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double injustice of a reduction of the lash applied to the back, the same end wages of labor, which is, to the laborer, is substantially obtained by founding a reduction of life.
dominion upon the incessant and unAnother law of wages is, that "they controllable activity of the gastric juice. are regulated in a great measure by the The subject might be further illusintelligence, education, good conduct, trated by reference to the inequality of and independent condition of the labor- the wages of different occupations, to er.” This rule is the foundation of the difference between productive and the difference between the wages of unproductive industry, manual toil and learned and unlearned labor, the labor labor of mere oversight and inspection, of him who works with his head and him between employments more or less sinewho works with his hands-between cure, and those demanding constant acheadcrafts and handicrafts. In defence tivity; in all of which labor is abridged of this difference, it is said that the of its rights, and the rule of compensalearned laborer is entitled to a higher tion is nearly in an inverse ratio to the compensation for his labor than the amount and productiveness of the work handicraftsman, because he has invest- done. In no occupation, in no worked a large capital in acquiring the learn- shop, or corn-field, or factory, is it he ing and skill necessary for the fit dis- who is hired and receives wages, that charge of his professional functions. grows rich; but he who hires, and is But their education is itself an advantage paid no wages. Capital and the overwhich, in most cases, they receive from sight of capital, instead of receiving only the favor of society; and one to which its just share, engrosses the largest part the unlearned laborer is equally entitled, of the profits of all business; and that of which he is deprived, in most cases, capital not in the hands of him who has without his own fault. According to created it by his labor, but of him who this rule, the one is entitled to a reward has been able to purchase and specufor possessing an advantage over an- late on the labor of others. The sailor other, who, in turn, is subjected to a exiles himself from home, wanders disability which he has not imposed through all the solitudes of ocean, exupon himself, which society has im- poses his life to tempests and tornadoes, posed upon him. In another view : and all the dangers of the deep and education is its own reward. Intellect, contrasts of the seasons, that he may as its culture is the highest glory of bring wealth from every clime to pour man, gives constant and increasing into the full coffers of his owners; and compensation for its exercise in the ex- of all the wealth which his labor and ercise itself. According to the law of peril produce, he receives, perhaps, nature, superior gifts and advantages twelve dollars a month. The operative are to be regarded chiefly as means of workman, for toiling twelve or fifteen larger service to mankind. It is a per- hours a day, receives from three to-in version of their design to make them the the very fortunate occupations—ten dolgrounds of larger demands upon those lars a week. The capitalist who emfor whose service they were conferred. ploys him, counts his wealth by thouThis is to make the professions and sands, and looks down with curled lip liberal arts sordid, instead of liberal; upon the brother whose property he is to convert the God into Mammon. The appropriating to himself. The profesnatural law of justice would seem to sional man, the corporation officer and give the unlearned laborer the greater manager, the counting-house proprietor, compensation for his work, as a sort of spurn with scorn that compensation for reparation for the manifold incum- their labor which they do not blush to brances and necessary social degrada- offer, and even higgle about with the tion which lie upon and overbear him. workman, whose only wealth is in his
But the last condition of the rule I muscles. The farmer's son has ambiam considering, breathes the very spi- tious visions of a higher destiny than rit of feudalism—“the independent his father's; he turns his back upon the condition of the laborer.” This places degrading plough, and seeks it behind a the matter upon the naked ground of counter or beneath a learned gown. If, force, and makes the law of compensa- in some of the reverses of fortune, which tion the degree in which manhood is society boasts of as one of the compenlimited and fettered by animal neces- sations of all injustice, the capitalist is sities. Instead of ruling man by the compelled to earn an honest subsistence in what he once deemed a menial occu- for a few, by modes which it is made a pation; society deplores his sad lot, and crime for others to pursue ; giving to reads edifying homilies upon the vanity corporations and money-making associof wealth,-forgotten the moment after ations unusual facilities for accumulatin the unrelaxed pursuit of the vanity. ing and concentrating wealth ; and in In this development of social equality, various other modes, making labor more as expressed in the relation of labor and and more dependent on capital. The wages, the first answer is found to the circle of injustice to man, the laborer, is inquiry, “ Why have I none ?” Wages completed by making property, thus acare undoubtedly a step in advance of the quired, hereditary, placing it at the abcondition of enforced unpaid labor; but solute disposal of its possessor after his only an advance-not an end. They bones have mouldered in the grave, imply substantially, only a little more and securing it to his heirs, if he should decisively than servitude, a denial of chance to die and make no sign. manhood and its rights. They attach A society thus organized is, of necesto the laborer, in the sentiment of so- sity, a state of selfish competition for ciety, reflected and responded to in his material interests, with little thought of own heart, the same idea as servitude of generous and enlarged co-operation in inferiority and social degradation. If the pursuit even of these. Man is not they were to be the ultimate condition looked upon as a brother and a helper, of the laborer, it might well be inquired but as a rival and an enemy in interests. whether he had made a fortunate escape Occupations and employments are hosfrom serfdom, and might not find repose, tile, circumventive, watchful for private and a serener lot, even in slavery. advantage, forgetful of the great law of
Another consideration must not be justice and love, seeking to profit by the omitted. Wages are the laborer's only ignorance and inexperience of others. resource for subsistence. His right to The law of war, "all stratagems are labor cannot be denied without abridg. just,” is the rule of business ; the legal ing his right of life. Yet society gives maxim, careal emptor, is the authentic no guaranty of this. The right to labor scripture of trade. The acquisition of depends upon the will of others. The wealth is the chief good, and avarice the opportunity of earning wages is uncer- predominating passion of society. The tain and contingent, depending upon great strife is Capital against Labor, in the uncertainties and contingencies of which the latter is, for the most part, trade, the state of the markets, the passive, and the necessities and imperaprosperity or failure of speculation ;- tive wants and holiest affections of man and worse, upon the arbitrary and ty- are the fund upon which cupidity and rannical caprice of those who hold in cunning speculate. A show of political their hands the laborer's bread of life, unity and equality may be maintained, who have the power to punish the ut- but social unity and equality are imposterance of a free opinion, an honest as- sible. Society is a system of cliques, sertion of manhood, by withholding, or parties, professions, trades, with differtaking away from him occupation, his ent and rival interests in most respects, only resource for existence.
and none united by any common bond Such is society's protection to proper- of private interest. Industry is solitaty. A great part of its legislation, and ry, selfish, antagonistic. Man is placed even the “perfection of reason,” its in the isolation, without the freedom common law, is founded on, and aims and independence, of the savage. at the security of these falsehoods. As Poverty is a necessary incident of the system originated in force and fraud, such a social organization,--not as the in the power of the strong and the result of casnalty or crime, but directly subtleties of the cunning, so it can be and inevitably of the institutions of somaintained only by force, and by de- ciety. Poverty is the inevitable lot of ceiving the masses as to the nature and multitudes,—of multitudes, which the extent of their rights. Hence, all our clearly induced necessity of things and statute books bristle with laws recogniz- constant experience testily, must be ening property as of more worth than larging in every generation,-of mulman; making the want of it more or titudes, who, for no fault of their own or less a civil disqualification, and the their fathers in the third or fourth genpossession of it a condition of political eration, have no inheritance but poverty rights; creating wealth by special favor and toil, and before whose earliest path physical and spiritual obstructions lie are made kings, and fed with the yawning, like bottomless abysses, on choicest of the hive, instead of being every side. Poverty, in itself, is by no driven off into the outer spaces. The means the greatest of evils. So far as great strife of society is to escape from it consists in the mere deprivation of the allotted duty of labor with the physical comforts, it is not always an hands. The demand for this kind of evil. To the soul which has learned labor continually increases with the and feels its freedom and power, it is advancement of society in refinement scarcely at allan evil;--at the worst, of and arts. More elegant mansions are the lightest. The dry crust, eaten by to be built, more sumptuous furniture, the gushing fountain, is a full equiva- finer apparel, daintier food, richer equilent and compensation for all that luxu- pages, and an elaborate variety of costry lavishes upon its feasts,-as the lier elegancies and luxuries, to be proleathern vesture of George Fox was, in vided. All these create new demands the eye of the universe, more gorgeous upon labor, and at the same time exapparel than all royal robes. The mo- tend the desire to escape from it. ment a man acquires the self-conscious. Those who possess these refinements, ness of manhood, he is the master of are they who, by superior intelligence destiny. The environments of fortune or cunning, or the inheritance of are, in truth, mere accidents ;-with wealth froin those who thus acquired them, or without them, he is infinitely it, have escaped from the common lot rich, for the eternal treasures are his. of labor, yet who require a vastly inBut the development of this sentiment creased amount of the results of labor. is the fruit of a culture, to which the The demands of their household and condition of poverty presents constant private splendor must be borne by labor and increasing obstructions. In one —the labor of others, whose fruits they who is born in destitution, and must, in consume. Every luxury, possessed the most favorable circumstances, waste without having been earned, is a wrong the hopeful energies of youth, and the to somebody, is enjoyed at the expense strength of manhood, in ceaseless toil, of injustice to a man—of the debasement before he can redeem himself from the of a man. For excessive toil debases bondage of care for mere animal necessi- man; and excessive toil must be the ties, it will hardly be less than a miracle, lot of multitudes in a social organizaif this self-consciousness should be tion which takes wealth out of the awakened. Poverty, then, is an evil hands which create it, and gives it to only in the consequences it brings in its those who have no share in producing train; of which the worst and most bit-it. Labor, though necessary, honorable ter are the necessity of excessive toil, and a blessing to the soul and body, is and the ignorance which that involves. in its abuse a terrible punishment and
Labor is a dignity and a blessing. curse, fulfilling literally the awful imIt is an essential condition of man's precation, “Cursed is the ground for being, to be inferred, if from no surer thy sake.” It exhausts the body prepremises, from the fact that he has a maturely, blunts, dwarfs the intellect, stomach and a pair of hands. The makes it the mere slave of the hands, stomach can only be fed by the labor of and reduces the man to only a little the hands, and, as every man is fur- more intelligent machine than the nished with these organs in both kinds, plough or spinning-jenny, that is made every man is created to labor. It is up of wood and iron. The mind is every man's duty to feed his own mouth; enlarged only by exercise ; only those no man has a just claim npon another faculties grow which are kept active to do it for him. “If a man will not and cultivated. By the laws of the work, neither shall he eat,” is the rule mysterious union between the material in this behalf revealed by common and spiritual in man, each requires, for sense, as well as by the more imposing their just and harmonious development, inspiration. If any one violates this alternate seasons of action and repose. law, and eats without producing, or If either of these is denied to either, it more than he produces, the harmony of sufiers, and its growth is stinted. Exthings is disturbed, and somebody must cessive labor of the hands is, therefore, suffer. Under the present arrangement by no accidental sequence, a robbery of of all societies, the suffering does not the laborer's opportunities of moral and fall upon the transgressor. The drones intellectual culture. The toils of the day leave him at night weary and ex- applied to his boots, and will not polish hausted, incapable of anything but John's boots, and pocket John's sixsleep-sleep “that is broken by no pence, when the fit occasion offers, dream.” None but a heroic soul could James considers John's office servile. grow but feeble, stinted, dwarfish; nay, If John, knowing that to be James's though the oaks bore books instead of opinion, brushes his boots, and takes his acorns, and there were literally sermons sixpence, and hesitates to require the in stones. Even the flowers in his same service for the same compensapath utter no prophecy in his ears, and tion, because James thinks it servile, he cannot hear the eternal song of the John admits that James's opinion is stars.
right; John's office is servile, and Resulting from the necessity of un- John, as a man, is degraded. Or, if natural, excessive labor, and the intel- John, possessing equal skill in his busilectual obstructions it occasions, is the ness with James in his, receives a sixprevailing sentiment that labor in itself pence for a certain amount of timeis disgraceful, and a curse. That sen- excluding the cost of materials occutiment is seldom expressed in words, pied in James's service, and both parand is avoided with very special care ties are satisfied that the service is well by popular orators, when they appeal, remunerated, and James refuses to on the eve of an election, to the “intelli- receive a sixpence as an equivalent for gence of the hard-handed, huge-pawed the same amount of time bestowed in yeomanry.” It is, nevertheless, the Jolin's service, lie looks upon that emconcealed spring of much of the life ployment as dishonorable, and John, by and activity of society. What has pro- giving more as James's right, acknowduced here, in the free States, where the ledges that it is so.
The relation might laborer is acknowledged to be a man, be placed in various other lights. and the equal of all other men, the Now, essentially, no labor is menial, deathlike apathy concerning the exist- or dishonorable, which contributes tó ence of that institution of slavery which the rational enjoyment of man.
In itcrushes the body and soul of the laborer self, the employment of James is no under an iron yoke, but the secret worthier than that of John, if John's thought of the leaders of opinion, that also contributes to the comfort and imlabor is the natural badge of slavery, provement of social existence. It is that slavery and wages are but different not the work a man does, but only the modifications of the same natural and spirit in which he works, that makes it essential condition ? The sentiment is honorable or mean. Those reckoned uttered, though unspoken, by the eager the lowest offices of society, are readily crowds everywhere found, who seek to performed for the relief of suffering, or escape from the manual occupations at the demand of friendship, even by into the more respectable headcrafts; those who scorn them most as occupain all the distinctions which are made tions. Love ennobles the deed, and in legislation, custom, or social opinion, makes it heroic. In this view, John between the handicraftsman and others; the boot-black, or the poorest tinker, in the rules of wages in all their details; with his rude kit and coarse manipulain every condition, other than that of tions, may be greater in his work, if being a man, annexed to the possession we consider the reality and endurance of political rights or social communion; of things, than he whose voice chains in the deference paid to mere wealth, senates in attention, or hushes tumultuto the ability to live without occupation, ous crowds in reverent stillness. This which is, in other words, to live without man's work may perish with the dishaving fulfilled the first condition of persion of the crowd, while his is done life; in the idea that any honest labor for the eternal years, whose splendors can be menial in itself
, or one kind of illuminate and hallow it. In the prelabor more honorable than another, if it sent arrangement of the social state, is labor according to the worker's gifts, scarcely a chance for this heroic work and well and honorably done. If I ac- is permitted to the laborer. The dignicept a service from another, which I ty and respectability of the laborer are would not render him, my action aflirms measured, almost exclusively, by the that I consider his office menial and ability to pay, and the necessity of getdisgraceful. If James gives John a ting, the sixpence. Those employments sixpence for a coat of Day & Martin are reckoned the most worthy of the VOL XVI.-N0. LXXIX.
aspirations of young ambition, which rived from the equity and justice of its offer it the best prospect of being able organization,--the paternal characterto be the giver of the coin. James is of its administration. Its jurisdiction a gentleman, and John is a menial, be- is unjust and tyrannical, when not cause the one has a sixpence, by which grounded on the truth of the relations he can save himself from the dishonor it maintains with man. of brushing his own boots, and the The evil influences of this unnatural other has a stomach whose ever recur- state of things, are not confined to those ring hunger he can appease only by who outwardly seem to suffer most. getting the sixpence into his hands on The worst effects are not physical, but the required terms. Neither of them moral. The other extreme has its pestands upon the ground of his manhood. culiar forms of evil. The standard of The clear relation of brotherhood and virtue is not the standard of manhood. equality is forgotten on both sides. The Good and evil are not reckoned from intrinsic dignity of labor is implicitly the absolute, but from the expedient. denied ; a dishonorable service has been Decorums, proprieties, factitious fitdemanded and rendered ; and they stand nesses of position, rank, office, income, in an acknowledged relation of pre- take the place of the universal law of eminence and inferiority.
the good and true. Man is here no The worst effect of all this is the im- more a man than in the other extreme; pairing of the sentiment of manhood in but in his most favorable aspect, a those thus condemned to hopeless toil, wealthy man, a man of birth, an eduand regarded as degraded by their so- cated, official, or some other accidental cial position ; and of the self-respect man. Here, as there, hedged in and and reliance which are both the manic controlled by his circumstances, he is festation and security of that sentiment. little more than a bundle of accidents, The feeling of manhood, in its essence -superior advantages regarded not as and highest development, approaches, conferring the means of greater beneif it be not identical with, religious fit to the race, or the society, but as
Its perfect utterance is, personal distinctions, conferring a real
that ye are the temple of superiority, and just claims for larger God, and that the spirit of God dwells demands of reverence and service from in you ?" It is the foundation of per- mankind. Contempt for the supposed sonal virtue,-the only efficient restraint inferior is a characteristic of such a upon the lower appetites. So far as it society; and in a truthful view of is weakened or impaired, man's higher things, the want of reverence for hunature loses the dominion over him, manity in any of its manifestations, is and the animal rules. Man is no longer not a more venial crime, nor a less proa man, living in free obedience to his lific seed of evil, than the loss of the divine intuitions; but an animal, sub- sentiment of manhood itself. “ Whoject to the sway of his animal propen- soever shall say to his brother, “thou sities. Whose fault is it, then, that fool,' shall be in danger of hell-fire." men, thus fettered and borne down by Even the refinements and elegances unnatural limitations and denials, are which indicate the distinction of the faignorant, vicious, degraded, brutalized, vored classes, are a snare and a curse. slaves of sense and passion, and pos- Luxuries are not in themselves an evil; sessed in the depths of their souls by they are good and desirable. The an indignant feeling of injustice, issu- palace is a fitter residence for man, ing in hatred and defiance of society ? than the hovel. Within it he may have Smothered, but unextinguished, man- freer opportunities for large develophood thus unconsciously avenges itself ment. Surrounded by the elegances upon
the power that has crushed it ; of architecture and household embellishand the evil seeds, which its unnatural ments, he is in a situation much more institutions have sown in man's heart, favorable for self-culture, than if his are returned to society in poisonous senses are conversant only with unharvests. In vain does it build its couth and ungraceful forms. In a napenitentiaries and scaffolds. These are tural state of society, the burnished the crown and consummation of all mirror of the present day would be inother injustice, and only aggravate the trinsically a better and fitter appendage evils they profess to remedy. Society of the female toilet, than the nicely has no right to punish, but what is de- scoured pewter platter, before which
“ Know ye,