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The Past has lent to the Present; and the Future demands payment. A feather out of a wing, a bone out of a body, a leaf out of a book, --is not more absurdly isolated than a human soul that would detach itself from the upward soaring of its race, a man denying his duty to the body politic, or a life which fancies that its thought or speech or aetion can be torn unnoticed and without detrimental consequence from the history of mankind. We believe therefore that it is ever the duty of the individual to devote the utmost energies of his being to the ser-. vice of his race: to the Beloved first (though whoever loves needs no such reminding); to the Children next; then to his immediate fellows in the Workshop or Farm, in the Hamlet, Municipality, or Commune; then, the circles of duty widening ever as-like a drop of rain flung into still water-his active life impels the waves of circumstance around him, to the City or County, his Country, and the World. For the business of man's life is service to his kind. Service even now, when, wanting organization, each must mark out for himself the route upon which his unaided thought decides that he can best serve; service still, when Society, becoming organized, shall learn how to economize his powers, to prevent his efforts from being wasted, as so much of endeavour is wasted through want of direction now, from being left to fight and to labour alone, or with but the chance and random help of the casual passers-by.
GOD'S LAW *We believe, to resume, in a social State having GOD AND HIS Law at the summit, the People, the universality of the citizens free and equal at its base, progress for rule, association as means, devotion for baptism, genius and virtue for lights upon the way.
God's Law: it is not the doctrine of an individual or a sect; it is not the dogma of a Church (even of the truest), nor the 'act' of a Parliament (be it never so equally constituted). Though doctrine, dogma, and act, may each be, less or more, an enunciation of God's law. It is the revelation which enlightens the Prophets and Apostles of Humanity, the instinct which impels the universal conscience of mankind. Wherever the revelation and the instinct, wherever genius and universality, wherever the “Voice of God' and the Voice of the People are in unison, there, be sure, is a law of God.
God's Law: God's holiest preachers and martyrs have proclaimed it, with their words and with their lives; and the heart of man in all climes and in all ages has recognized its divinity-its truth. It is this :
GROW HEALTHILY! LOVE! ASPIRE ! PROGRESS! GROW HEALTHILY!—It is the first necessity of being. That was a true insight which shut out the blemished or unclean from the service of the priesthood. How shall any be God's priest in his impurity or weakness ? Be pure for health's sake! Be strong for the sake of growth! Grow healthfully,—which is naturally, vigorously, and beautifully,—that so thy nature may be perfected, and thy life be a fit and acceptable worshipper in this temple of the Eternal, which men call Earth, -worthily serving at the altar, whatever name may be inscribed thereon, whether Family, Country, or Man.
Love ! - It is the stepping beyond the narrow prison-house, the chrysalis tomb of Self. Capacity for love constitutes the difference between the gentle
and the churl, the hnman and the brute. The brute desires, seeks, and has possession, asserting the right of his limited nature, the right of health and growth: but he cannot soar out of the bestial Self. He cannot love. Live not like brute beasts without understanding, when God has breathed into your souls the angelic faculty of Love.—Love the Mother, upon whose smooth rounded bosom you first dreamed of beauty and of heaven! Love the Father who taught you to be strong and daring! Love her who led you into the innermost sanctuary of delight-whose maiden smile first whispered to your enraptured soul how chaste and holy and self-sacrificing Love may be ! Love her Children, the Children of the Beautiful, whom also thou wilt teach how to love! Love thy Country—the land of thy young days of home--the land whose speech is the music of the Beloved—the land where rest the bones of Heroes, thy sires; love it with the active love of a patriot's ever anxious service! Love not only persons, places, or things; but love the Beautiful, the Noble, the Enduring! Love the memory of those Great Ones who have lived and suffered for thee ! For Love is gratitude-the full-handed gratitude that returns one benefit by benefiting a thousand. Love, and scorn not those new ideas which are continually dawning upon the world! For Love is reverence. It was Love that worshipped at the Poor Man's feet, wiping them with her hair, and kissing them. Love believeth.
ASPIRE! Indeed, Love is aspiration: the longing search after the Most Beautiful. Ever as thou reachest the summit of a truth, look upward to the truth beyond! Ever on the ladder of improvement, which leans on the edge of heaven,-as thou gainest round after round, look upward ! And when thou pilest another day of worth upon thy past life, rest not as one whose mission is accomplished; but know and recollect that man's mission is to aspire !
PROGRESS ;-Yes! believe that the healthily-grown, the lover, the aspirer, must progress. Up and down, the mountain-climber advances toward the top. Let bim not, in the mountain hollows, look back complaining—How much higher I was.' He but descends to mount again. It is no level path, nor smooth unvarying ascent, the way of progress.
But we believe in the possibility of a social state in which the ascent, though not altogether evened, shall yet be smoothed of its worst roughnesses; when the whole race shall be fellow-workers, aiding each other in their advance. We believe that it shall not always be left to individuals to toil painfully up the steep and narrow path, in sadly isolated endeavour to fulfill God's law; but that, when Nations are free, their Governments shall be able to provide the educational means through which mankind shall be aided in their combined endeavours to grow healthily, to love, to aspire, and to progress: when progress shall be recognized as the normal condition of life, when organized association shall supply the requisite means, when individuals, baptized in the faith of devotion to God and Humanity, shall know how best to avail themselves of those means, and when Genius and Virtue, borne upon the shoulders of the advancing crowd (as of old they chose their generals), shall light us upon our way. When the whole earth shall be a holy altar, and human life as the flame of a sacrifice, continually ascending to the heaven of God.
NATIONS. And that which we believe to be true for a single people, we believe to be true for all. There is but one sun in heaven for the whole earth : there is but one law of truth and justice for all who people it.
'Inasmuch as ice believe in Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, and Association for individuals composing the State, we believe also in the Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, and Association of Nations.
We believe that the map and organization of Europe are to be remade. * We believe, in a word, in a general organizantion having God and his laro at the summit, Humanity, the universality of Nations free and equal at its base, common progress for end, alliance for means, the example of those peoples who are most loving and most devoted for encouragement on the way.'
We do not believe that men can righteously band together to commit wrong; nor that by any combination or assembling of numbers, they can escape from the individual responsibility of their moral being.
We believe that Wrong is wrong, whether perpetrated by individuals or by nations : that Right does not alter its character, whether its pursuer be one or a multitude.
A Nation is an assemblage and combination of individuals : each of whom is endowed with conscience, each of whom is bound by his very nature to combat evil, each of whom is impelled by the divine law of his being to seek good and to maintain the right. Their very assembling and combination as a body is that they more effectually combat evil, seek good, and maintain and perpetuate the right.
To grow healthily, to love, to aspire, and to progress,—this is as much the desting of Nations as of the individuals of which Nations are composed.
If equal liberty is the right of each member of the Nation in relation to his fellows, not only in the Nation but throughout the whole world,-so is it the right of the collective body—the Nation, in relation to all other Nations. If one Nation may be shut out of the pale of national liberty, what becomes of the universal equality and liberty of mankind ?
If it is the duty of Man in his Nation to serve Humanity, it is equally the duty of the Nation, as an organization of Men, to serve Humanity. Else the individual serves not Humanity, but some national egotism.
Peoples are the individuals of Humanity.' As men differ from one another in character, aptitude, or calling, so also do Peoples. Their national organization is the means, not only of perfecting that special character, but of applying the various aptitude and calling toward one great object-the progress of the whole of life. England, if an organization of healthy, high-thoughted men, would recognize itself as the world's servant; would toil for that, not for the wretched aggrandizement of England against the world, or without care for the world. England, now stealing in every corner of the earth for the most wretched aggrandizement of Self, would then be no more hated or despised as a bullying ruffian or an unprincipled eyeless-needle-selling pedlar, but loved and honoured as the brave champion of Freedom and ablest civilizer of the time. But what would become then of the miserable doctrine of NON-INTERVENTION,—the refuge or pretence of Whig knaves, the shallow subterfuge of traders who care nothing if
the whole world go to wreck so they may have a percentage on the breaking up ?
The mission of a Nation is the same as that of an individual: to assert its own rights and to fulfill its duty toward others. The duty consists in associating with others, for the maintenance of their rights, for the sake of mutual growth, for the realization of the brotherhood of Humanity.
How very wicked!' says some atheisical peace-monger : ‘And you would actually have nations go to war in defence of other nations? Yes, certainly, if Right should demand it. For we believe in God, in his law of association and progress, in the harmony of the universe: that is to say, we believe that, as an individual cannot detach himself from his kind without breaking the chain of human life, so a nation cannot as one man isolate itself from the world without causing a million-fold greater gap. I call the peace-monger atheistical, because his amiable egotism loses sight of this, forgets God and his scheme; because his theory (I do not meddle with his undeniable 'good intentions,' which so 'pleasantly' pave the hell-path of the worst despotisms, but only with his theory) would make life anarchical. Every man for himself and no God for us all. For what is ‘human brotherhood ?' Seeing one's brother quietly murdered unless the stone-deaf assassin will listen to our eloquence? Standing out of the way to see our brother wronged ? English law of all periods, and English sense of some, would call this being an accomplice in the wrong. I see a wrong being committed, I have the power of preventing it, I do not prevent it. Whatever sympatbetic cant may froth my lips, my deed consents to the wrong-I am the accomplice. The wrong-doer's accomplice,-is not he wroug.doer also ? If Richard Cobden had been brother to Cain, would he have stood by with folded hands, prating of peace proprieties, while he saw the Righteous murdered? Or is only the murderer his brother's keeper,' and the accomplice no blood-relation? When History shall gibbet Assassin Barrot for his ruffianly outrage upon Rome, she will hang beneath bim his dastardly accomplices--the 'English' Whigs and their 'liberal' supporters.
Non-intervention between States is the same as Laissez-faire between individuals: the liberty of the strongest-the right of ruffianism-ANARCHY.
Republicanism is opposed to anarchy. We would organize. Let the Nation, as the Individual, be the true servant, and soldier (if need be), of God upon the earth,-serving, or fighting, as the case may be, for God's children, his brethren, under the sure leadership of Justice—who does not fear lest 'the heavens should fall' upon the the shop while she is out on duty. O, again for a real government of England, echoing the people's heart, to hurl its armed hand in the teeth of the beast Tyranny, and by at least one manful act for 'God and his Right,' to redeem the national honour, now ever pawned by Tyranny's infamous subveners for any petty private object of their own. “Promise-breaker !- traitor!coward !' Why should a Nation endure taunts which would rouse a slave ?
Win we our Republican Government, and our name may be redeemed: theu only. When a healthy Nation shall take its place among the struggling Peopics, as a brother among his equals, lovingly to aid them in their aspirations and in their progress; weighing peace (O, ever-desired peace) and war, not in the false scales of diplomatic intrigue or personal baseness, but in the eternal balance of Right and Wrong. Loving peace, the Republic will not, like some shabby monarchy, flinch
from war when it sees a brother-nation attacked in the first of all rights the right of an independent individuality. The escaping slave shall not be hunted back to slavery, nor even given up to the hunters, by the true Republican. Jealously as he would guard his own individuality—which even himself cannot alienate or make the slave of another, so will he defend the liberty of even the least of his brethren.
• Peoples are the individuals of Humanity. Nationality is the sign of their individuality, and the guarantee of their liberty: it is sacred. Indicated at once by tradition, by language, by a determined aptitude, by a special mission to fulfill, it ought to be held sacred, in order that it may be free 'to harmonize itself with the whole, and to assume its proper functions for the amelioration of all, for the progress of Humanity.'
Apply these principles to the present partitioning of Europe, and it will be clear why the Republican believes in the necessity of remaking the map and organization of Europe,' to bring them into accordance with his faith. Poland parted among thieves-Italy-Hungary-Germany—Greece: there is no need to enumerate. Draw these upon the republican map, and, and where will be the present landmarks ? Where the existing' empires ? The present arrangement of Europe has been made for the benefit of a few families, in violation of the most decisive marks of nationality, in order to facilitate the spoliation of the peoples. All that arrangement of Vienna shall be torn to pieces by the Republican Natious, and their natural boundaries, recognized at an European Congress, be thenceforth assured.
'We believe that a pact, a congress of the representatives of all nationalities, constituted and recognized, having for mission to serry the holy alliance of Peoples and to formalize the common right and duty, are at the end of all our efforts.'
So shall the free Nations, standing each in its own perfect dignity, be as a band of brothers, sworn to serve God and to extirpate Tyranny from the world.
We believe in EQUALITY, LIBERTY, and FRATERNITY: in the equal ground of human right, on which alone true freedom can be based,—the freedom which is not the unlimited sway of the stronger, but the opportunity of healthy growth to the utmost of natural capability for the weakest as well as for the mightiest, in order that the fullest perfection of each may be obtained, toward a brotherly combination of strengths for the surer and greater progress of the whole world.
We believe in the PERFECTIBILITY OF THE HUMAN RACE: that is to say in its power of continual improvement. And we believe that this improvement may be systematized, and insured, and immensely accelerated, by men acting in concert, in AssociatiON,—freely organizing themselves under the Government of the Wisest and Most Virtuous among them.
We believe that Government, however chosen or however worthy of rule, is not required by society to be the dictator over thc lives of individuals-as a
With the exception of France—the non-partitioning of which the Holy Alliance' is now regretting. They shall some day know regret for England too, for all she is now, under her oligarchy, so pliant a tool for despotism.