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for the Howards instead of the Seymours. The To Mrs Margaret Hussey.

poems of this chivalrous and unfortunate nobleMerry Margaret,

man were not printed until ten years after his As midsummer flower,

death. They were published in a volume entitled Gentle as falcon,

Tottel's Miscellany, 1557, the first collection of Or hawk of the tower;

English poetry by different writers, and which ran With solace and gladness,

through six editions in seven years. The loveMuch mirth and no madness,

strains of Surrey, addressed to some unknown All good and no badness;

Geraldine, were adopted by Nash, the well-known So joyously,

dramatic poet and miscellaneous writer, as the So maidenly,

basis of a series of romantic fictions, in which the So womanly,

noble poet was represented as travelling in Italy, Her demeaning,

proclaiming the beauty of his Geraldine, and In everything,

defending her matchless charms in tilt and tourFar, far passing

nament. At the court of the emperor, Surrey was That I can indite, Or suffice to write,

said to have met with the famous magician, Of Merry Margaret,

Cornelius Agrippa, who shewed him, in a necroAs midsummer flower,

mantic mirror, his Geraldine languishing on a Gentle as falcon,

couch reading one of his sonnets! The whole Or hawk of the tower ;

of this knightly legend was a fabrication by Nash, As patient and as still,

but it long held possession of the popular mind. And as full of good will,

All that is known of the poet's Geraldine is con-
As fair Isiphil,

tained in this sonnet :
Sweet Pomander,

From Tuscane came my lady's worthy race ;
Good Cassander;

Fair Florence was sometime their ancient seat;
Steadfast of thought,

The western isle whose pleasant shore doth face
Well made, well wrought,

Wild Camber's cliffs, did give her lively heat :
Far may be sought,

Fostered she was with milk of Irish breast;
Ere you can find

Her sire, an earl ; her dame of princes' blood :
So courteous, so kind,

From tender years, in Britain doth she rest
As Merry Margaret,

With king's child, where she tasteth costly food.
This midsummer flower,

Hunsdon did first present her to my eyen :
Gentle as falcon,

Bright is her hue, and Geraldine she hight :
Or hawk of the tower.

Hampton me taught to wish her first for mine ;
And Windsor, alas ! doth chase me from her sight.

Her beauty of kind, her virtue from above-

Happy is he that can obtain her love! HENRY HOWARD, EARL OF SURREY, was the The description is here so minute and specific, grandson of the Duke of Norfolk who, for his that, if actually real, the lady must have been services in the battle of Flodden, regained the known to many of the readers of Surrey's manutitle of Duke, lost by his father at Bosworth, script verses. Horace Walpole endeavoured to where ' Dickon, his master, was bought and sold.' prove that the Geraldine of the poet was Lady Great obscurity hangs over the personal history of Elizabeth Fitzgerald; but Lady Elizabeth was the accomplished Surrey, and the few known facts only twelve or thirteen years old when Surrey is have been blended with a mass of fable. He was supposed to have fallen in love with her. Mr born about the year 1517; in 1526 was made cup- Hallam has said that Surrey did much for his own bearer to the king; in 1532 accompanied Henry country and his native language, but that his on his famous visit to Boulogne ; and the same taste is more striking than his genius. His poetry year was contracted in marriage to Lady Francis is certainly remarkable for correctness of style Vere, daughter of the Earl of Oxford. On account and purity of expression. He was among the of the youth of Surrey, the marriage, however, did first, if not the very first, to introduce blank verse not take place till 1535. In March 1536 his son into our poetry, and to reject the pedantry which Thomas was born. In 1542 he accompanied his overflows in the pages of his predecessors. father, commander of the English forces, to Scotland, and assisted in the campaign which devas- Prisoner in Windsor, he recounteth his Pleasure there tated the Scottish Borders. Surrey was present

passed. at the burning of Kelso. In the subsequent war

So cruel prison how could betide, alas ! with France, Surrey was again distinguished; but

As proud Windsor ? where I, in lust and joy, the army he commanded was overpowered by

With a king's son, my childish years did pass, numbers near St Etienne in January 1545-6, and

In greater feast than Priam's son of Troy : shortly afterwards he was virtually recalled. The enmity of Lord Hertford is supposed to have

Where each sweet place returns a taste full sour! aggravated the royal displeasure towards Surrey. The large green courts where we were wont to hove, i In December 1546 he was committed to the With eyes cast up into the Maiden Tower, Tower; he was tried on 13th January 1545-6, and And easy sighs such as folk draw in love. executed on the 21st. Henry VIII. died a week afterwards, on the 28th. The charge against The stately seats, the ladies bright of hue ; Surrey was that he had assumed the royal arms

The dances short, long tales of great delight, the arms of Edward the Confessor, When he did

With words and looks that tigers could but rue, so Henry was on his deathbed, and the assump

Where each of us did plead the other's right. tion was part of a scheme to claim the regency

1 Hover, loiter. 3


The palm-play, where, despoiled for the game,

The rich old man that sees With dazed eyes oft we by gleams of love,

His end draw on so sore, Have missed the ball and got sight of our dame,

How he would be a boy again, To bait her eyes, which kept the leads above.

To live so much the more ! The gravel ground, with sleeves tied on the helm

Whereat full oft I smiled, Of foaming horse, with swords and friendly hearts;

To see how all these three, With cheer, as though one should another whelm,

From boy to man, from man to boy, Where we have fought, and chased oft with darts ;

Would chop and change degree : With silver drops the mead yet spread for ruth,

And musing thus, I think, In active games of nimbleness and strength,

The case is very strange, Where we did strain, trained with swarms of youth,

That man from wealth, to live in woe, Our tender limbs that yet shot up in length :

Doth ever seek to change. The secret groves which oft we made resound,

Thus thoughtful as I lay, Of pleasant plaint, and of our ladies' praise,

I saw my withered skin, Recording oft what grace each one had found,

How it doth shew my dented thews, What hope of speed, what dread of long delays :

The flesh was worn so thin; The wild forest, the clothed holts with green,

And eke my toothless chaps, With reins availed” and swift ybreathed horse ;

The gates of my right way, With cry of hounds, and merry blasts between,

That opes and shuts as I do speak, Where we did chase the fearful hart of force.

Do thus unto me say: The wide vales, eke, that harboured us each night,

“The white and hoarish hairs, Wherewith, alas, reviveth in my breast,

The messengers of age, The sweet accord such sleeps as yet delight,

That shew, like lines of true belief, The pleasant dreams, the quiet bed of rest :

That this life doth assuage ; The secret thoughts imparted with such trust,

Bids thee lay hand, and feel The wanton talk, the divers change of play,

Them hanging on my chin. The friendship sworn, each promise kept so just;

The which do write two ages past, Wherewith we passed the winter nights away.

The third now coming in. And with this thought, the blood forsakes the face,

'Hang up, therefore, the bit The tears berain my cheeks of deadly hue,

Of thy young wanton time; The which, as soon as sobbing sighs, alas,

And thou that therein beaten art, Upsupped have, thus I my plaint renew :

The happiest life define.' O place of bliss ! renewer of my woes,

Whereat I sighed, and said : Give me accounts, where is my noble fere ;3

'Farewell, my wonted joy, Whom in thy walls, thou dost each night inclose;

Truss up thy pack, and trudge from me, To other leef," but unto me most dear :

To every little boy ; Echo, alas ! that doth my sorrow rue,

* And tell them thus from me, Returns thereto a hollow sound of plaint.

Their time most happy is, Thus I alone, where all my freedom grew,

If to their time they reason had,
In prison pine with bondage and restraint,

To know the truth of this.'
And with remembrance of the greater grief
To banish the less, I find my chief relief.

The Means to Attain a Happy Life.
How no Age is content with his Own Estate, and how the

Martial, the things that do attain Age of Children is the happiest, if they had skill to

The happy life, be these, I find, understand it.

The riches left, not got with pain ;
Laid in my quiet bed,

The fruitful ground, the quiet mind,
In study as I were,
I saw within my troubled head

The equal friend ; no grudge, no strife ;
A heap of thoughts appear.

No charge of rule, nor governance ;

Without disease, the healthful life ;
And every thought did shew

The household of continuance :
So lively in mine eyes,
That now I sighed, and then I smiled,

The mean diet, no delicate fare ;
As cause of thoughts did rise.

True wisdom joined with simpleness ;
I saw the little boy,

The night discharged of all care ;

Where wine the wit may not oppress.
In thought how oft that he
Did wish of God, to scape the rod,

The faithful wife, without debate ;
A tall young man to be.

Such sleeps as may beguile the night;
The young man eke that feels

Contented with thine own estate,
His bones with pains opprest,

Ne wish for Death, ne fear his might.
How he would be a rich old man,
To live and lie at rest :

We add a few lines of Surrey's blank verse, ? A lover tied the sleeve of his mistress on the head of his horse. from his translation of the Second Book of the 2 Reins dropped. 3 Companion. 4 Agreeable.


It was the time when, granted from the gods,

But if till then my fingers play, The first sleep creeps most sweet in weary folk,

By thy desert their

wonted way, Lo, in my dream before mine eyes, methought

Blame not my Lute ! With rueful cheer I saw where Hector stood (Out of whose eyes there gushed streams of tears),

Farewell! unknown; for though thou break Drawn at a car as he of late had been,

My strings in spite with great disdain,
Distained with bloody dust, whose feet were bowl'nl Yet have I found out, for thy sake,
With the strait cords wherewith they haled him.

Strings for to string my Lute again :
Ay me, what one? That Hector how unlike

And if perchance this silly rhyme Which erst returned clad with Achilles' spoils,

Do make thee blush at any time,
Or when he threw into the Greekish ships

Blame not my Lute !
The Trojan flame !-So was his beard defiled,
His crisped locks all clustered with his blood,
With all such wounds as many he received

The Re-cured Lover exulteth in his Freedom, and voweth About the walls of that his native town.

to remain Free until Death.

I am as I am, and so will I be ;

But how that I am none knoweth truly.

Be it ill, be it well, be I bond, be I free, In Tottel's Miscellany were also first printed I am as I am, and so will I be. the poems of Sir THOMAS WYATT (1503-1542), a distinguished courtier and man of wit, who was I lead my life indifferently; fortunate enough to escape the capricious tyranny I mean nothing but honesty; of Henry VIII. and who may be said to have And though folks judge full diversely, died in the king's service. While travelling on a

I am as I am, and so will I die. mission to France, and riding fast in the heat of summer, he was attacked with a fever that

I do not rejoice, nor yet complain,

Both mirth and sadness I do refrain, proved mortal. Wyatt entertained a secret pas

And use the means since folks will feign; sion for Anne Boleyn, whom he has commem

Yet I am as I am, be it pleasant or pain. orated in his verse. His satires are more spirited than Surrey's, and one of his lighter pieces, his Divers do judge as they do trow, Ode to a Lute, is a fine amatory effusion. He Some of pleasure and some of woe, was, however, inferior to his noble friend in Yet for all that nothing they know; general poetical power.

But I am as I am, wheresoever I go.
The Lover's Lute cannot be blamed, though it sing of his

But since judgers do thus decay,
Lady's Unkindness.

Let every man his judgment say ;

I will it take in sport and play,
Blame not my Lute! for he must sound

For I am as I am, whosoever say nay.
Of this or that as liketh me;
For lack of wit the Lute is bound

Who judgeth well, well God them send ;
To give such tunes as pleaseth me;

Who judgeth evil, God them amend;
Though my songs be somewhat strange,

To judge the best therefore intend.
And speak such words as touch my change,

For I am as I am, and so will I end,
Blame not my Lute !

Yet some there be that take delight,
My Lute, alas ! doth not offend,

To judge folk's thought for envy and spite;
Though that perforce he must agree

But whether they judge me wrong or right,
To sound such tunes as I intend

I am as I am, and so do I write.
To sing to them that heareth me;
Then though my songs be somewhat plain,
And toucheth some that use to feign,

Praying you all that this do read,
Blame not my Lute!

To trust it as you do your creed;

And not to think I change my weed,
My Lute and strings may not deny,

For I am as I am, however I speed.
But as I strike they must obey ;
Break not them so wrongfully,

But how that is I leave to you;
But wreak thyself some other way;

Judge as ye list, false or true,
And though the songs which I indite

Ye know no more than afore ye knew,
Do quit thy change with rightful spite,

Yet I am as I am, whatever ensue.
Blame not my Lute!

And from this mind I will not flee,
Spite asketh spite, and changing change,

But to you all that misjudge me,
And falsed faith must needs be known;

I do protest, as ye may see,
The faults so great, the case so strange ;

That I am as I am, and so will be.
Of right it must abroad be blown :
Then since that by thine own desert
My songs do tell how true thou art,

That Pleasure is mixed with every Pain.
Blame not my Lute!

Venomous thorns that are so sharp and keen
Blame but thyself that hast misdone,

Bear flowers, we see, full fresh and fair of hue, And well deserved to have blame;

Poison is also put in medicine,

And unto man his health doth oft renew.
Change thou thy way, so evil begone,
And then my Lute shall sound that same;

The fire that all things eke consumeth clean,

May hurt and heal: then if that this be true, 1 The participle of the Saxon verb to bolge, which gives the deri

I trust some time my harm may be my health, vation of bulge.-Tyrwhitt's Chaucer.

Since every woe is joined with some wealth.

impression of their talents was great, and both The Courtier's Life.

were almost adored at court, though Boleyn was

sacrificed by Henry VIII. on a revolting, and In court to serve decked with fresh array, Of sugared meats feeling the sweet repast,

groundless charge. We may mention, as illusThe life in banquets and sundry kinds of play;

trating the popularity of the first English MiscelAmid the press the worldly looks to waste;

lany (that of Tottel), that it appears to have caught Hath with it joined oft-times such bitter taste,

the attention of Shakspeare, who has transplanted That whoso joys such kind of life to hold,

some lines from it into his Hamlet, and that it In prison joys, fettered with chains of gold. soothed the confinement of Mary Queen of Scots,

who is said to have written two lines from one of

the poems with a diamond on a window in FotherOf the Mean and Sure Estate.

ingay Castle. The lines are: Stand whoso lists upon the slippery wheel Of high estate, and let me here rejoice,

And from the top of all my trust
And use my life in quietness each deal,

Mishap hath thrown me in the dust.
Unknown in court that hath the wanton joys.
In hidden place my time shall slowly pass,
And when my years be passed without annoy,

On a Contented Mind. - By Lord Vaux.
Let me die old after the common trace,
For grips of death do he too hardly pass

From The Paradise of Dainty Devices, 1576.
That known is to all, but to himself, alas !

When all is done and said, He dieth unknown, dazed with dreadful face.

In the end thus shall you find,

He most of all doth bathe in bliss LORD VAUX-NICHOLAS GRIMOALD-RICHARD

That hath a quiet mind :

And, clear from worldly cares, EDWARDS-WILLIAM HUNNIS-SIR F. BRYAN

To deem can be content -VISCOUNT ROCHFORT.

The sweetest time in all his life THOMAS, LORD VAUX, was born about 1510,

In thinking to be spent. and died in the reign of Queen Mary. He was

The body subject is captain of the isle of Jersey under Henry VIII.

To fickle Fortune's power, Poems by Vaux are in Tottel's Miscellany, and no

And to a million of mishaps less than thirteen short pieces of his composition

Is casual every hour : are in a second miscellany (prompted, no doubt,

And Death in time doth change by the unexampled success of Tottel's collection),

It to a clod of clay; entitled The Paradise of Dainty Devices, 1576.

When as the mind, which is divine, NICHOLAS GRIMOALD (circa 1520-1563), a rhe

Runs never to decay. torical lecturer in Oxford University, has two translations from the Latin of Philip Gaultier and Companion none is like Beza in Tottel's Miscellany, both of which are in

Unto the mind alone; blank verse. He wrote also several small poems.*

For many have been harmed by speech; -RICHARD EDWARDS (circa 1523-1566) was the

Through thinking, few or none. most valuable contributor to the Dainty Devices.

Fear oftentimes restraineth words,

But makes not thought to cease; He was master of the singing-boys of the royal chapel, and is known as a writer of court inter

And he speaks best that hath the skill

When for to hold his peace, ludes and masks. His verses, entitled Amantium Ira, are among the best of the miscellaneous

Our wealth leaves us at death; poems of that age.-WILLIAM HUNNIS, who died

Our kinsmen at the grave; in 1568, was also attached to Edward VI.'s chapel,

But virtues of the mind unto and afterwards master of the boys of Queen Eliza

The heavens with us we have. beth's chapel. He translated the Psalms, and

Wherefore, for virtue's sake, wrote some religious treatises and scriptural'inter

I can be well content, ludes. Mr Hallam considers that Hunnis should

The sweetest time of all my life be placed as high as Vaux or Edwards, were his

To deem in thinking spent. productions all equal to one little piece (a song which we subjoin); but too often,' adds the critic, "he falls into trivial morality and a ridiculous Amantium Iræ Amoris Redintegratio Est.-By Richard excess of alliteration. These defects characterise

Edwards. most of the minor poets of this period.-Drayton, in one of his poetical epistles, mentions SIR FRANCIS BRYAN, nephew to Lord Berners, the In going to my naked bed, as one that would have slept, translator of Froissart, as a contributor to Tottel's I heard a wife sing to her child, that long before had Miscellany; and GEORGE BOLEYN, VISCOUNT wept. ROCHFORT (brother of Anne Boleyn), has been She sighed sore, and sang full sweet, to bring the babe named as another contributor. The contemporary

to rest, That would not cease, but cried still, in sucking at her

breast. * In a sonnet by Sir Egerton Brydges on the death of Sir Walter Scott, is a fine line often quoted :

She was full weary of her watch, and grieved with her The glory dies not, and the grief is past.


She rocked it, and rated it, until on her it smiled;
The same sentiment had been thus expressed by Grimoald :

Then did she say: 'Now have I found the proverb true
In working well if travel you sustain,
Into the wind shall lightly pass the pain,
But of the deed the glory shall remain.

The falling out of faithful friends renewing is of love.'

From the same.

to prove,

She may be well compared

Unto the Phoenix kind, Whose like was never seen or heard,

That any man can find.

Then took I paper, pen, and ink, this proverb for to

write, In register for to remain of such a worthy wight. As she proceeded thus in song unto her little brat, Much matter uttered she of weight in place whereas she

sat; And proved plain, there was no beast, nor creature

bearing life, Could well be known to live in love without discórd and

strife: Then kissed she her little babe, and sware by God above, • The falling out of faithful friends renewing is of love.'

In life she is Diana chaste;

In truth Penelope; In word and eke in deed steadfast;

What will you more we say?

If all the world were sought so far,

Who could find such a wight? Her beauty twinkleth like a star

Within the frosty night.

Her roseal colour comes and goes

With such a comely grace, More ruddier too than doth the rose,

Within her lively face.

I marvel much, pardie,' quoth she, ‘for to behold the

rout, To see man, woman, boy, and beast, to toss the world

about; Some kneel, some crouch, some beck, some check, and

some can smoothly smile, And some embrace others in arms, and there think many

a wile. Some stand aloof at cap and knee, some humble, and

some stout, Yet are they never friends indeed until they once fall out.' Thus ended she her song, and said, before she did

remove: •The falling out of faithful friends renewing is of love.'

At Bacchus' feast none shall her meet,

Ne at no wanton play,
Nor gazing in an open street,

Nor gadding as astray.
The modest mirth that she doth use,

Is mixed with shamefastness;
All vice she wholly doth refuse,

And hateth idleness.
O Lord, it is a world to see

How virtue can repair,
And deck her in such modesty,

Whom nature made so fair !
Truly she doth as far excel

Our women now-a-days,
As doth the gilly-flower a weed,

And more a thousand ways.

Song.By William Hunnis.

From the same.
When first mine eyes did view and mark

Thy beauty fair for to behold,
And when mine ears 'gan first to hark

The pleasant words that thou me told,
I would as then I had been free
From ears to hear and eyes to see.
And when in mind I did consent

To follow thus my fancy's will,
And when my heart did first relent

To taste such bait myself to spill,
I would my heart had been as thine,
Or else thy heart as soft as mine.
O flatterer false! thou traitor born-

What mischief more might thou devise Than thy dear friend to have in scorn,

And him to wound in sundry wise,
Which still a friend pretends to be,
But art not so by proof, I see-
Fie, fie upon such treachery!

How might I do to get a graff

Of this unspotted tree? For all the rest are plain but chaff

Which seem good corn to be. This gift alone I shall her give:

When Death doth what he can, Her honest fame shall ever live

Within the mouth of man.


A Praise of his Lady.-Said to be by George Boleyn, beheaded in 1536. Also claimed for John Heywood.

From Tottel's Miscellany.
Give place, you ladies, and be gone;

Boast not yourselves at all,
For here at hand approacheth one

Whose face will stain you all.
The virtue of her lively looks

Excels the precious stone;
I wish to have none other books

To read or look upon.
In each of her two crystal eyes

Smileth a naked boy;
It would you all in heart suffice

To see that lamp of joy.
I think Nature hath lost the mould

Where she her shape did take;
Or else I doubt if Nature could

So fair a creature make.

THOMAS TUSSER, author of the first didactic poem in the language, was born about 1515, of an ancient family, had a good education, and commenced life at court, under the patronage of Lord Paget. Afterwards he practised farming successively at Ratwood in Sussex, Ipswich, Fairsted in Essex, Norwich, and other places; but not succeeding in that walk, he betook himself to other occupations, amongst which were those of a chorister and, it is said, a fiddler. As might be expected of one so inconstant, he did not prosper in the world, but died poor in London, in 1580.

Tusser's poem, entitled a Hondreth Good Points of Husbandrie, which was first published in 1557, is a series of practical directions for farming, expressed in simple and inelegant, but not always dull verse. It was afterwards expanded by other writers, and published under the title of Five Hundreth Points of Good Husbandrie : the last of a considerable number of editions appeared in 1710.

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