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effort to speak while his lips seem to be hermetically sealed; in others, he will, while speaking, suddenly lose all power of volition over his articulating organs, while his mouth remains wide open. Others, again, make an effort to speak, and all breath is expelled without producing a sound. In most cases, however, there is usually little or no vocality. To enumerate all the phases is unnecessary, as the cause is essentially the same in all-weakness of the vocal and respiratory muscles. But many persons continue the habit, which was acquired in a delicate state of health, after these chords and muscles are strong. In such cases it becomes exceedingly obstinate, and requires great patience and determination on the part of both pupil and teacher to effectually overcome it.
It will be recollected that we have said all voice or vocal sounds are made in the top of the larynx, and that aspirates are pure breathsounds. Therefore, when we find the organs of speech simply give us aspirate-sounds without any voice-sound, we refer the fault to the place where the voice is produced. If the laryngeal chords are too weak to obey volition, and can not contract soon enough to obstruct the breath and cause an immediate vibration of air, the tongue and lips take the unvocal breath and make it into aspirates. The organs are all ready to talk, and the effort is to co-operate naturally. And when the unfortunate person finds but a portion of his organs working vigorously while the rest are making only spasmodic efforts, it becomes embarrassing, and this of course only heightens the difficulty.
The first step toward a cure is to direct the mind of the afflicted person to the seat of the difficulty; the second, a return to a normal condition of breathing. The patient must acquire a full, even inhalation and exhalation of air-s0 complete that the whole abdominal surface will rise and fall harmoniously, unaccompanied by any spasmodic exertions from the top of the lungs, or raising of the shoulders. Nothing can be done that will give the least promise of success until this much is gained. The next step should be a course of vocal gymnastics, with as little talking as possible. Indeed, it would much facilitate improvement if talking should be dispensed with altogether at first, and the patient concentrate all energy in forming the vowelsounds. All the vowels should be expelled by different degrees of force, in different lengths, and in different qualities of voice, until the vocal muscles are strengthened and become perfectly obedient to the will never forgetting that these exercises must be moderate, and be discontinued at the slightest indication of fatigue, and never losing
Rise, and revenge her slaughtered citizens,83d. Rise,
rise! 'tis Rome demands your help!
or share their fate!
manure the fields of Thessaly, 4th. The corpse of half her senate
-while we-sit here, deliberating in cold debate
if we should sacrifice our lives to honor,
or wear them out in servitudo and chains.87654321