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suggesting a guess; or, what would be more satisfactory perhaps, it gives one the freedom of choice when it occurs in proper names. Greenough, Clough, Vaughn, Brough, Brougham.

Th has its two sounds, aspirate and voice. These sounds are made by placing the end of the tongue against the edge of the upper front teeth. To make the aspirate-sound, as in thin, the breath is simply blown through. In the vocal sound, as in this, the vocal breath is blown through, making a buzzing sound. This, those, that, them, thine.

Of wh we have already treated under the letter w.

CHAPTER XI.

ARTICULATION-GYMNASTICS OF THE VOICE-EXERCISES FOR RUNNING THE

GAUNTLET-THE “LEADER" EXERCISE.

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The great obstacle to articulation lies in the pupil not being able to articulate aspirate and subvowel-sounds, particularly when they come together in one syllable, or follow each other in different syllables. Articulation generally is so poor that the following table is inserted for the purpose of affording gymnastic exercises. Let no one neglect this practice. Let them be pronounced and spelled. In classes, one pupil may pronounce and the next one spell, and the speller pronounce the next word for spelling, and so on around the class. Each one will then discover in what condition his or her articulating powers are.

Remember, exactness and grace go together in other gymnastic exercises—fencing, riding, boxing-so do not slight these nobler gymnastics of the voice.

EXERCISES FOR ARTICULATION. A-rm, a-rm'd, a-rms, a-rm’st, a-rm’dst; bu-rn, bu-rn'd, bu-rnt, u-rns, ea-rn'st, ea-rn'd st; ha-rp, ha-rp'd, ha-rps; hea-rse, fea-rist, bu-rsts; hea-rt, hea-rts; hu-rt' st; or-b'd, pro-b’dst; a-ble, trou-bld, trou-bl'dst, trou-bles, trou-blst; br-and; ri-bs, rib-b'st; pro-bes.

A thousand shrieks for hopeless mercy call. It was the severest storm of the season, but the masts stood through the gale.

Can-dle, han-dľd, can-dles, fon-dl'st; dr-ove; dee-ds; brea-dth, brea-dths; ree-fd, ree-f'd'st; fl-ame, tri-fi'd, tri-ft'st, tri-fles; fr-ame; lau-ghs, lau-gh'st;

wa-ft, wa-fts, wa-ft st; cli-ffs; brag-ged, brag-g’dst; gl-ow, hag-gled, man-gles, man-glost; gr-ave; ba-ck'd; un-cle, tin-kld, truc-kles, truc-klst, truc-kld st; blac-ken, blac-ken'd, blac-kens, blac-ken'st, blac-ken'd'st; cr-oney; thin-ks, thin-k'st; e-lbe, bu-lb'd, bu-lbs; ho-ld, ho-lds, ho-ld'st; e-lf, e-lfs, de-lft ware; bu-lge; mi-lk, mi-lk d, si-lks, mu-lct, mu-lcts; e-lm, whe-Im'd, whe-Ims; fa-u'n.

“Fair ladies mask'd are roses in their buds,
Dismask'd their damask sweet commixture shown,

Are angels veiling clouds, or roses blown.” His acts being seven ages. The acts of the apostles. This act more than all other acts of the legislature laid the axe at the root of the evil. On either side an ocean exists. On neither side a notion exists. When Ajax strives some rock’s vast weight to throw. Then rustling, crackling, crashing thunder down. The magistrates ought to prove the charge. The magistrates sought prove the charge.

Nature can only lay the foundation; the superstructure, with all its ornaments, is the work of education. Although those noble gifts of mind, without which no one can become an eloquent speaker, are from nature's God, yet articulation, the elements, quantity, etc., are to be learned.

He proposed an amicable adjustment of all difficulties. We must fight it through. It must be so. After the most straitest sect. This was the most unkindest cut.

Hea-lth, hea-lths; ento-mb'd; Hu-mph-rey; atte-mpt, atte-mpts; to-mbs, ento-mb'st; a-nd, ba-nds, se-nd'st; ra-nge, ra-ng'd; thi-nk, thi-nks, thi-nk'st; se-nt, wa-nt'st, wa-nts; fi-ns; Ali-nch, fli-nch'd; wi-nc'd; pi-gs, wa-g'st; hed-ged; ha-ng'd; so-ngs; stre-ngth, stre-ngths; pl-uck, rip-pled, rip-ples, rip-pl'st; pr-ay; cli-ps, ni-p’st; he-rb, ba-rb’d, he-rbs, ba-rb’st, ba-rb’d'st; ba-rd, ba-rds, hea-rd st; su-rf, wha-rf'd; bu-rgh, bu-rghs; ba-rge, u-rg'd; ha-rk, ba-rk'd, a-rcs, ba-rk'st, ba-rk'd st; sna-rl, hu-rld, sna-rls, sna-rl'st, sna-rld'st.

By indefatigable study and long-continued practice the renowned orators of antiquity became almost perfect in articulation. They were unwilling that even a single error should escape their lips. This is one of the great secrets of their immortality. They knew that the faculty of speech is the power of giving sounds to thought. They were correct in their views.

He was incapable of a mean or questionable action. He was amiable, respectable, formidable, unbearable, intolerable, unmanageable, terrible.

"An hour passed on—the Turk awoke;

That bright dream was his last;
He woke-to hear his sentries shriek

*To arms! they come! the Greek! the Greek!!”

Do not say

-the Turky woke; That bright dream wazis las; He woke to hear the sentry sriek

"Too arms! they come! the Greek the Greek!" Articulation is the cutting out and shaping, in a perfectly distinct and appropriate manner, with the organs of speech all the simple and compound sounds which our twenty-six letters represent. It is to the ear what a fair handwriting is to the eye, and relates, of course, to the sounds, not to the names, of both vowels and consonants. It depends on the exact positions and correct operations of the vocal powers, and on the ability to vary them with rapidity, precision, and effect. Thus articulation is purely an intellectual act, and belongs not to any of the brute creation.

Be very particular in pronouncing the jaw or voice-breakers, and cease not till you can give every sound fully, correctly, and distinctly. If your vocal powers are well exercised by faithful practice on the more difficult combinations, they will acquire a facility of movement, a precision of action, a flexibility, grace, and force truly surprising.

The awful cruelties, barbarisms, horrors, crimes, massacres, and conflagrations of civil wars, regardless of rights or wrongs, wreak rough, wrathful revenge on your shrill-shrieking daughters. The forest's shades and the fortresses' foreheads faced the forecastle's forked form; thatched the theft and thaw'd the thick thimble, thwack athwart the thyroid.

Self-possession, under all circumstances, is a most desirable 'attainment. Running the gauntlet will test it. We have all heard of the practice that prevails among some tribes of Indians called "running the gauntlet.A company is arranged in two rows, a few yards apart, and a prisoner is obliged to run between the ranks. Each throws his hatchet at him as he passes, and if he escapes this ordeal without being killed he is permitted to live without further hazard. In the important exercise here recommended, each member of the class, after making some proficiency, memorizes and recites a strong and powerful sentence, and the others try to put out or break down the one that is speaking, by all sorts of remarks, sounds, looks, and actions, though without touching him; and the gauntlet-speaker girds up the loins of his mind and endeavors to keep the fountain of feeling higher than the streams, and so long as he does so he is safe; but alas for him that shrinks into himself and yields to his opponents.

Any one who can recite the following with expression, under the noise, confusion, and jests of the class, will have achieved a great

success :

Hast thou, in feverish and unquiet sleep,
Dreamt-th't some merciless DEMON of the air
Rais'd thee aloft,—and held thee by the hair
Over the brow-of a down-looking steep,
Gaping, below, into a CHASM—so deep
Th't, by the utmost straining of thine eye,
Thou canst no resting-place descry;

Not e'en a bush-to save thee, shouldst thou sweep
Adown the black descent; that then the hand
Suddenly parted thee, and left thee there,
Holdingbut by finger-tips the bare
And jagged ridge above, that seems as sand
To crumble 'neath thy touch ?—If so, I deem

Th’t thou hast had rather an ugly dream."
The following will be easier :

"Echoed from earth a hollow roar

Like ocean on the midnight shore;
A sheet of lightning o'er them wheeled,
The solid ground beneath them reel'd;
In dust sank roof and battlement,
Like webs the giant walls were rent;
Red, broad, before his startled gaze,
The monarch saw his Egypt blaze.
Still swelled the plague—the flame grew pale;
Burst from the clouds the charge of hail;
With arrowy keenness, iron weight,
Down poured the ministers of fate;
Till man and cattle, crushed, congealed,

Covered with death the boundless field.”
“Roll proudly on! brave blood is with thee sweeping,

Poured out by sons of thine,
When sword and spirit forth in joy were leaping

Like thee, victorious Rhine!
Go, tell the seas that chain shall bind thee never;

Sound on, by hearth and shrine;
Sing through the hills that thou art free forever;

Lift up thy voice, O Rhine!”
Vir. How! is it something can't be told
At once? Speak out, boy! Ha! your looks are loaded
With matter. Is't so heavy that your tongue
Can not unburden them? Your brother left
The camp on duty yesterday-hath aught
Happened to him ? Did he arrive in safety?
Is he safe? Is he well?

In the leader exercises one reads until he or she makes a mistake in articulation, the entire class being critics for the occasion. The moment the leader makes a mistake the next one takes up the word, repronounces it, and proceeds until he is dethroned by an error, and so on around the class. This is an exciting exercise, and requires all to have their eyes and ears open and their tongues supple. All must be careful to mind the "stops.”

EXERCISE 1. CICERO AND DEMOSTHENES.-An orator, addressing himself more to the passions, naturally has much passionate ardor ; whilst another, possessing an elevation of style and majestic gravity, is never cold, though he has not the same vehemence. In this respect do these great orators differ. Demosthenes—abounds in concise sublimity; Cicero,-in diffuseness: the former, on account of his destroying and consuming everything by his violence, rapidity, strength, and vehemence, may be compared to a hurricane or thunderbolt; the latter, to a wide extended conflagration, spreading in every direction with a great, constant, and irresistible flame.

EXERCISE 2. THE POWER OF IMAGINATION.
The lunatic, the lover, and the poet
Are of IMAGINATION-all compact :
One-sees more devils—than vast hell can hold;
That-is the MADMAN. The LOVER, all as frantic,
Sees Helen's beauty_in a brow of Egypt.
The POET's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,
Doth glance from HEAVEN—to earth, from earthto HEAVEN;
And, as IMAGINATIONbodies forth
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
Forms them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing

A local habitation and a name." EXERCISE 3. THE HUMAN VOICE.-Among all the wonderful varieties of artificial instruments which discourse excellent music, where shall we find one that can be compared to the human voice? And where can we find an instrument comparable to the human mind, upon whose stops the real musician, the poet, and the orator sometimes lays his hands, and avails himself of the entire compass of its magnificent capacities? Oh! the length, the breadth, the height, and the depth of music and eloquence !

EXERCISE 4. SELF-SACRIFICING AMBITION.–We need a loftier ideal to nerve us for heroic lives. To know and feel our nothingness without regretting it; to deem fame, riches, personal happiness, but shadows of which human good is the substance; to welcome pain, privation, ignominy, so that the sphere of human knowledge, the empire of virtue, be thereby extended : such is the soul's temper in which the heroes of the coming age shall be cast. When the stately monuments of mightiest conquerors shall have become shapeless and forgotten ruins, the humble graves of earth's Howards and Frys shall still be freshened by the tears of fondly admiring millions, and the proudest epitaph shall be the simple entreaty,

“Write me as one who loved his fellow-men."

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