ;

an appreciative memoir of the late Sir Robert Maclure. An arwhile a cold body will repel the ball; these effects being due to

ticle entitled “ The Straits of Magellan" contains some very air currents. The experiments Dr. Coolley makes, show that this forms a very sensitive thermoscope.-An account is furnished

interesting information concerning the little known region in that of the Cleveland Waterworks Tungel, just completed, and which

quarter of the world, and what has been done recently for the

settlement of the mainland.coast of the straits. The paper is similar to the one at Chicago. The shore section and lake

recommends to emigrants Sandy Point, the Chilian settlement section were carried on simultaneously, 40 ft. to 70 ft. below the

at which most of the steamers touch on their way to and from bottom of the lake; the starting points being a mile and a quarter

the West Coast, and which “is admirably situated on Brunswick apart. The work was somewhat disturbed by quicksands, but

Peninsula, nearly on the line of demarcation between the dense the sections met on an exact level. The capacity of the tunnel

forests which cover the whole western end of the Straits, and is 60 to 70 million gallons daily ; though the average daily con

the naked, rolling Pampas, which spread uninterruptedly northsumption is at present only about 6 million gallons.-A new

ward to the very shores of the river Plate.”—H. H. Giglio sends process is described for utilising coal waste. The inventor uses,

a letter, with some remarks from Dr. Beccari, on the latter's as a cement, only yellow clay with some milk of lime, but no

Exploration of Papuasia. Three small maps of parts of New bituminous or resinous matter ; merely waterproofing the surface

Guinea illustrate the discoveries of Beccari, D'Albertis, Moresby, with a solution of rosin. From first to last no handling is

Cerruti, and Meyer. required ; and the lumps are delivered, in shape and size like hen's eggs. The process is highly commended.-We find notes on American machinery abroad, friction of screw propellers in water, &c., and, among other novelties of construction described,

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES a planing bar, a compound beam engine, an antifriction journal,

LONDON an irrigating machine, and a new optical toy (Prof. Dolbear).

Royal Society, Dec. 11.-“On the Action of Heat on Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. Band 169, Hest 1, 1. 2. | Gravitating Masses,” by William Crookes, F.R.S. - We notice that in this number Liebig's name disappears from The experiments recorded in this paper have arisen from obthe list of editors, and the title is changed to Justus Liebig's An. servations made when using the vacuum-balance, described by nalen der Chemie und Fharmacie. The following papers are pub- the author in his paper “On the Atomic Weight of Thallium,"* lished :- I lubner and Post an the constitution of bromtoluol in for weighing substances which were of a higher temperature than relation to its hydrogen atoms. The authors give a collection of the surrounding air and the weights. There appeared to be a minor papers by various authors, dealing with the substitution diminution of the force of gravitation, and experiments were inof different hydrogen atoms in the formula by various radicles. stituted to render the action more sensible, and to eliminate

finds that a mixture of sulphate or carbonate of sodium with slaked lime can be employed instead of the soda-lime usually used in Varrentrapp's and Will's processes. The mixture, when heated, of course, yields sodic hydrate and sulphate or carbonate of calcium. Experiments made with such mixtures are de. scribed. ---On the nitro derivatives of naphthalin, by F. Beilstein and A. Kuhlberg. The mono., di-, and tri-nitro compounds are described.-On atacamite, by E. Ludwig. The author proposes some alteration in the ideas of the constitution of this mineral advocated by Rammelsberg and others, his suggestions being based upon the way in which the substance gives up its water at different temperatures ; he also makes some suggestions as to formula of brochantite. On the action of sulphocarbonyl chloride on amidogen compounds, by B. Rathke and P. Schäfer. Note on a polyacetone, by W. Heintz.-On the production of talanin by means of potassic cyanide, and on a by product of the reaction by W. Heintz. The author gives details of the preparation of alanin, the by product is lactyt-urea.-On the constitution of natural silicates, by Dr. K. Haushofer, is a lengthy paper dealing with the probable constitutional and graphic formulæ of these bodies.-On the polyolenes and on the change of ethylene

After discussing the explanations which may be given of these actions, and showing that they cannot be due to air-currents, the author refers to evidences of this repulsive action of heat, and attractive action of cold, in nature. In that portion of the sun's radiation which is called heat, we have the radial repulsive force possessing successive propagation required to explain the phenomena of comets and the shape and changes of the nebula. To compare small things with great (to argue from pieces of straw up to heavenly bodies), it is not improbable that the attraction now shown to exist between a cold and a warm body will equally prevail when, for the temperature of melting ice is substituted the cold of space, for a pith ball a celestial sphere, and for an artificial vacuum a stellar void. In the radiant molecular energy of cosmical masses may at last be found that “agent acting constantly according to certain laws," which Newton held to be the cause of gravity.

Dec. 18.-"On Double Refraction in a Viscous Fluid in motion,” by Prof. J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S.

According to Poisson's t theory of the internal friction of fluids, a viscous fluid behaves as an elastic solid would do if it

protein substances, by H. Hlasiwetz and J. Habermann.--On the compounds of the camphor group, by J. Kachler. The author describes pimelinic acid, C,1,204, and many of its salts. -On the isomers of amylene obtained from the amylic alcohol of fermentation, by F. Flavitzky.-On the synthesis of anthracene and dimethyl-anthracene, by W. A. van Dorp.-On corulignon and its derivatives, by C. Lieberman. The author regards cærulignon as a quinone.-On pentabrom resorcin and pentabromorcin, by C. Lieberman and A. Dittler.—The number concludes with an abstract from M. L. d'Henry's late paper in the Comples Rendus, on the use of the sodium flame for observing litmus tints in alkalimetry.

that at each fresh start it becomes for the moment like an elastic solid free from strain. The state of strain of certain transparent bodies may be investigated by means of their action on polarised light. This action was observed by Brewster, and was shown by Fresnel to be an instance of double refraction.

In 1866 I made some attempts to ascertain whether the state of strain in a viscous fluid in motion could be detected by its action on polarised light. I had a cylindrical box with a glass bottom. Within this box a solid cylinder could be made to rotate. The fluid to be examined was placed in the annular space

Phil. Trans. 1872. + Journal de l'E.cole Polytechnique, tome xiii. cah, xx (1829).

between this cylinder and the sides of the box. Polarised light the time from maximum to maximum, for the same hemisphere, was thrown up through the fluid parallel to the axis, and the being variable between 18 and 32 days, but having a mean inner cylinder was then made to rotate. I was unable to obtain value of about 25'2 days. any result with solution of gum or syrup of sugar, though I ob It occurs at once that if the variations of the mean terrestrial served an effect on polarised light when I compressed some magnetic force are connected in any way with the solar spots, or Canada balsam which had become very thick and almost solid in the causes which produce them, we might here find some explaa bottle.

nation of the magnetic period of 26 days, the difference of spot It is easy, however, to observe the effect in Canada baisam, | area in one hemisphere from that in the other being related to which is so fluid that it very rapidly assumes a level surface after a difference of the solar magnetic action. being disturbed. Put some Canada balsam in a wide-mouthed In order to determine whether such a connection existed, I square bottle ; let light, polarised in a vertical plane, be trans- projected first the curves of excess of spot-area given in the mitted through the fluid ; observe the light through a Nicol's paper of Messrs. De La Rue, Stewart, and Loewy, and below prism, and turn the prism so as to cut off the light ; insert a them the daily mean horizontal force of the earth's magnetism spatula into the Canada balsam in a vertical plane passing during the same periods. The conclusion from these projec. through the eye. Whenever the spatula is moved up or down tions is, that there is no relation whatever between the two classes in the fluid, the light reappears on both sides of the spatula ; of curves. The maxima and minima of the one agree in no ways this continues only so long as the spatula is in motion. As soon with those of the other ; the greatest excesses of sun-spot area as the motion stops, the light disappears, and that so quickly in the one hemisphere over those in the other occur when the that I have hitherto been unable to determine the rate of relaxa earth's magnetic force is the most constant; the greatest varia. tion of that state of strain which the light indicates.

tions of the earth's magnetic force from the mean occur in If the motion of the spatula in its own plane, instead of being several instances when the sun-spot area is equal in the two in the plane of polarisation, is inclined 45° to it, no effect is ob visible quarter-spheres. served, showing that the axes of strain are inclined 45° to the It should be remembered, in considering the curves of sun. plane of shearing, as indicated by the theory.

spot excess, that the minima and maxima are in some cases only I am not aware that this method of rendering visible the state relative; sometimes the one, sometimes the other being really of strain of a viscous fluid has been hitherto employed ; but it cases in which there is neither maximum nor minimum ; that is appears capable of furnishing important information as to the i to say, cases in which the sun-spot area is equal, or nearly so in nature of viscosity in different substances.

the two visible quarter-spheres. Among transparent solids there is considerable diversity in It would be hasty to conclude from this comparison that the their action on polarised light. If a small portion is cut from a variations of the mean magnetic force are really unconnected piece of unannealed glass at a place where the strain is uniform, with the mode of distribution of the sun-spots. Other methods the effect on polarised light vanishes as soon as the glass is re of grouping the spots may perhaps be employed with advantage lieved from the stress caused by the unequal contraction of the relatively to this and other questions, for example, were the parts surrounding it.

position of the centre of gravity of the sun-spots determined for * But if a plate of gelatine is allowed to dry under longitudinal the visible quarter-spheres and hemisphere, giving each spot a tension, a small piece cut out of it exhibits the same effect on spot-weight in proportion to its area, the variation of these light as it did before, showing that a state of strain can exist positions in latitude and longitude and their weights, might give without the action of stress. A film of gutta percha which has a more satisfactory base for this comparison and for other de. been stretched in one direction has a similar action on light. If ductions. a circular piece is cut out of such a stretched film and warmed, It will be obvious also that this investigation refers only to it contracts in the direction in which the stretching took place. I one visible hemisphere of the sun ; an approximation to the spot.

The body of a sea-nettle has all the appearance of a trans- distribution on the other hemisphere will, however, be frequently parent jelly, and at one time I thought that the spontaneous possible. contractions of the living animal might be rendered visible by

“On the Nervous System of Actinia," Part I., by Prof. P. means of polarised light transmitted through its body. But I

| Martin Duncan, F.R.S. found that even a very considerable pressure applied to the sides of the sea-nettle produced no effect on polarised light, and I

“On certain Discrepancies in the published numerical value thus sound, what I might have learned by dissection, that the of "," by William Shanks. sea-nettle is not a true jelly, but consists of cells filled with Mathematical Society, Dec. 11.-Prof. Cayley, F.R.S., fluid.

V.P., in the chair.-Prof. Clifford gave an account of his paper On the other hand, the crystalline lens of the eye, as Brewster on the graphic representation of the harmonic components of a observed, has a strong action on polarised light when strained, periodic motion. The paper was an application of a theorem of either by external pressure, or by the unequal contraction of its Fourier's, which asserts that any motion having the period P parts as it becomes dry.

may be decomposed into simple harmonic motions having I have enumerated these instances of the application of polar- periods P, ! P, | P, &c., and assigns the amplitudes and phases ised light to the study of the structure of solid bodies as 1 of these motions by means of definite integrals.-Prof. Cayley suggestions with respect to the application of the same method | next spoke on the subject of Steiner's surface. The author stated to liquids so as to determine whether a given liquid differs from that he had constructed a model and drawings of the symmetri. a solid in having a very small “rigidity,” or in having a small cal form of Steiner's surface, viz. that wherein the four singular “time of relaxation,”* or in both ways. Those which, like tangent planes form a regular tetrahedron, and consequently the Canada balsam, act strongly on polarised light, have probably a three nodal lines (being the lines joining the middle points of small “rigidity," but a sensible “time of relaxation." Those

opposite edges) a system of rectangular axes at the centre of the which do not show this action are probably much more “rigid,” tetrahedron. He then described the general form of the surface, and owe their fluidity to the smallness of their “time of relax. and finally discussed its analytical theory.-Lord Rayleigh, Mr.

Roberts, Prof. Clifford, and Prof. Cayley made further extempore “On the Period of Hemispherical Excess of Sun-spots, and

communications to the Society. the 26-day Period of Terrestrial Magnetism." By J. A. Broun, Linnean Society, Dec. 18.-G. Bentham, F.R.S., president, F.R.S.

in the chair. - Dr. Hooker exhibited a magnificent zoophyte from It appears from the interesting communication to the Royal Bermuda, sent by General Lefroy; also a six-lobed Seychelles Society, June 19, by Messrs. De La Rue, Stewart, and Loewy,+ cocoa-nut (Lodoicea Seychellarum) and two tazzas made froin the that the difference of the area of spots on the visible northern shell of a Seychelles cocoa-nut sent from the Seychelles by Mr. and southern quarter-spheres of the sun seems, during periods of

Swinburne Ward to the Kew Museum ; also some small boxes considerable solar disturbance, to obey a law such that the from Mauritius and Madagascar made from some grass-haulm ; difference is a maximum in the same quarter-sphere during and two walking-sticks from Bermuda made of the “cedarseveral successive rotations of the sun, the difference being a wood” of commerce (Funiderus bermudiana).- Mr. Bowring maximum alternately in the northern and southern hemispheres ; exhibited an inflorescence of an orchid with a remarkable smell,

probably a Bulbophyllum.The following papers were then * The "time of relaxation" of a substance strained in a given manner is read, viz. :-“Contributions to the Botany of the Challenger Exthe time required for the complete relaxation of the strain, supposing the rate of relaxation to remain the same as at the beginning of this time.

pedition," No. 2, by H. N. Moseley, M.Á. On the Vegetation of + Proc. Royal Soc. vol. xxi, p. 399.

| Bermuda and the surrounding sea. About 160 species of flower

ation."

ing plants were gathered on the island ; but of these, not more by W. T. Hudleston, F.G.S. The district occupied by beds than 100 were certainly native. Those of West-Indian origin | of Oolitic age in north-east Yorkshire, constitutes a mass of were probably brought, as Grisebach had suggested, by the Gulf elevated land divided into two very unequal lobes by a stream or by cyclones, there being no winds blowing directly triangular depressed area known as the Vale of Pickering, from the American coast which would be likely to carry seeds, towards which the beds incline. A diagonal of thirty-one which might, however, be conveyed from the Continent by mi miles, from N.E. to S.W., exhibits the Leds of the Moorland gratory birds. A note by Prof. Thiselton Dyer appended to the range resting on the Lias of Robin Hcod's Bay, whence they paper stated that 162 species sent over by Mr. Moseley had been incline towards the Vale of Pickering, newer beds being determined at the Kew Herbarium, of which 71 belong to the continually met with as far as the “Kimmeridge Clay” of the Old World, while 2, an Erythræa and a Spiranthes, were plants vale. Crossing this vale towards the Howardian Hills, the hitherto known as confined to single localities in the United previous beds or their equivalents are repeated in inverse order, States. — “ Changes in the Vegetation of South Africa, until the Lias of the Vale of Work is reached. Dealing with caused by the introduction of the Merino Sheep," by Dr. the Lower Oolites only, the group is essentially arenaceous. Shaw. The original vegetation of the colony is being in many At the eastern termination of the moorland range (coast section) places destroyed or rapidly deteriorated by over-stocking and by these beds have a thickness of 700 ft., mostly sands and shales, the accidental introduction of various weeds. Among the most nearly devoid of marine mollusca, but rich in plant remains. important of the latter is the Xanthium spinosum, intro There are, however, four distinct zones of marine life (well duced from Europe, the achenes of which cling to the pointed out by Dr. Wright in 1859) which may be made out on wool with such tenacity that it is almost impossible to detach the coast and identified in the transverse valleys of the moorthem, and render it almost unsaleable. It spreads with such land range. (1) The Dogger and its associated Land-rock, rapidity that in some parts legislative enactments have been magnificently developed at Blue Wyke a sandy oolite, altered passed for its extirpation; and where this is not done, it almost into an iron-stone, calcic carbonate being replaced by ferrous usurps the place of the more useful vegetation. The president carbonate in the case of the shells, the original material being now stated that the Xanthium has in the same manner deteriorated replaced by siderite, very unequally developed, sometimes resting the pastures in Queensland ; whilst in the south of Europe, where on 40 ft. of “striatulus beds," sometimes directly on the Upper it is equally abundant, it does not appear to cause such injurious Lias. (2) “The Millepore Bed.” At the point of their results. Though generally distributed through Europe, the plant maximum development 300 ft. of sands and shales intervene is probably of Chilian origin. -- Extract from a letter from Osbert between the Dogger and this bed, which, north of Scarborough, Salvin, F.R.S., to Dr. Hooker, dated Guatemala, Oct. 6. Mr. is usually an arenaceous ironstone, but a few miles south of that Salvin is engaged in collecting plants on the slopes of the Volcan town becomes the most important calcareous member of the de Fuego, 5,000 ft. in elevation, and within an easy ride of a Lower Oolites. (3) 100 ft. of sands succeed and then we have volcano 13,000 ft. above the level of the sea. He hopes to secure the “Scarborough Limestone " series, consisting of grey marly all the plants between the elevations of 3,500 and 8, 500 ft. Many limestones alternating with marly shales and varying in thickof the species appear to have a vertical range of as much as from ( ness from 50 ft. at Mundall to 31t. at Gristhorp (distance 2,000 to 3,000 ft.

9 miles). Above the Scarborough Limestone series occurs Meteorological Society, Dec. 19.-Dr. R. J. Mann, pre. | 160 feet of shales and sandstones ; some of these beds exsident, in the chair. --The following papers were read :--"On an

hibit casts of myaciform shells. (4) The fourth fossili erous zone improved form of aneroid for determining heights with a means

is usually referred to the cornbrash. Vore complete marine of adjusting the altitude scale for various temperatures,” by

conditions are apparent. Brachiopoda are abundant. AmmoMr. Rogers Field. In this aneroid the scale is adjustable | nites Herveyi plentiful in this bed, which yielded a fine suite o for different temperatures. The principle of the adjust

fossils. It forms the last of the Lower Oolites. In the inland ment depends on the fact that when the scale is shifted it be- ||

chain south-west of the Vale of Pickering, the Lower Oolites are comes inaccurate for the temperature for which it was laid down, much attenuated, amounting to no more than 150 feet in the and therefore practically accurate for some other temperature, so

Derwent Valley, The types, too, are much altered. that the scale has only to be shifted into certain different fixed Chemical Society, Dec. 18.--Dr. Odling, F.R.S., presipositions to obtain a series of different scales suitable for different dent, in the chair. -A paper on the preparation of standard trial iemperatures of the air.—“On the North Atlantic hurricane of plates to be used in verilying the composition of the coinage was August 20 to 24, 1873, which did much damage at Halifax, read by the author, Mr. W. C. Roberts, Chemist of the Royal Nova Scotia, and elsewhere," by Capt. H. Toynbee, F.R.A.S. | Mint. After giving a sketch of the variation in composition of The author alluded to various data which had come into the the English gold and silver coins from the earliest times, he Meteorological Office respecting this gale, especially to a noticed the various trial plates which had been prepared since chart of its track, and important remarks from Mr. J. 1660, showing that they sometimes varied considerably from the R. H. Macfarlane, R.N., Naval Sub-Lieut. H.M.S. Plover. standard of 916.66 parts in 1,000 for the gold and 925 'o for the This data proved that it was a hurricane, and its route silver. He then proceeded to describe the process employed was traced from a position to the south-east of Bermuda to and the difficulties to be overcome in the preparation of the new Halifax, showing its probable track for four days. The author standard trial plates. These were exhibited at the meeting, and then went on to say that if the circular theory for hurricanes also a magnificent specimen of pure crystallised gold.-Rewere correct, little more could be done, though it would be searches on the action of the couple on organic bodies, Part iv., very interesting to trace so hard a gale from its formation to its on iodide of allyl, by Dr. G. H. Gladstone and Mr. A. Tribe, breaking up. But he said if Mr. Meldrum's “Notes on the form being a continuation of their investigations on this subject. - On of Cyclones in the Southern Indian Ocean”* were correct, then tetranickelous phosphide, by Dr. R. Schenck.—On ferrous anit was incumbent on the meteorologists of the northern hemi hydrosulphate, by Mr. T. Bolas. The compound, which is crys. sphere to institute a similar inquiry, as the form of cyclones in talline, is precipitated on mixing an aqueous solution of green the southern hemisphere worked out from facts by Mr. Meldrum, vitriol with about nine times its volume of concentrated sulphuric made it necessary to modify the rules in use amongst seamen for acid.-On the hydrochloride of narceine, by Dr. C.R. A. avoiding their centres. An enlarged copy of Meldrum's dia Wright. gram (reversed to adapt it to the northern hemisphere) was ex Royal Horticultural Sociey, Dec. 3.--Scientific Comhibited. The paper concluded with a suggestion that the mittee. -A. Smee, F.R.S., in the chair.-Dr. Masters, F.R.S., August gale of 1873 would afford the means for inquiry into the

exhibited part of a poplar (sent by Mr. G. T. Saul), which, shape of the northern hemisphere cyclones, and that data for

while apparently healthy, had during the past summer, within that month should be collected from all parts of the North At

twenty-four hours, shed the whole of its leaves and never recolantic, and worked up into daily synoptic charts, which sugges vered. The Rev. M. J. Berkeley pointed out that the specimen tion the author hoped would be carried out either by America or

was visibly attacked by fungus mycelium. No doubt, the tree England. - On a mercurial barometer for the use of travellers, had long been diseased unsuspected ; the healthy bark would filled by the spiral-cord method, by Staff-Commander C. George,

probably be reduced to a narrow strip, and when this failed the R.N.

tree would die apparently quite suddenly.- Prof. Thiselton Dyer Geologists' Association, Dec. 5.-Henry Woodward, exhibited a drawing of a luminous Didymium from St. Kitt's.F.R.S., president, in the chair.—“On the Yorkshire Oolites,” Mr, McLachlan, F.L.S., inquired as to the possibility of intro.

ducing humble-bees into New Zealand ; the red clover, which * Mr. Meldrum's paper has been published as “Non-official, No.7" by the Committee of the Royal Society who manage the Meteorológical Office. I had also been introduced, was not fertilised for the want of them

The chairman thought there could be no difficulty about it; the other considerations, the deposit in which the specimen was Rev. Mr. Cotton had taken bees out to New Zealand by keeping found, had been regarded as of pre-glacial age. them at a low temperature, and consequently in a dormant con | The London Anthropological Society, Dec. 2.--Dr. R. dition, by means of ice.--Mr. McLachlan further wished the s. Charnock, president, in the chair. --Causes which determine opinion of the committee with respect to another New Zealand

the Rise and Fall of Nations, by T. Inman, M.D. The paper eminquiry by Captain Hutton ; Aphides were now becoming very braced the whole historical range. --Western Anthropologists and common in New Zealand, but were probably not indigenous. Extra Western Communities, by I. Kaines, D.Sc. The paper Could the golden-winged fly (Chrysopa) be advantageously in shows what should be the moral attitude of the more civilised to troduced to check them. The chairman thought that it would

the less civilised--what the latter has to teach the former-and be far better to send out dormant lady-birds (Coccinella). Mr.

the evils of western contact with the backward races. Wilson, F.R.S., pointed out the necessity of caution in these

Photographic Society, Dec. 9.-J. Spiller, F.C.S., V.P., in introductions ; sparrows and hares were far from a boon in

the chair. ---On photo-collotype printing, by Capt. J. Waterhouse. Australia.-Prof. Thiselton Dyer read a letter from Mr. Scott,

| The author recommended the use of citric acid as a clearing F.R.S., Director of the Meteorological Office, with respect to a

| agent. - Lieut. Chermside, R. E., read a paper on photography in change in the climate of Scotland recently insisted on by Mr.

the Arctic Regions. Mr. Chermside accompanied Mr. Leigh Smith McNab. He stated that it was an opinion too general to be

in his Arctic expedition last summer. The temperature at which lightly disregarded that our winters are warmer and summers

pictures were actually taken was rarely less than 32° Fahr., but cooler, on an average, than in the last century, but did not know

much difficulty was experienced in maintaining the solutions in where to find records which could be quoted with confidence in a

proper order during excessive cold. The author gave some pracdiscussion of the question. — Dr. Voelcker, F.R.S., mentioned

tical advice on the subject of overcoming actual difficulties inhethat there was no doubt that it was quite possible to make wine

rent to photographic manipulations in high latitudes, from grapes ripened in this country ; the often-repeated argument that our summers must be cooler because wine was not

Paris now made was manisestiy fallacious.-Mr. A. W. Bennett, Academy of Sciences, Dec. 15.-M. de Quatrefages, F.L.S., communicated a paper on pollen-eating flies of the group | president, in the chair.--The following papers were read :-On Syrphida. – Mr. Baker, F.L.S., sent capsules of Lilium auratum

the laws 'of the magnetisation of steel by currents, by M. and L. speciosum.

Jamin.--An answer to a note read by M. Trécul at the meeting Anthropological Institute, Dec. 9. -Mr. F. G. H. Price,

of the Dec. 8, by M. Pasteur. This was a reply to M. Trécul's F.G.S., in the chair. -Mr. J. Park Harrison gave a detailed

criticism on the author's note on beer and displayed considerable description of two incised tablets, from Easter Island in the

acrimony, M. Pasteur of course sustained his well-known views South Pacific, discovered by the French missionaries in one of

of the nature of ferments. --M. Berthelot presented some new

remarks on the nature of the chemical elements, which however the stone houses supposed to be formerly occupied by the

could not be read on account of want of time. The author, it chiess. The signs appeared to be principally iconographic and to represent forms of life and incidents connected with islands

may be stated, admits the possibility of the elements being modifi

cations of a fundamental substance, and stated that nothing several thousand miles to the west.-Prof. T. McK. Hughes

renders it improbable that a discovery like that of the voltaic described the results of his exploration of the rock-shelter

current might not give us power to still further simplify matter, known as Cave Ha, near Giggleswick, Settle, Yorkshire. In

His paper concluded thus :- We shall only be too happy if Mr. the upper deposits flakes and scrapers of chert and flint and other ancient remains in stone and iron were mixed up with

Lockyer, guided by stellar spectral analysis, can shed a new light the most recent works of art by the operations of badgers, rab

upon these questions, and continue to investigate problems raised bits, &c. In these beds the bones were found by Prof. Busk to

now forty years ago by M. Dumas in a work (Leçons de Philo. be all of recent species, still, or till quite lately, common in

sophie Chimique) which has contributed so much to our scientific

education.-Researches on new butyl derivatives by M. A. . the district. In the older deposits, which were composed

Cahours. The author dealt with the aluminium silicon tin and chieily of angular fragments of limestone, and, therefore, were

mercury compounds of butyl.-On the propagation of the not disturbed by burrowing animals, the remains of bear occurred associated with ox, goat or sheep, and dog ; but as yet

Phylloxera, by M. H. Marès.—Report on Mr. Douglas Galton's

paper “On the Construction of Hospitals,” by M. Larrey, and no traces of men. A point to which the author called special

General Morin:-Valuation in mechanical units of the quantity attention was the explanation found here of the occurrence in many ossiferous caves of such immense quantities of the bones

of electricity produced by an element in a battery, by M.

Branly.-Hybernation of the Phylloxera on the branches and of mice. The floor was in places strewn with broken up pellets of owls with here and there a few retaining their form, which,

leaves of the vine, by M. Max. Cornu.-Action of the volcanic when the hair had decomposed away would exactly correspond

earth of the solfatara of Pouzzoles on the diseases of the vine, by to the layers and little bunches of the bones of mice in the

M. S. De Luca.--On certain morphological changes observed in underlying beds. --Prof. Hughes also read a joint paper by him

the genus Cypripedium, by M. R. Guérin. self and Rev. D. R. Thomas, “ On the occurrence of Felstone implements, of the Le Moustier type, in Pontnewydd Cave

BOOKS RECEIVED near St. Asaph, North Wales,” After explaining by reference

AMERICAN.- Catalogue oi Stars observed in the United States Observato sections, the position of the cave and of the deposits in it, the tory, 1845-71: Rear-Admiral Sands (Washington).-Daily Bulletin of Weather authors describei a series of implements of felstone as similar to Reports for September 1872: War Department (Washington). -Annual Record

of Science and Industry: Dr. Spencer F. Baird (Harper, New York). the common forms of Le Moustier as would be expected, allow.

Elements of Logarithms: Pierce (Ginn Bros.). ing for the difference of material. They exhibited also a collec FOREIGN.-Annalen der Sternwarte in Leiden : Dr. F. Kaiser (Niikoff). tion of bones from the same deposit which were referred by -Somario delle Lezioni di Fisica : Prof. Mombello (Foligno).-Zoologische Prof. Busk to Ursus spelæus, U. ferox, Hyæna spelæa, Rhi.

Studien auf Capri: Dr. Theodore Eimer (Engelmann, Leipzig). noceros hemistarchus, and others, including a human molar which Prof. Busk pointed out was remarkable for its large size. As

CONTENTS

PAGE the rock, of which the implements were manufactured, occurred QUATERNIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 in that river basin in the boulder clay only, as the implements

. . 138 seemed to have been made from fragments such as occur in

Our Book SHELF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

LETTERS TO THE Editor:the drift, and are found associated with remanié drift mixed

Proposed Alterations in the Medical Curriculum.-Prof. JOHN with tumble from the roof of the cave, the authors in

STRUTHERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 ferred that the deposit was post-glacial, while the forms

The Distribution of Volcanoes.-H. H. HOWORTH

Spectra of Shooting Stars.-A. S. HERSCHEL, F.R.A.S. . . . of the implements, and the animal remains found with

142

Meteor Shower.-J. E. CLARK . . . . . . . . . . . . them

143 would refer the beds to the earliest cave deposit THE LATE PROFESSOR DE LA Rive . . . i . . . . . . . . 143 in which human remains have been found.-A communi.

VIVISECTION. By G. H. LEWES and E.R. cation was made by Prof. Busk on a human fibula of unusual

The THIRTYTON STEAM HAMMER AT THE Royal ARSENAL, WOOL

WICH (With Illustration) . . formation discovered in Victoria Cave, Settle, Yorkshire.

145 The THE COMMON FROG, VII.' By St. George Mivart, F.R.s. (With fragment lay at a considerable depth in the cave and beneath a Nlustrations). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 thick layer of Boulder Clay, and was associated with bones of the

SOUNDINGS IN THE NORTH PACIFIC . . two large species of cave Bear, Ilyana, Rhinoceros tichorhinus,

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 153 Bison and Cervus. From its position, accompaniments, and Books R CEIVED ................... 156

MARKHAM'S "UNKNOWN REGION . . . . . . . .

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THE NORTH PACIFIC
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