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nute philosopher is to Plato or Bacon. scheme. He cannot distinguish be He is great in little things, and con- tween freshness of feeling and affectaversely little in great things. His ge- tion. He has a horror of individuality, nius is bent on investigating trifles. He and will not allow the weight of personis an ingenuous perverter of sense, from al impressions. Strong passion he acblindness at not seeing the printer's blun- counts a weak prejudice, and the sinders, or a rapid writer's slips in ortho- cere convictions of a pure spirit “ idols graphy. He is strongest in punctuation of the cave." Indignation at meanness and prosody. If an editor, he is in mor- and a scorn of rascality, he terms “whim tal dread of lively contributors, mistaking whams and prejudice. a satire on vice for a condemnation of As he is a trite critic and a stale thevirtue ; and a homily on hypocrisy, fororist, so is he also a false logician. He a scandal on religion. Of poetry he is is, indeed, a mere special pleader. He the verbal critic, and from his literalness, cavils at literal mistakes, and disputes spoils the beauty of a fine passage be- terms rather than abstract truths. He cause he cannot see the beauty of a is a newspaper Thomas Aquinas, or the choice epithet. Correctness is the Duns Scotus of a monthly Magazines height of his ambition. He remarks he is apt to hold in supreme contempt, how many lines in a poem end with a though for his life he cannot write a demonosyllable, or with a similar termina- cent article for one. Voluminous works tion. He pretends to be skilful in me- awe him into silence. Erudition is to tres, and the art of poetry. By this he him the greatest of bug-bears. Lest he intends the rules of Aristotle, and Bossu, should be discovered as an ignoramus, and Blair, and not the divine instincts of he never pretends to discredit the prethe glorious Afflatus. But he does by tences of pedantry. He swells the no means invariably enunciate his judg- train of such by his pomp and boasting. ments in points, he oftener talks than Since he has no genuine acquirements, writes criticism. In a private circle he he cannot distinguish the false wares, affects the dictatorship of letters. If he and consequently equally applauds the has a relation, a man of talent, he patro- jewel and the mock paste. nizes him as a respectable writer. A Small critics may be found among third rate politician, who amuses him two classes of people, in greater abundby cunning flatteries, he estimates much ance than anywhere else ; among so higher. Trash is his favorite term for called sensible people, who have no real all he cannot understand, and especially pretensions to letters, though they affect for all keen satire that he suspects may to speak critically on all points, and have a bearing upon himself. He makes mere bibliographers, makers of catathe most egregious blunders, saying, this logues, collectors, book-sellers and aucwill not last, of an immortal work; or, tioneers. People of sense in ordinary he will soon break down, of a man whose matters, and men intelligent in their noble enthusiasm appears to his con- own walk of life, but who have never tracted soul little better than midsum- received any tincture of literature, make mer madness.
the most opinionated of all critics. A The small critic is delighted with carpenter expects to graduate the powpetty beauties and the minutest details. ers of the human mind, and a stone He loves still more to carp on petty mason to overthrow one of Ariosto's faults in a great man, and thinks he castles. Thinking to bring everything makes a fine discovery when he meets to a common standard, the illiterate imaa trivial flaw. He looks, as it were, gine themselves to be as good judges of through an inverted telescope, and to his right and wrong in morals, as of the eye great objects diminish. He makes beautiful and odious in æsthetics. They great things appear small, and the little are keen at a bargain, and confide withless. His ideas are on the descending out doubt in their own decisions on scale; his eyes contract to a mere point works of genius. The same people of littleness; he is the critic of Lilliput. who talk pertly of Milton and Words
Originality puts him out; boldness worth, would think it absurd for a blackhe styles extravagance, and acknow- smith to attempt to take a watch to ledges none but imitative excellence. pieces. Yet the difference of difficulty, All inventors, he looks upon as arrogant between the two operations, is by no interlopers. He is distrustful of novel- means great. And, after all, the immety, and apprehends failure in every new diate popularity of most writers rests chiefly upon such readers as these; reads everything and feels nothing; he the worthy, fit audience, though few, is a walking catalogue; a peripatetic finally give reputation. Meanwhile, companion to the library; he knows the however, the mob of readers follow es- names of all the authors that have lived. tablished names and reigning fashions; “In books, not authors, studious as my they follow their chosen leaders with lord;" Yet such is a useful character; implicit credulity.
a guide to the literary voyager; a conBibliographic critics are learned in ductor of the literary diligence. He is title pages, indexes, editions. Their well in his place if he will only remain judgments are traditionary; their opin- quietly in it; but the difficulty is to ions hereditary. They think by proxy, keep him there.
MIMIN. and talk by rote. One of this sort
im. Albred forse
SONGS OF LABOR.
BY JOHN G. WHITTIER.
Ho! workers of the old time styled
The Gentle Craft of Leather!
Stand forth once more together!
In the olden, merry manner;
Fling out your blazoned banner!
How falls the polished hammer!
A quick and merry clamor.
The glossy vamp around it,
Whose gentle fingers bound it !
A hundred keels are ploughing :
His lasso-coil is throwing:
The woodman's fire is lighting ;
For you from Carolina's pine
The resin gum is stealing,
Her silken skein is reeling :
His rugged Alpine ledges;
Bloom England's thorny hedges!
On moated mound or heather,
Brought toiling men together,
Where the free burghers from the wall
Detied the mail-clad master,
No craftsmen rallied faster!
Let foplings sneer, let fools deride,
Ye heed no idle scorner,
And duty done, your honor.
The jury Time empannels,
Thy songs, Hans Sach, are living yet,
In strong and hearty German,
And th' rare good sense of Sherman;
The soul of Behmen teaches,
Of Fox's leathern breeches.
The Foot is yours : where'er it falls
treads your well-wrought leather, On earthern floor, in marble halls,
On carpet, or on heather.
Of matron grace or vestal's,
Among the old celestials !
Rap, rap!-your stout and bluff brogan,
With footsteps slow and weary,
Shuts down upon the Prairie.
By Saratoga's fountain,
The dance on Cattskill mountain !
The red brick to the mason's hand,
The brown earth to the tiller's;
Like fairy Cinderilla's !
Beheld the crown upon her,
With hearth and home and honor !
Then let the toast be freely quaffed
In water cool and brimming : “ All honor to the good old Crast,
Its merry men and women!” Call out again your long array
In the old time's pleasant manner; Once more on gay St. Crispin's day
Fling out his blazoned banner!
FRÉMONT'S EXPEDITIONS.* The design of these expeditions was be as successful as heretofore) the puba military examination of the country lic may expect to be gratified with a between the Mississippi and the Pacific full view, under all its various aspects, Ocean, on the line of the Great Platte, of the vast region from the Mississippi to the South Pass, and the Columbia, with the Pacific Ocean, and especially of that a view to the maintenance of the na- large slope of our continent which faces tional rights over a remote and interest-. the setting sun, and towards which the ing region. The military examination tide of emigration is now rolling, the eyes was the first object, but science came in of Europe and America turning, and for for a share of the commander's attention: the dominion of which diplomacy is and sextants, refracting circles, chrono- now weaving its webs, and war soundmeters, barometers, thermometers and ing its alarms. telescopes, as well as rifles and the The design of these expeditions—the howitzer, formed a part of the young general plan of their execution--and a officer's equipment. The result of the glimpse of their results—are briefly combined objects is an immense collec- sketched by Capt. Frémont himself in tion of geographical, botanical, geologi- his modest“ Notice to the Reader,” precal, and meteorological information, fixed to the publication ; and this prelimixed up with the details which would minary view is too important to the enable a general to march an army, or understanding of the expeditions to be an emigrant to move his family to Ore- omitted, and too brief and comprehengon; and from which a statesman might sive to bear abridgment. We, therejudge the value of the country, and a fore, present it entire : farmer choose a residence in it. Two expeditions have been made,
“The Senate of the United States, and the first in 1842, terminating at the each ordered ten thousand copies of the
the House of Representatives, having South Pass in the Rocky Mountains : reports of the two exploring expeditions the other in 1844-5, extending to the conducted by me, to be printed together, tide-water of the Columbia, and thence I have deemed it regular and natural to south by a vast circuit through the place the report of 1842 first in the unknown region of the Alla Califor- order of publication, although heretonia ;—forced forward, when once in- fore printed; it being first in the order volved in them, by mountains and of time, and first in the progress of actual by deserts which carried the expedition exploration. The two reports naturally far out of its intended course, and ex- go together, the second being a continua. posed it to perils and sufferings only to parts of a whole, which will require a
tion of the first, and the two constituting be compensated by discoveries full of third expedition, now commencing, to strange and romantic interest, among complete. The first terminated at the people and countries never before de- Rocky mountains, and at the two points scribed.
of greatest interest in that ridge-namely, The journals of the two expeditions, the South Pass, and Frémont's Peak; printed by order of each House of Con- the former being the lowest depression gress, as a public document, have just of the mountains, through which the road issued from the “Globe” and“ National to Oregon now passes, and the latter the Intelligencer" offices ; and it is these highest elevation, from the base of journals which we propose to review. A and flow in opposite directions, toward
which four great rivers take their rise, third expedition, to complete the objects the rising and the setting sun. The of the first two, has just commenced ; second, after approaching the mountains and in the course of one year more by a different route, connects with the (should the adventurous young explorer first expedition at the South Pass, and
* Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the year 1842, and to Oregon and North California in years 1843-4. By Brevet Capt. J. C. Frémont, of the Topographical Engineers, under the orders of Col. J. J. Abert, Chief of the Topographical Bureau. Printed by order of the House of Representatives. Švo., pp. 584.
thence finds the great theatre of its la- plete the view, and to show the highest bors west of the Rocky mountains, and points as well as the lowest levels, between the Oregon river and North many lofty peaks are sketched at their California. The third expedition, now proper elevations, towering many thou. commencing, will be directed to that sec- sands of feet above the travelling line. tion of the Rocky mountains which gives It may here be excusable to suggest that rise to the Arkansas, the Rio Grande del these profile maps here exhibited are, Norte, and the Rio Colorado of Cali- perhaps, the most extended work of the fornia ; and will extend west and south- kind ever constructed, being from St. west of that section, so as to examine the Louis (according to the route we travcountry towards the Pacific ocean, ascer- elled) near sixteen hundred miles to the tain the lines of communication between South Pass; from the mouth of the Great the mountains and the ocean in that lati- Platte to the same Pass, about one thoutude, and complete the examination of sand more ; and then another sixteen the Great Salt lake and of the interesting hundred from that Pass to the tide-water region which embosoms it.
of the Oregon ; in all, about four thousand ** The map which illustrated the report miles of profile mapping, founded upon of 1812 is now extended to illustrate the nearly four hundred barometrical posientire expedition of 1843–44, so that a tions, with views sketched and facts view of both expeditions will be pre- noted in the field as we went. sented together. This map may have a “In the departments of geological and meager and skeleton appearance to the botanical science, I have not ventured to general eye, but is expected to be more advance any opinions on my own impervaluable to science on that account, fect knowledge of those branches, but being wholly founded upon positive data have submitted all my specimens to the and actual operations in the field. About enlightened judgment of Dr. Torrey, of ten thousand miles of actual travelling New Jersey, and Dr. Hall, of New York, and traversing in the wilderness which who have kindly classified and arranged lies between the frontiers of Missouri all that I was able to submit to them. and the shores of the Pacific, almost every The botanical observations of Dr. Torrey camping station being the scene of astro- will be furnished in full hereafter, there nomical or barometrical observations, fur- not being time to complete them now. nish the materials out of which this map The remarks of Dr. Hall, on the geologihas been constructed. Nothing supposi- cal specimens furnished to him, will be titious has been admitted upon it; so found in an appendix to the report; and that, connecting with Captain Wilkes's to his palæontological skill I am indebted survey of the mouth of the Columbia, for the discovery of an oolitic formation and with the authentic surveys of the in the region west of the Rocky mounState of Missouri, it fills up the vast geo- tains, which further examination may graphical chasm between these two re- prove to assimilate the geology of the mote points, and presents a connected New to that of the Old World in a rare and accurate view of our continent from particular, which had not before been the Mississippi river to the Pacific discovered in either of the two Americas.
Unhappily, much of what we had col. “ To this geographical map, delinea- lected was lost by accidents of serious ting the face of the country over which import to ourselves, as well as to our we travelled, there is added another in animals and collections. In the gorges profile, showing the elevations, or the and ridges of the Sierra Nevada, of the rise and fall of the country from the Mis- Alta California, we lost fourteen horses sissippi to the Pacific. East of the and mules, falling from rocks or preciRocky mountains, two of these profile pices into chasms or rivers, bottomless views are given,-one from St. Louis to to us and to them, and one of them loaded the South Pass, the other from the mouth with bales of plants collected on a line of of the Great Platte to the same point. two thousand miles of travel; and, when The latter is the shortest ; and following, almost home, our camp on the banks of as it does, the regular descent of the the Kansas was deluged by the great river, and being seven hundred miles flood which, lower down, spread terror west of the Mississippi, it may be that and desolation on the borders of the Misthe eastern terminus of this line may souri and Mississippi, and by which great fnrnish the point at which the steam. damage was done to our remaining perboat and the steam-car may hereafter ishable specimens, all wet and saturated meet and exchange cargoes in their magic with water, and which we had no time flight across this continent. These pro- to dry. Still, what is saved will be some file views, following the travelling routes, respectable contribution to botanical sciof course follow the lowest and levellest ence, thanks to the skill and care of lines, and pass the mountain at the point Dr. Torrey; and both in geology and of its greatest depression ; but to com- botany the maps will be of great value,