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in those very times when that Court did the rest of those her pious works, for which she is now fall’n from the Starres with Lucifer. Whereby ye may guesse what kinde of State prudence, what love of the people, what care of Religion, or good manners there was at the contriving, although with singular hypocrisie it pretended to bind books to their good behaviour. And how it got the upper hand of your precedent Order so well constituted before, if we may beleeve those men whose profefsion gives them cause to enquire moft, it may be doubted there was in it the fraud of some old patentees and monopolizers in the trade of book-selling; who under
pretence of the poor in their Company not to be defrauded, and the just retaining of each man his severall copy, which God forbid should be gainsaid, brought divers glosing colours to the House, which were indeed but colours, and serving to no end except it be to exercise a superiority over their neighbours, men who doe not therefore labour in an honest profession to which learning is indetted, that they should be made other mens vassals. Another end is thought was aym'd at by some of them in procuring by petition this Order, that having power in their hands, malignant books might the easier scape abroad, as the event shews. But of these Sophisms and Elenchs of marchandize I skill not : This I know, that errors in a good government and in a bad are equally almost incident; for what Magistrate may not be mif-inform’d, and much the sooner, if liberty of Printing be reduc't into the power of a few; but to redresse willingly and speedily what hath bin err'd, and in highest autority to esteem a plain advertisement more then others have done a sumptuous bribe, is a vertue (honour'd Lords and Commons) answerable to Your highest actions, and whereof none can participat but greatest and wiseft men."
1. AREOPAGITICA—that which appertains to the Areopagus. There is at Athens a hill, formerly called • * Apelog máyos, 'the hill of Ares,' the Mar's Hill' of Acts xvii. 22, whereon used to assemble a Council, called 'The Council of the Areiopagus.' Befides supreme judicial authority in cases of wilful murder, this Council possessed very large social influence ; having the general undefined superintendence of religion, morals, education, and the like. It was held in veneration by the whole people. It appears to have been strongly conservative in tone, and seems to have occupied a somewhat similar position in the Athenian republic to that of the House of Lords in the British constitution. 2. There were two Wardens in the Stationers' Company. 3. Reprinted at page 25.
4. BERNARDO DAVANZATI Bostichi [b. 30 August 1529-d. 20 March 1606). A Florentine author of considerable repute. He wrote several works. I have not, as yet, been able to identify the particular one referred to by Milton.
5. ROBERT GREVIL, LORD BROOKE–The title of this book is, A discourse opening the nature of that Epifcopacie, which is exercised in England. Wherein, with all Humility, are represented fome Confiderations tending to the much-desired Peace, and long expected Reformation, of This our Mother Church. Right Honourable ROBERT Lord BROOKE.—London, Printed by R. C. for Samuel Cartwright, and are to be sold at the signe of the Hand and Bible in Ducke-Lane 1641. This Lord Brooke was born in 1607, and was the son of the celebrated Fulk Grevil, Lord Brooke of Beauchamps-court, the friend of Sir Philip Sidney. He was killed on 2 March 1642, while commanding the parlia. mentary forces attacking the Church-close at Litchfield. It fell 'out, that he having planted his great guns against the South
East-gate of the Close, he was, tho' harnessed with plate-armour cap-a-pe, shot from the church in the eye by one Diot, a 'Clergy-man's son, (who could neither hear or speak) as he stood in a door (whither he came to see the occasion of a suddeu shout made by the soldiers) of which he instantly died.'-A. à. Wood. Athene Oxonienses, Il. 433, Ed: by Bliss, 1815.
6. Reprinted at page 24. 7. Reprinted at page 7. 8. GILBERT MABBOʻrt, gentleman, was licenser of pamphlets. He resigned on 22nd May, 1649, giving as his reasons argu. ments similar to those in the ‘Areopagitica.'