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origin and nature, but by communion of work and object. Those antique Greeks have passed away: but their work has not passed, and without it you would not have that grade of intellectual and moral development to which you now have reached. Those populations consecrated with their blood an idea of national liberty for which you still are combating. That martyr taught by dying that men ought to sacrifice every thing, and, if necessary, life itself, for what they believe to be the Truth. It matters little that he and many others signed their faith with their blood, thus cutting off their own individual development upon earth: God provides elsewhere for them. It is the development of Humanity wbich is of importance. It matters that the coming generation should rise, instructed by your struggles and sacrifices, higher and more mighty than yourselves, in the knowledge of the Law, in the adoration of the Truth. It matters, that, fortified by examples, human nature should improve, and verify more and more the design of God on earth. And in whatever place human nature improves, wherever a truth is conquered, wherever one step in advance on the path of edu. cation, of progress, of morality, is made, it is a step, a conquest, which will sooner or later benefit the whole of Humanity. You are all soldiers of one army that moves on different roads, divided into different corps, toward the conquest of one single object. At present you look only to your immediate chiefs; the different uniforms, the diverse watchwords, the distances which separate the corps of operation from each other, the mountains which conceal the one from the other, often cause you to deny that truth, and exclusively concentrate your attention upon the object which is next to you. But he among you who can embrace the whole, and direct the general movement, is superior to you all. The secret of the battle is with God, and he-will know when to assemble you

all in one camp, and under one banner.

What a space between that faith which agitates our souls, and which will be the basis of the morals of the Epoch about to rise, and that on which the generations we now call ancient based their Morality! And how close the tie existing between the idea we ourselves formed of the Divine Principle, and that which we have formed of our duties! The first men had a sentiment of God, but without understanding him, without even seeking to understand him in his Law: they perceived him in his power, not in his love: they confusedly conceived a sort of relation between him and each individual ;-nothing more.

Little apt to detach themselves from the sphere of sensible objects, they substantiated Him in one of them : in the tree which they had seen struck by a thunder-bolt,-in the stone near which they had pitched a tent,-in the first animal that presented itself to their view. It was the worship which the history of religion distinguishes by the name of fetichism. And then men knew but the family, the reproduction in a manner of their own individuality: beyond the circle of the family, we none but strangers, or, more commonly, enemies : to help themselves and their family was the only basis of their morality. Afterwards, the idea of God became enlarged. From sensible objects man timidly ascended to abstraction: he generalized. God was no more only the protector of the family, but of the association of many families, of the city, of the race. To fetichism succeeded polytheism, the worship of many Gods. Then also morality widened its round of action. Men acknowledged the existence of more extended duties than those of the family, and laboured for the growth of the race, of the nation. Nevertheless they were ignorant of Humanity. Every nation called the foreigners barbarians, treated them as such, and sought by force or cunning their conquest or abasement. Every nation had foreigners and barbarians in its borders: men, millions of men, not admitted into the religious rites of the citizens,- believed to be of a different nature, -slaves among the free. The unity of mankind could only be admitted as the consequence of the unity of God; and the unity of God, divined only by some rare thinkers of antiquity, proclaimed by Moses, but with the fatal restriction—that one single People was the elect of God, was recognized only toward the dissolution of the Roman Empire through the work of Christianity. Christ placed at the head of his faith those iwo inseparable truths-You have but one God and all men are the Sons of God, and the promulgation of those two truths changed the aspect of the world, and extended the circle of morals to the very confines of the inhabited earth. To the duties toward the family and the country, were added the duties toward Humanity. Then man learned that, wherever he met with one like unto himself, there was his brother, a brother endowed with a soul immortal as his own, destined to rejoin its Creator, and that he owed him lore, association of faith, and assistance both by advice and deed wherever it might be needed. Then, as a presentiment of other truths contained germ-like in Christianity, words sublime, unintelligible to antiquity, wrongly understood or interpreted by those who sueceeded, were heard from the lips of the Apostles: For, as many members are in one body, and all members hare not the same office : so toe, being many, are one body, and erery one members of one another. And there shall be one fold, and one shepherd. And now, after eighteen centuries of study and experience and fatigue, the question is to give development to those germs: the question is to promulgate not only that Humanity is one single body, and ought to be governed by one single law, but also that the first article of that Law is Progress ; progress here on earth, where we are to verify as much as possible the design of God, and prepare ourselves by education for better destinies. The question is to teach men, that if Humanity is one single body, we all, as members of that body, ought to labour at its derelopment, and to render it more harmonious, and its life more active and vigorous. The question is to convince ourselves that we cannot climb toward God except by means of the souls of our brethren, and that we ought to improve and purify them even where they do not ask it. The question is that only the whole of Humanity is able to accompl sh that part of the design of God which he would have accomplished here below, to substitute for the exercise of charity toward individuals, a work of association tending to amelicrate all together, and to direct toward that object both the family and the country Other and vaster duties will reveal themselves to us in future, according as we acquire an idea less inperfect and more clear of our Law of life. Thus God, the Father, by means of


• Paul to the Romans. Chap. xii. 4, 5.

Jchn's Gospel Clap. 1. 16.

u slow but continual religious education, guides Humanity toward an impiove ment in which our individuality likewise improves.

It improves in that improvement, and without a common improvement you cannot hope to ameliorate the material or moral conditions of the individual. Generally speaking, should you even wish to do so, you cannot separate your life from that of Humanity. You live in it, from it, and by it. Your soul, save the exception of some very few extraordinarily mighty ones, cannot free itself from the influence of the elements through which it exerts itself; as the body, however robust its constitution, cannot withdraw itself from the action of a corrupted atmosphere that surrounds it. How many of you wish, with surety of not driving them into persecution, to educate your sons to unlimited sincerity, where tyranny and espionage impose the necessity of concealing or dissembling two thirds of your opinions ? How many of you would educate them to contempt of riches, in a society in which gold is the only power that obtains honour, influence, respect, or protects them against the arbitrariness and insult of the masters and their agents ? Where is he among you, who loving, and with the best intentions in the world, has not whispered to his beloved in Italy: ‘Mistrust men,-every honest man should retire within himself, and shun public life,-Charity begins at home,'—and other such maxims, evidently immoral, but suggested by the general aspect of society? Which is the mother who, although belonging to a faith that adores the cross of Christ, the willing martyr of Humanity, has not thrown her arms around the neck of her son, endeavouring to dissuade him from perilous attempts for the good of his brethren ? And should you even find in yourselves the courage to teach the contrary, would not all society with its thousand voices, by its thousands of bad examples, destroy the effect of your words ? Can you purify yourselves, or exalt yourselves, amidst an atmosphere of contamination and corruption ? And to descend to your material conditions, do you think you could durably improve them by any other way but that of common improvement? Here in England, where we write, to the new tax, imposed upon every income exceeding one hundred and fifty pourds a year, the rich manufacturers replied by announcing to their workmen the diminution of their wages. But with an ill-ordered government, in a society in which the condition of the workmen is left to the arbitrariness of their employers, will there ever be any taxes imposed without the latter revenging themselves by the reduction of your wages ?

of pounds are spent yearly in England in private charity, for the relief of individuals fallen into misery; and misery yearly increases, and individual charity is proved insufficient to stay the plague, and the necessity of collective organic remedies is more than ever universally felt.—Where the country is continually threatened,—in consequence of the unjust laws of those who govern,—with a violent conflict between the oppressors and the oppressed, do you suppose that capital can flow freely, and that vast, lengthy and costly, enterprizes can abound? Where tolls and prohibitions depend upon the caprice of an absolute government, which nothing modifies, and whose expenses for army, spies, functionaries, and pensioners, increase with the needs of its own safety, do you believe that the activity of industry and of manufactures cau acquire an uninterrupted and progressive development ? You may answer that it will suflice to better organize

the government and the social conditions of your own country ?-It will not suffice. There is now no people which lives exclusively upon its own products. You live by exchange, importations and exportations. Every foreign nation which is impoverished, and in which the number of consumers diminishes, is a market the less for you. A foreign commerce subjected to crisis or to ruin,in consequence of villainous ordinances,-produces crisis or ruin for yours. Failures in England or America lead to failures in Italy. Credit is now not a national but an European institution. Besides, every attempt you may make toward national improvement will find its enemies in all governments-on account of the League contracted between the princes,—who will be the first to perceive that the

question has now become a general one. There is therefore no other hope for you but in universal improvement, in a fraternity between all the European Peoples, and through Europe, with all Humanity.

Hence, brethren, for your own duties' sake and benefit, you must never forget, that your first duties,—duties, without whose fulfilment you cannot hope to fulfil those which your family and your country command, -are the duties toward Humanity. Let your word and your work be for all, as God is for all, in his love and in his law. In whatever land you are, wherever a man is struggling for right, for justice, for Truth, there is your brother : wherever a man is tormented by error, injustice, or tyranny, there is your brother. Freemen or slaves, YOU ARE ALL BRETHREN. One is your origin, one the law, one the aim of you all.

faith be one, one your action, one the banner under which you fight. Say not—The language we speak is different : tears, action, martyrdom, form a language common to all men, which all of you understand. Say not-Humanity is too vast, and we too weak. God measures not the strength, but the intention. Love Humanity! At every one of your actions in the circle of the country or of the family, ask yourselves- If what I do were to be done by all, and for all, would it help or injure Humanity? and if your conscience replies to you, that it would injure, desist! desist even though it seem to you that from your action an immediate advantage would ensue for your Country or for your Family. Be apostles of this faith, apostles of the brotherhood of nations, and of their unity, now admitted by mankind in prin. ciple, but denied in fact. Be this wherever you can, and as far as you can. Neither God nor man can require more from you. For, I say unto you, that in becoming such--be it only inwardly if it cannot be otherwise-you will help Humanity. God measures the steps of education which he causes mankind to ascend according to the number and the purity of the believers. When you shall be pure and numerous, God, who counts you, will open to you a path to action.

Let your

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CARLOS III: King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily,–1759–88. Padre de la Patria y Protector de las Ciei (Father of his Country and Protector of the Sciences). Facsimile of a cast from the Royal Mint.


( 4 Literal Translation of the Catechism published for the use of the Schools and Churches in the Polish Provinces of Russia, in the year 1832.)

Quest. 1. How is the authority of the Emperor to be considered in reference to the spirit of Christianity ?

Ans. As proceeding from God.
Quest. 2. How is this substantiated by the nature of things ?

Ans. It is by the will of God that men live in society: hence the various relations which constitute society, which for its more complete security is divided into parts called nations, the government of which is intrusted to a prince, king, or emperor, or, in other words, to a supreme ruler : we see then, that as man exists in conformity to the will of God, society emanates from the same Divine will, and more especially the supreme power and authority of our lord and master, the Czar.

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