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may, in the interest excited by this dis- The fourth article, is by Prof. W. covery, serve the purposes of popular W. Turner, “on the discoveries of comparison.

Himyaritic inscriptions in Southern Mr. Schoolcraft then exhibits in a Arabia, and the attempts made to de table the several characters in the An- cypher them.” cient Greek, Etruscan, Runic, Ancient In order to put the reader at once in Gallic, Old Erse, Phænician, Old Bri- possession of all the facts necessary to tish and Celtiberic, which

a proper understanding of the subject, pond with the American characters, the writer commences with a brief showing that a majority is found in sketch of the history of the Himyarites, the Phænician, Old British and Cel- or ancient inhabitants of south-western tiberic. Mr. Rafn, in the paper re- Arabia, tracing them down from their serred to, inclines strongly in favor founder Himyar, sixth in descent from of the latter. “So striking,” he ob- Shem, to the year 527, A. D., whence serves, “is the similarity, that at first the country became a province of sight we are led to believe that we have Abyssinia. The meager nature of a Celtiberic inscription lying before us.” these annals, has long caused scholars He also points out some striking analo- to look with expectation to the inscripgy of form between this inscription and tions in the ancient character and lanthe Ancient Gallic; and also the Old guage, of which Arabian authors make Erse; but a still greater nnmber of co- frequent mention. Niebuhr visited incidences between it and the British Arabia in 962, and was followed by or Anglo Saxon Runes.

Seetzen, in 1810. Both these distinIn assigning the characters of this guished travellers made the inscriptions ancient tablet to one of the ancient al- a special object of research, but withphabets used on the Mediteranean out success. shores, Mr. Schoolcraft is supported by “At length the period arrived when the opinion of the Secretary of the these doubls were to be put at rest, by Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, the discoveries of the active and enterat Copenhagen. He says, "perhaps it prising Lieut. Wellsted, in the years may be conjectured, with the greatest 1834 and 1835. The occasion of these probability, that the inscription owes its discoveries, was as follows: in the year origin to tribes from the Pyrenean Pe- 1830, the British East India Company ninsula, who, in very remote ages, may despatched two of their vessels, the be supposed to have visited the trans-At- Benares and the Palinurus, to comlantic part of the world; or, to the in- plete the survey of the Red Sea, prehabitants of the British Isles, sojourning paratory to establishing a steam comin this remote country before the close munication between India and Europe. of the 10th century. Accordingly, this Towards the close of this arduous ser. may be considered as a result almost vice, while the expedition was engaged certain of the data before us; that this in exploring the southern coast of inscription is of European origin, and of Arabia, Lieut. J. R. Wellsted, of the a date anterior to the close of the 10th Palinurus, made, in company with soine century.”

of his brother officers, two excursions The various ornaments and objects of from different points of the coast into antiquarian interest discovered within the interior of the country, in search of the mound, are also noticed by Mr. ancient remains ; nor were their exerSchoolcraft, with engravings. The ruins tions unrewarded. They found about of an ancient stone tower and traces of 70 miles to the westward of Makalla, earth-works in the valleys of Grave in lat. 13° 59' 20" N. and long 48° 24' Creek and the Ohio river, also attract 30" E. from Greenwich, a steep rocky the attention of the author

, and are de- promontory, near 500 feet high, which bcribed at length. On the whole, this is joined to the main land by a low paper is an important contribution to sandy isthmus, and is called from its our stock of Aboriginal Antiquities, black appearance, Hisn Ghoráb, or Ra. particularly as it is written after a per- ven Castle. At the back of this hill, sonal and careful examination, by one lie the ruins of numerous houses, who has devoted more attention to the walls, and towers;' and from these a remains of the Aborigines, their man- path cut in the face of the cliff, in a ners and customs, than any one among zig-zag direction, leads to the ruins of a ble far out at sea. As they ascended these has been described, there next the rock, at about one third of its follows an elaborate dissertation on the height from the top, the party were re- Himyaritic alphabet. This is accompaid for their toil, by discovering some panied by a comparative table of Himinscriptions. They consisted of one of yaritic alphabets, taken from manuten lines (the longest which has yet scripts, and others from the inscriptions, been made known), and another of two, together with the ancient and modern cut in the smooth face of the cliff. An- forms of the Ethiopic alphabet. His other, consisting of a few words, was comparison establishes with the greatfound on a small detached rock, on est clearness, a fact wbich had been the summit of the hill;' the characters suspected before, viz., that the Himyariare 24 inches in length, and executed tic is the parent of the Ethiopic charwith much care and regularity. To acter. Plates of the most important avoid the possibility of omission or error, inscriptions accompany the article, tothree separate copies were taken by gether with translations of them, by different individuals."

city on the summit, which are discerna

us.

Prof. Ródiger. The large one, first These investigations were followed discovered by Wellsted, bears the date up with ardor by Wellsted and his com- of 604; and another from Mareb, the panions, Lieut. Cruttenden and Dr. ancient capital of the country, is dated Hulton, attached to the same expedi- 537; but it seems it is impossible to say tion. They succeeded in discovering to which of the numerous Arabian eras many other inscriptions (but none of they refer. The last mentioned inequal importance with the first), in dif- scription, also bears the name Abd. ferent parts of the country; which, as Kulal, which is that of a sovereign, who soon as possible, were forwarded to ascended the throne of Himyar, A. D., Europe for the inspection of the 273 ; and another has on it, the name learned.

of his son. If these are really the per“ The finding of these inscriptions, sonages referred to, and not others of forms an epoch in the history of this in- the same name, the monuments in vestigation. Here at last, documents question, must be about 1500 years old." were brought to light of sufficient Mr. Turner points out a curious cirlength, and copied with sufficient ex- cumstance, which has not been noticed actness, to settle at once several inter- by any previous writer on the subject. esting questions connected with Him. Two short inscriptions of a few words yaritic inscriptions, and to render their each, were recently found in a village future complete eluciulation, with the of Abyssinia, by the Rev. Mr. Isenberg, aid of such additional discoveries of a missionary to that country. They were like characler as they gave reason to regarded with much interest, as furhope for, little less than certain. Copies nishing the desired connecting link beof them were sent to Gesenius, in Halle, tween the written character of Southand came to hand in the year 1837. ern Arabia and that of Abyssinia. That distinguished paleographer at But Mr. T. has shown that one of these once, and without any further help than very inscriptions, was copied along what the inscriptions themselves af-, with some others, and more correctly forded him, succeeded in determining a copied, by Salt, as long ago as the year portion of the alphabet, and, also in 1810. So that while the learned were reading several words of the large in- eagerly seeking after the lost writing scription, and among them, in the ninth of Himyar, they already possessed a line, the phrase, King of the Himyarites.” good portion of the alphabet, without

“ These inscriptions,” he continues, being aware of the fact. “ were communicated by Gesenius to After a short disquisition on the his friend and colleague, Prof. E. Ródi- ancient, and another on the modern ger, who immediately entered upon a language of Hadramaut, the results of laborious examination of the subject.” the investigation are summed up, which Indeed, the zeal and diligence of Ródi- are briefly these : 1st, that the Himger were such, that Gesenius at last yaritic writing is a descendant of the resigned the investigation wholly into Phænician, and that the modern Ethiopic his hands. It is on the publications of is formed from it, by certain changes these two eminent scholars that Mr. affected by the Greek monks, who inTurner's account of the inscriptions is troduced Christianity into Abyssinia ; chiefly based. After the finding of 2d, that the ancient Himyaritic was a

Shemitish tongue, approaching nearer De Saulcy, who, by a more rigid inves-
to the Hebrew than the northern Arabia tigation of the Phænician, has arrived at
does, while the modern dialect shows a a different conclusion from Gesenius.
strong affinity to the Arabianic spoken De Saulcy's version is very recent, ha-
in Abyssinia ; and 3d, that the Abyssini- ving appeared only in 1843, in the Jour-
ans “are actually descended from the nal Asiatique.
ancient inhabitants of southern Arabia, Although accounts of this inscription,
as ancient writers positively testify.". together with copies of it have been

The fifth and concluding article in published in Europe, we believe that no
the volume is by our friend Mr. Cath- view of the building has yet appeared.
erwood, giving an account of the Pupico- Mr. Catherwood has therefore given us
Lybian monument at Dugga, and the a valuable contribution. He adds the
remains of an ancient structure at Bless, following remarks :-
near the site of ancient Carthage. “ That which most forcibly struck

The Dugga monument is one of great me as an architect, was the beauty and interest. It is in the Beylic of Tunis, harmony of proportion which characand in the vicinity of the ruins of Car- terize this building; and a singular thage. What renders this edifice of so architectural anomaly, namely, a blendmuch importance is, that it differs en- ing of Greek and Egyptian art.”...“I tirely from the remains still existing of think it will be conceded, from the arancient Carthage. The latter, inclu- chitectural features of the building, that ding the magnificent aqueduct which it is of high antiquity, and erected not formerly supplied Carthage with water, very long after the seitling of the counare wholly of Roman workmanship, try by the Phænicians, when Grecian and present Latin inscriptions. The art first began to dawn. At any rate, Dugga monument “is the only' ex- all would fix its erection nearer the ception to be met with.

It presents a foundation of Carthage, about 900 type of architecture totally different years before Christ, than the decline from all others in the country, and is of and fall of that kingdom in the third much greater simplicity and elegance century B. C.” of form." “ The crowning cornice is The second paper of Mr. Catherevidently Egyptian, of grand and mass- wood's is an account of an ancient Cyive proportions." The Phænician in- clopean structure in the same region scription has been deciphered ; from with the Dugga monument, accompawhich we learn that it was a tomb. The nied with engravings. This closes the names and genealogy of the occupants volume--which we do not hesitate to are contained in the inscription; also, the say, is one of the most valuable contrinames of the builders. Mr. Catherwood butions our country has produced in has given a view and ground-plan of the works in this department of knowlmonument and copy of the inscription, edge. It will be well received in Eutaken by himself. He also submits a rope, where archæology and philology Hebrew and an English translation of are now more studied than in the United the latter. After a critical examination States. Still, we believe that the volof the translation of Gesenius, in his ume will be fully appreciated here, and Monumenta Punica, Mr. Catherwood that the Ethnological Society may be very judiciously prefers the version of induced to per vere in its labors.

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AMATEUR AUTHORS AND SMALL CRITICS.

Among the various divisions and sub- thing it would be for a client to ask the divisions into which the trade of author- services of anamateur lawyer, with an ship is divided, we recognize two class. air of confidence in the request, and in es; authors by profession, and amateur the expectation of his faithful attention writers: those who regard study and to business ; so too, with regard to the composition as the business of their advice of an amateur physician; and, lives, and those who look upon them indeed, the analogy holds in every walk merely as incidental occupations. Now of life. Few do that well " for love" we all know very well 'how absurd a which can be better done for money.

If it be true in the common concerns of Fame is a noble thing, it cannot be too life, that the laborer is worthy of his highly eulogized; but same alone canhire, it is much more to be so considered not supply the necessities of physical when we ascend in the scale of labor, existence, however it may conduce to and come finally to that which most the generous expansion of sentiment, tasks the intellect and requires the the growth of the soul. Neither is the greatest number of choice thoughts. charm of letters as a pursuit, and as a Purely imaginative employment, inven- labor that brings its own reward, alltion in fiction, the highest class (and sufficient to sustain the scholar. If his indeed all but the most inferior depart- intellectual and sensitive nature are exments of poetry, the musa pedestris), cited and elevated by the trump of fame, must afford more of delight self-centered, or soothed into delight by study and and in a good degree independent of meditation, yet he has another nature to pecuniary reward or the glory of a noble take care of, to neglect which wilfully fame. Yet even poets cannot live with- is to commit a scarcely justifiable suiout bread and broadcloth; and so far as cide. their imperishable and spiritual commo- An amateur in almost every walk is dities can be paid for, should be remu- regarded as much inferior to a working nerated in a princely manner. But in member of the craft. A man rarely speaking of authors and men of letters puts his heart or invests the whole stock in general, we shall except the few of his faculties in a pursuit which he grand poets from our remarks, and in- takes up casually to while away an hour clude rather the mass of good, than the or two of an idle day. Such writers minority of great, writers. We do not do not seem properly ever to become intend to comprehend in our list either amenable to criticism. You are never the barely respectable scribe, who abound sure whether they are doing their best now-a-day as thickly as Dogberry's or not; as a member of the fancy might whortleberries; although among ama- say they do not appear to come up to the teur authors we must not forget that for scratch. They fence with foils blunted one really clever man (not to say man at the end, and dread the naked weaof genius) there are at the least esti- pon; or they are like shots who pracmate ninety and nine stupid fellows, tice with powder only. who assume the cloak of gravity where- pellets of the brain" are too much for withal to hide the defects of dullness. them,

A merchant is respected for shrewd- In our literary world in this country, ness in turning a penny, for the accu- there is no lack'in point of numbers of mulation of a fortune, and yet we hear amateur authors. They are generally of the mercenary rewards of authorship, either quite young men, sons of wealthy and the base equivalent for the produc- men, "who pen a stanza while they tions of genius: as if the more a man should engross;" or else men in the gave the less he should ask; build a meridian of life, who affect the notoriety palace at less cost than a cottage. At of fashionable authorship. They are this rate a sign painter would be enti- young poets or middle-aged novelists ; tled to higher pay than Raphael himself; writers of essays in reviews, and of and we might take our strongest argu- sketches for the magazines. Sometimes ments that men of genius should be they translate tales or travels for the nobly rewarded for their magnificent weekly extras. They deliver an occaconceptions and labors, from the single sional lecture, and contribute articles class of painters. The great old masters for the newspapers. Their names are lived like princes, and were paid as the often better known than their producgreat lawyer and surgeon of our own ductions ; they live in cliques, herd in time are paid. Yet they did not become clubs and coteries, and puff each other Jazy or careless ; nor did wealth stifle inordinately. Their reputation is formed the fine images of their brains, or palsy by an echo reverbrating their self-praise. the masterly skill of their hands. When rich, they are the most desperate

Thonghts form the merchandise of of critics, as above dependence and out the writer, as stuffs and wares of the of the reach of appeal and censure. trader. If the one can convert his stock There are certain marks by which into current coin as readily as the other, you may infallibly know the amateur on the mere ground of husbandry he author. He is always declaiming deserves no little credit for his skill. against the pecuniary profits of litera

« These paper

ture; though we doubt whether he would gains of a writer mentioned ? they are venture to carry out the same doctrine heard with coolness, and answered by in matters of business, or in his luxuri- a shrugWant of money appears want ous recreations of a less spiritual de- of moral principle or of respectability. scription. He lives on his own estate They dread duns, poor authors, unpopuor income, but on other people's ideas. lar poets. Fame and a garret are the He gives for love, what he pilfers through topics of their heartless ridicule. An mean ambition. He is the less consci- amateur author, is, in a word, an amentious on this point, as his labors bring phibious sort of creature. Out of the him in no returns. Yet we have known pale of true writers, and yet classed by those who pretend to write only for all with the mob of scribblers. They amusement, to come to that pass as to decry their own writings, with more of be not a little solicitous to procure re- truth than they are aware of: and ironimuneration. Such boasters we have cally pronounce their own eulogy in the known refused any assistance in their censure of another. They are bitter literary schemes, and not to be harsh, bad judges of others; and the most inwe think they deserve the humiliation genuous of egotists. They turn selfat least of temporary neglect.

tormentors to be idolized by the public: Amateur writers rarely undertake they offer themselves up, on the shrine works of length or research; and yet of their egregious self-love, a willing they are very apt to take a writer to sacrifice, and in order to propitiate potask, who devotes himself to literary pular regard. To the above sweeping occupation, in the minor classic forms charges certain exceptions are to be of writing. Unable themselves to write made. One in particular we must not good magazine papers, and reading (as neglect,-John Waters, the elegant they must) many inferior ones, they contributor to the Knickerbocker, a genconfuse good and bad together. They tleman of delicate fancy, neat humor, endeavor to catch the high tone of criti- and crisped style, who every now and cism, and while mispraising daubs of then delights the public with charming historical pieces, pass by with igno- morceaux, frequently and closely remindrant scorn,

the most delicate miniature ing us of the quaint yet true touches of sketches of manners, or vivid portraits of Elia's pencil. Such amateur writers character.

are rare indeed amid a crowd of pretenThey injure the true author who ders and assuming coxcombs. Most of unites a love for his profession, deep the better description of amateur authors interest in his subject, and an honest in- would translate better into friendly cridependence, with the aim of procuring tics, liberal patrons and unpretending a sufficient livelihood. If writings are lovers of literature. In modern times to be procured for nothing, nothing will an amateur author of genius is next to be paid. Cheapness, not merit, will an anomaly. The labors of such a man become the object of publishers, and the cannot be repaid by mere popularity. deterioration of literature must infallibly Even the great poets of this century ensue. The value of a thing has been have obtained large sums for their MSS. stated (somewhat sophistically) to be Scott is a notable instance, but it were what it will bring. This has by no well for letters that few amass the formeans been an universal or a just test tune of the great novelist. Yet from in literary productions, for the Aimsiest Shakspere to Wordsworth the Poets of which the highest prices are paid. have been at least comfortably provided What could Bacon get now a days, if for ; being gifted with a reasonable he sent his essays to the magazines ? share of prudence, an eye to the main His late (and successful) imitator doubt- chance. less would realize little more.

From amateur authors we pass to Few amateur authors feel any real small critics, a natural transition, as sympathy for literary men. There is these form a division of the same geneno fellow-feeling existing between the ral class. Like the first they are rarely industrious and ardent scholar, and the writers by profession, though we have lively voluptuary and genteel wit. In- Dennises and Giffords in the crait dependence of literary profits causes in- Generally the small critic is an unblustdifference, and sometimes an ill-con- ing pretender, without the slightest cealed contempt.

Are the hard toil, claims to respect. He is to the great the misappreciated aims, the uncertain critic, the original judge, what the mi

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