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And many a Moon in beauty newly born
Yet Winnepurkit came not. On the mat
The wild March rains had fallen fast and long
The Dark Eye has left us,
The Spring-bird has flown;
She wanders alone.
Oh, dark water Spirit !
We cast on thy wave
Hang over her grave;
Of the strange land she walks in
No Powah has told :
Or freeze with the cold.
The path she is treading
Shall soon be our own;
Unseen and alone !-
Oh mighty Sowanna !|
Thy gateways unfold,
Lift curtains of gold !
whose journey is o'er-
*" Mat wonck kunna-monee.” We shall see thee or her no more.-Vide Roger Williams' “ Key to the Indian language.”
t “ The Great South West God." "See R. Williams' “ Observations, &c."
THE TRAVELS AND WRITINGS OF HENRY R. SCHOOLCRAFT.
The rapidity with which new names letters, if he were indeed really so, he are constantly appearing upon our fast seemed to us wonderfully out of place thickening roll of literary and scientific where he was. A man trifling with men must ultimately overlay many whose fowling-piece and trouting-rod where original reputation was due chiefly to the he ought to be hewing trees and burning fact that they were among the pioneers“ fallow," and getting his “location” reaof our early literature; and that their dy for a crop, could not be more uselessly writings were acceptable to our country- ornamental. But if these essays and men when the general literary taste poems were only a social diversion, and was unformed and crude. Among his realenergies were devoted to developthese pioneers, however, there is a class ing, grasping, and subduing to the uses of writers who contributing to the ma- of science and literature, the abundant terials rather than the form of literature, inert material around him, he was a must ever be identified by their labors very different character; a man who with the progress of letters among us. could estimate both the advantages and The man who builds a painted shingle disadvantages of his position, and, withpalace in some new settlement, is for out sighing over the bearing of the latter the time being one of the most noted upon mere literary culture, seize upon in the hamlet; but as such ornamental the former to interweave his name with tenements increase with the thrift of the very fibre of his country's literaplace, we recur to those who located the ture. Whether accident or force of first log cabins in the “ clearing,” as character, whether failure as a pretty the real fathers of the village ; and we poet and polite essayist, or predetermincherish the traces of their adventurous ed intention to throw the real force though clumsy labors with far more of his powers into one sphere of literary interest than we regard the ambitious labor may have determined the result
improvements” of their comfortably we are unable to say; but Mr. S. established successors. Nay! when stands now before the public equally we are brought in a way to realize the peculiar and firmly based in his repudifficulties which the former class had tation as an author. “ Schoolcraft's to contend with in effecting a lodgment Indian Miscellany” will be at some in the wilderness, we are disposed to future day quoted and referred to alike enroll them as a class by themselves; or by poet and historian, as a standard ticket their names and put them away book of reference in every well selected as belonging to a set of worthies, who library. His “ Algic Researches,” his have done the land such service in their “ Oneota," his contributions to the day, that not even “ the march of mind" North American and other Reviews, is to disturb their honorable repose by and his various books of travel among awaking new inquiry as to the merits the Aborigines, must all ultimately judged by more modern standards of take this form. For the usages, trathought and action.
ditions, and peculiarities of the Red Mr. Schoolcraft (we doubt whether man, form alike the staple of interest he will thank us for the illustration), and value in all; and while the present in a literary point of view, many years deficiency in our libraries must be ago became identified in our minds with supplied by some collection which shall this memorable class of pioneer citizens be authority on these subjects, Schooland genuine “old settlers” on the Indian craft is the only author who comprises tract of literature. We saw his name the necessary varieties of information indeed occasionally attached to some in the writings of one man. scrap of poetry, or giving circulation to The literary career of Mr. Schoolsome literary address; but it was as craft dates from the year 1809, when the geographical explorer or Indian he began to publish some essays upon linguist and collector that it came from Natural History, in the periodicals of the far West to these Atlantic shores the day. But he was first known as with most weight and meaning. As an author, by a little work entitled the mere votary of taste and elegant Vitreology," which appeared in 1817.
The design of this treatise was to tion of the Mississippi Valley," and exhibit the application of Chemistry in covers the intermediate ground of that the fusion of Siliceous and Alkaline which he had journalized upon in his bodies and the production of enamels, two intermediate tours. glasses, &c. In July of the ensuing These themes were then new and year,
find from the sketches full of interest to our countrymen, and of his own wanderings in “ Oneota," the zeal with which Mr. S. had acquithe was engaged in exploring the lead ted himself in bringing them before the mines of the district of Missouri, and public recommended him to the notice examining generally, the mineralogical of President Monroe, by whom, in 1822, and geological structure of that region he was commissioned as Agent of Inof country. He at the same time ex- dian Affairs, on the extreme northplored the elevated and broken ranges western frontiers of our territory. His of high lands, called the Ozark Mount- instructions were to proceed to Sault ains. While in Missouri, he drew up a Ste. Marie, at the outlet of Lake Supedescription of the mines, which was rior, and open an intercourse with the published in New York, in 1819. This, great family of the Chippewas, in that Prof. Silliman says, in the American quarter, which had previously been exJournal of Science, is the first formal clusively in the British interest. account of a mining district in the To establish these new Indian relaUnited States. Its publication procured tions upon a proper basis, Mr. S. made for the author much literary notice. repeated tours among the wild tribes of He was immediately made an honorary those then desolate regions. In 1825, member of the New York Historical we find him holding a convocation of Society (of which Dr. HOSACK was at various aboriginal nations at Prairie Du that time President), and a correspond- Chien, on the Upper Mississippi. In ing member of the New York Lyceum 1826, he holds another at Fond Du Lac, of Natural History. Mineralogy had at the head of Lake Superior. In 1827, then just begun to attract great atten- a third at Buttes de Mort, on Fox River, tion in this country, and the large Wisconsin. His agency being now collections which Mr. S. had brought fully established, he accepted a seat in home from the other side of the Missis- the territorial legislature of Michigan, sippi attracted the votaries of this sci- which he retained for four years in sucence around him. Among these was DE- cession ; and during this time he formWITT Clinton, who became instantly ed and had incorporated the Michigan interested in the western explorer, Historical Society, and delivered several invited him to his table, gave him books public lectures at Detroit. It was during and counsel, and by letters of introduc- this influential period of his life that, tion to eminent men in other parts of guided alike by patriotism and good the Union, sent him forth on fresh taste, Mr. Schoolcraft took a successful rambles, under the best auspices.
stand in that region of country against In 1820, Mr. Schoolcraft accordingly the absurd nomenclature which has elserepaired to Washington, with a plan where made such geographical confufor organizing the Western mines, a sion, by repeating over and over again, proposal which brought him under the throughout the country, the names of notice of Mr. CALHOUN, who soon after- places borrowed in the first instance wards sent him to the North-west to from Europe, giving us any quantity of join Governor Cass, and explore Lake “ Yorks,” “ Manchesters,” and “ BirSuperior and the Upper Mississippi. minghams” in the wilderness. He subOf this expedition, Mr. Schoolcraft mitted to the legislature a system of drew up the narrative, which was county and township names based upon eagerly read by the whole country. In the Indian Vocabularies, with which he 1821, came out his fourth publication, was familiar, and found the historical and this, illustrated with a sketch or names of “ Pontiac," Tecumseh," two by Inman, who already was giving &c., at least as well received by his colpromise of his present fame as an artist, leagues as are those of “Hannibal," was so rapidly sold and favorably “Scipio” and “ Camillus” by the pedanoticed, that Mr. Schoolcraft was at gogue-ridden people of this state. once fairly enrolled upon the then In 1831, “ The Algic Society," a litemeagre list of American authors. It rary and benevolent institution of Michiis entitled “ Travels in the central por- gan, was organized through the exertions
VOL. XVI.—NO. LXXXIV. 38
of Mr. Schoolcraft, and before this body and Gallatin, not to mention other less he delivered Philological lectures upon eminent philologians and ethnologists. the aboriginal dialects, and a poem upon In 1836, Mr. S. was appointed comIndian character. The labors of this missioner to negotiate with the Chippeassociation were, we believe, at one time was and Otawas, and succeeded in efenriched by the aid of Major Whiting, fecting a treaty by which these tribes and other cultivated officers of the army, ceded to the United States some nine at that time in garrison at Detroit. But millions of acres between Grand River the Indian disturbances between the of Lake Michigan and Chocolate River northwest tribes, which broke out the of Lake Superior (or Lake Algoma, as same year, gave to all parties more seri- Mr. Schoolcraft terms the latter water). ous occupation. Schoolcraft was di- In the same year he effected other trearected by Government to accompany a ties with the Saginaw, the Swan Creek, military force sufficient to over-awe the and Black River bands. In January, Indians, and see what could be done to 1837, he negotiated successfully another establish peace among them; an object Indian treaty at Detroit, and in the fol. which was ultimately effected after a lowing December still another at Flint toilsome march to the Sioux and Chip- River; while, in the same and followpewa country. On his return from this ing year, he took measures for the reexpedition, Dir. S. came down the Mis- moval of the bands remaining in Ohio, sissippi to Fever River, and reached his and some of those who had ceded their post by the way of Fort Winnebago, possessions in Michigan. In 1839, the Green Bay, &c., an account of which Department of War transferred to Mr. appeared subsequently in an American S. the additional duties of principal disPeriodical.
bursing agent for the northern departIn 1832, the small-pox made its ap- ment, which agency had formerly been pearance among the western Indians. in the charge of a field-officer of the In carrying the vaccine matter among United States Army. “ For these qua. them, as became his official duty, Mr. druple and highly responsible duties," S. did not forget the interests of geogra- says Mr. Schoolcraft in his appeal to phical science. In visiting the most re- the government, “ all extra compensamote northern tribes of his agency, he tien has been withheld till the present seized the occasion to trace up the Mis- moment--a mere Agent's Salary being sissippi above the point where Pike all that was ever received." stopped in 1807, and Cass in 1820, to In 1841, Mr. Schoolcraft issued proits actual source in Itasca Lake. His posals for an Indian Cyclopedia, geograaccount of this “ Expedition to Itasca phical, historical, philological, &c., only Lake” was published by the Harpers in one number of which, we believe, ever 1834. From it we learn that the long- appeared, owing to the difficulty of findsought head of the river was discovered ing a publisher to carry on a work neJuly 13th, 1832. At Meridian this day, cessarily so expensive in character. Mr. Schoolcraft entered upon the Lake In the next year, he visited England, in his batteaux, and planted the United France, Germany, Prussia and Holland, States flag upon its only island, just 149 chiefly with the intention of attracting years after La Salle had reached the notice to his proposed great work, and mouth of the river (Schoolcraft's Island with the hope of getting some European -Vide Nicollett’s Hydros' Map and Re- publishing-house to undertake it. While port). The Blackhawk war broke out in England, he read several scientific on the Border while Mr. S. was in the papers before different learned bodies. wilderness, but with his hardy associate, Since his return, Mr. Schoolcraft has Lieut. Allen of the Infantry, he slipped still made another tour to the west, for through its dangers below St. Anthony's the sake of exploring the antiquities of Falls, and reached home in safety. The some of the great mounds, regarding general results of this expedition at which he communicated a paper to the tracted much interest throughout the Royal Geographical Society of Dencountry, while the philological contribu- mark, of which, many years ago, he was tions npon the aboriginal dialects, which made an honorary member. This chief Mr Schoolcraft introduced in the ap- literary labor since then, has been the task pendix to his account of the discovery, of editing his various MS. journals, procured him the notice of Du. Ponceau relating to the history, poetry, traditions,