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rebels and made them retire; he concluded with saying: And so I think the town of Carlisle has done his majesty more service than the great city of Edinburgh, or than all Scotland together.' But this hero, who was grown the whole fashion for four-and-twenty hours, had chosen to stop all other letters. The king spoke of him at his levée with great encomiums; Lord Stair said: 'Yes, sir, Mr Patterson has behaved very bravely.' The Duke of Bedford interrupted him: 'My lord, his name is not Patterson; that is a Scotch name: his name is Pattinson.' But, alack! the next day the rebels returned, having placed the women and children of the country in wagons in front of their army, and forcing the peasants to fix the scaling-ladders. The great Mr Pattinson, or Patterson-for now his name may be which one pleases-instantly surrendered the town, and agreed to pay two thousand pounds to save it from pillage.

August 1, 1746. I am this moment come from the conclusion of the greatest and most melancholy scene I ever yet saw! you will easily guess it was the trials of the rebel lords. As it was the most interesting sight, it was the most solemn and fine: a coronation is a puppet-show, and all the splendour of it, idle; but this sight at once feasted one's eyes and engaged all one's passions. It began last Monday; three-parts of Westminster Hall were inclosed with galleries, and hung with scarlet; and the whole ceremony was conducted with the most awful solemnity and decency, except in the one point of leaving the prisoners at the bar, amidst the idle curiosity of some crowd, and even with the witnesses who had sworn against them, while the Lords adjourned to their own house to consult. No part of the royal family was there, which was a proper regard to the unhappy men who were become their victims. One hundred and thirty-nine Lords were present, and made a noble sight on their benches frequent and full! The Chancellor was Lord High Steward; but though a most comely personage with a fine voice, his behaviour was mean, curiously searching for occasion to bow to the minister that is no peer, and consequently applying to the other ministers, in a manner, for their orders; and not even ready at the ceremonial. To the prisoners he was peevish; and instead of keeping up to the humane dignity of the law of England, whose character it is to point out favour to the criminal, he crossed them, and almost scolded at any offer they made towards defence. I had armed myself with all the resolution I could, with the thought of their crimes and of the danger past, and was assisted by the sight of the Marquis of Lothian in weepers for his son, who fell at Culloden-but the first appearance of the prisoners shocked me! their behaviour melted me! Lord Kilmarnock and Lord Cromartie are both past forty, but look younger. Lord Kilmarnock is tall and slender, with an extreme fine person: his behaviour a most just mixture between dignity and submission; if in anything to be reprehended, a little affected, and his hair too exactly dressed for a man in his situation; but when I say this, it is not to find fault with him, but to shew how little fault there was to be found. Lord Cromartie is an indifferent figure, appeared much dejected, and rather sullen: he dropped a few tears the first day, and swooned as soon as he got back to his cell. For Lord Balmerino, he is the most natural brave old fellow I ever saw the highest intrepidity, even to indifference. At the bar he behaved like a soldier and a man; in the intervals of form, with carelessness and humour. He pressed extremely to have his wife, his pretty Peggy, with him in the Tower. Lady Cromartie only sees her husband through the grate, not choosing to be shut up with him, as she thinks she can serve him better by her intercession without. When they were to be brought from the Tower in separate coaches, there was some dispute in which the axe must go-old Balmerino cried, Come, come, put it with me.' At the

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bar, he plays with his fingers upon the axe, while he talks to the gentleman-jailer; and one day, somebody coming up to listen, he took the blade and held it like a fan between their faces. During the trial, a little boy was near him, but not tall enough to see; he made room for the child, and placed him near himself.

When the peers were going to vote, Lord Foley withdrew, as too well a wisher; Lord Moray, as nephew of Lord Balmerino-and Lord Stair, as, I believe, uncle to his great grandfather. Lord Windsor, very affectedly, said, 'I am sorry I must say guilty upon my honour.' Lord Stamford would not answer to the name of Henry, having been christened Harry-what a great way of thinking on such an occasion! I was diverted too with old Norsa, an old Jew that kept a tavern. My brother, as auditor of the exchequer, has a gallery along one whole side of the court. I said, 'I really feel for the prisoners!' Old Issachar replied, 'Feel for them! pray, if they had succeeded, what would have become of all us?' When my Lady Townshend heard her husband vote, she said, I always knew my lord was guilty, but I never thought he would own it upon his honour." Lord Balmerino said, that one of his reasons for pleading not guilty, was, that so many ladies might not be disappointed of their show.... He said, "They call me Jacobite; I am no more a Jacobite than any that tried me: but if the Great Mogul had set up his standard, I should have followed it, for I could not starve.'

London Earthquakes and London Gossip.—Mar. 11, 1751.

Portents and prodigies are grown so frequent,
That they have lost their name.*

My text is not literally true; but as far as earthquakes go towards lowering the price of wonderful commodities, to be sure we are overstocked. We have had a second, much more violent than the first; and you must not be surprised if, by next post, you hear of a burning mountain sprung up in Smithfield. In the night between Wednesday and Thursday last-exactly a month since the first shock-the earth had a shivering fit between one and two, but so slight, that if no more had followed, I don't believe it would have been noticed. I had been awake, and had scarce dozed again-on a sudden I felt my bolster lift up my head; I thought somebody was getting from under my bed, but soon found it was a strong earthquake, that lasted near half a minute, with a violent vibration and great roaring. I rang my bell; my servant came in, frightened out of his senses: in an instant we heard all the windows in the neighbourhood flung up. I got up and found people running into the streets, but saw no mischief done: there has been some; two old houses flung down, several chimneys, and much china-ware. The bells rung in several houses. Admiral Knowles, who has lived long in Jamaica, and felt seven there, says this was more violent than any of them: Francesco prefers it to the dreadful one at Leghorn. The wise say, that if we have not rain soon, we shall certainly have more. Several people are going out of town, for it has nowhere reached above ten miles from London: they say they are not frightened, but that it is such fine weather, 'Lord! one can't help going into the country!' The only visible effect it has had was on the Ridotto, at which, being the following night, there were but four hundred people. A parson who came into White's the morning of earthquake the first, and heard bets laid on whether it was an earthquake or the blowing up of powder-mills, went away exceedingly scandalised, and said: I protest they are such an impious set of people, that I believe if the last trumpet was to sound, they would bet puppet-show against Judgment.' If we get any nearer still to the torrid zone, I shall pique myself on sending you a present of cedrati and orange-flower water; I am already planning a terreno for Strawberry Hill.

* Dryden's All for Love.

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The Jacobites are so transported, that they are opening subscriptions for all boroughs that shall be vacantthis is wise! They will spend their money to carry a few more seats in a parliament where they will never have the majority, and so have none to carry the general elections. The omen, however, is bad for Westminster; the high-bailiff went to vote for the opposition.

The Middlesex election is carried against the court: principles he lays down; and some of his distincthe Prince in a green frock-and I won't swear but in tions-as that between the different classes of a Scotch plaid waistcoat-sat under the park-wall in society as productive and unproductive consumers his chair, and hallooed the voters on to Brentford.-have been shewn, by a more careful analysis and observation, to be unfounded. In this work, as in his Moral Sentiments, Smith is copious and happy in his illustrations. The following account of the advantages of the division of labour is very finely written:

DR ADAM SMITH.

DR ADAM SMITH'S Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, laid the foundation of the science of political economy. Some of its leading principles had been indicated by Hobbes and Locke; Mandeville had also in his Fable of the Bees (see ante, page 571) illustrated the advantages of free trade, and Hume in his essays had shewn that no nation could profit by stopping the natural flood of commerce between itself and the rest of the world. Several French writers, moreover, had made considerable advances towards the formation of a system. Smith, however, after a labour of ten years, produced a complete system of political economy; and the execution of his work evinces such indefatigable research, so much sagacity, learning, and information, derived from arts and manufactures, no less than from books, that the Wealth of Nations must always be regarded as one of the greatest works on political philosophy. Its leading principles, as enumerated by its best and latest commentator, Mr M'Culloch, may be thus summed up: He shewed that the only source of the opulence of nations is labour; that the natural wish to augment our fortunes and rise in the world is the cause of riches being accumulated. He demonstrated that labour is productive of wealth, when employed in manufactures and commerce, as well as when it is employed in the cultivation of land; he traced the various means by which labour may be rendered most effective; and gave a most admirable analysis and exposition of the prodigious addition made to its efficacy by its division among different individuals and countries, and by the employment of accumulated wealth or capital in industrious undertakings. He also shewed, in opposition to the commonly received opinions of the merchants, politicians, and statesmen of his time, that wealth does not consist in the abundance of gold and silver, but in the abundance of the various necessaries, conveniences, and enjoyments of human life; that it is in every case sound policy to leave individuals to pursue their own interest in their own way; that, in prosecuting branches of industry advantageous to themselves, they necessarily prosecute such as are at the same time advantageous to the public; and that every regulation intended to force industry into particular channels, or to determine the species of commercial intercourse to be carried on between different parts of the same country, or between distant and independent countries, is impolitic and pernicious. Though correct in his fundamental positions, Dr Smith has been shewn to be guilty of several errors. He does not always reason correctly from the

* M'Culloch's Principles of Political Economy.

Advantages of the Division of Labour.

Observe the accommodation of the most common country, and you will perceive that the number of artificer or day-labourer in a civilised and thriving people, of whose industry a part, though but a small part, has been employed in procuring him this accommodation, exceeds all computation. The woollen coat, for example, which covers the day-labourer, as coarse and rough as it may appear, is the produce of the joint labour of a great multitude of workmen. The shepherd, the sorter of the wool, the wool-comber or carder, the dyer, the scribbler, the spinner, the weaver, the fuller, the dresser, with many others, must all join their different arts in order to complete even this homely production. How many merchants and carriers, besides, must have of those workmen to others, who often live in a very been employed in transporting the materials from some distant part of the country! How much commerce and navigation in particular, how many ship-builders, sailors, sail-makers, rope-makers, must have been employed in order to bring together the different drugs made use of by the dyer, which often come from the remotest corners of the world! What a variety of labour, too, is necessary in order to produce the tools of the meanest of those workmen ! To say nothing of such complicated machines as the ship of the sailor, the mill of the fuller, or even the loom of the weaver, let us consider only what a variety of labour is requisite in which the shepherd clips the wool. The miner, the order to form that very simple machine, the shears with builder of the furnace for smelting the ore, the feller of the timber, the burner of the charcoal to be made use of in the smelting-house, the brick-maker, the bricklayer, the workmen who attend the furnace, the millwright, the forger, the smith, must all of them join their different arts in order to produce them. Were we to examine in the same manner all the different parts of his dress and household furniture, the coarse linen shirt which he wears next his skin, the shoes which cover his feet, the bed which he lies on, and all the different parts which compose it, the kitchen-grate at makes use of for that purpose, dug from the bowels of which he prepares his victuals, the coals which he the earth, and brought to him, perhaps, by a long sea and a long land carriage, all the other utensils of his kitchen, all the furniture of his table, the knives and forks, the earthen or pewter plates upon which he serves up and divides his victuals, the different hands employed in preparing his bread and his beer, the glass window which lets in the heat and the light, and keeps out the wind and the rain, with all the knowledge and art requisite for preparing that beautiful and happy invention, without which these northern parts of the world could scarce have afforded a very comfortable habitation, together with the tools of all the different veniences; if we examine, I say, all these things, and workmen employed in producing those different conconsider what a variety of labour is employed about each of them, we shall be sensible that, without the assistance and co-operation of many thousands, the very meanest person in a civilised country could not be provided, even according to what we very falsely imagine the easy and simple manner in which he is commonly accommodated. Compared, indeed, with the more extravagant luxury of the great, his accommodation

must no doubt appear extremely simple and easy; and yet it may be true, perhaps, that the accommodation of a European prince does not always so much exceed that of an industrious and frugal peasant, as the accommodation of the latter exceeds that of many an African king, the absolute masters of the lives and liberties of ten thousand naked savages.

ADAM FERGUSON-LORD MONBODDO.

DR ADAM FERGUSON (1724-1816), son of the minister of Logierait, in Perthshire, was educated at St Andrews: removing to Edinburgh, he became an associate of Dr Robertson, Blair, Home, &c. In 1744, he entered the 42d regiment as chaplain, and continued in that situation till 1757, when he resigned it, and became tutor in the family of Lord Bute. He was afterwards professor of natural philosophy and of moral philosophy in the university of Edinburgh. In 1778, he went to America as secretary to the commissioners appointed to negotiate with the revolted colonies on his return, he resumed the duties of his professorship. His latter days were spent in ease and affluence at St Andrews, where he died at the patriarchal age of ninety-two. The works of Dr Ferguson are- The History of Civil Society, published in 1766; Institutes of Moral Philosophy, 1769; A Reply to Dr Price on Civil and Religious Liberty, 1776; The History of the Progress and Termination of the Roman Republic, 1783; and Principles of Moral and Political Science, 1792. Sir Walter Scott, who was personally acquainted with Ferguson, supplies some interesting information as to the latter years of this venerable professor, whom he considered the most striking example of the Stoic philosopher which could be seen in modern days. He had a shock of paralysis in the sixtieth year of his life, from which period he became a strict Pythagorean in his diet, eating nothing but vegetables, and drinking only water or milk. The deep interest which he took in the French war had long seemed to be the main tie which connected him with passing existence; and the news of Waterloo acted on the aged patriot as a nunc dimittis.

geographer, has furnished few materials for history; and though in many places supplied with the arts of life in no contemptible degree, has nowhere matured the more important projects of political wisdom, nor inspired the virtues which are connected with freedom, and which are required in the conduct of civil affairs. It was indeed in the torrid zone that mere arts of mechanism and manufacture were found, among the inhabitants of the new world, to have made the greatest advance; it is in India, and in the regions of this hemisphere which are visited by the vertical sun, that the arts of manufacture and the practice of commerce are of the greatest antiquity, and have survived, with the smallest diminution, the ruins of time and the revolutions of empire. tamarind, inspires a degree of mildness that can even The sun, it seems, which ripens the pine-apple and the assuage the rigours of despotical government: and such is the effect of a gentle and pacific disposition in the natives of the East, that no conquest, no irruption of barbarians, terminates, as they did among the stubborn natives of Europe, by a total destruction of what the love of ease and of pleasure had produced.

Man, in the perfection of his natural faculties, is quick and delicate in his sensibility; extensive and various in his imaginations and reflections; attentive, penetrating, and subtle in what relates to his fellow-creatures; firm and ardent in his purposes; devoted to friendship or to which he will not relinquish for safety or for profit; enmity; jealous of his independence and his honour, under all his corruptions or improvements, he retains his natural sensibility, if not his force; and his commerce is a blessing or a curse, according to the direction his mind has received. But under the extremes of heat or of cold, the active range of the human soul appears to be limited; and men are of inferior importance, either as friends or as enemies. In the one extreme, they are dull and slow, moderate in their desires, regular and pacific in their manner of life; in the other, they are feverish in their passions, weak in their judgments, both, the heart is mercenary, and makes important conand addicted by temperament to animal pleasure. In cessions for childish bribes: in both, the spirit is prepared for servitude; in the one, it is subdued by fear of the future; in the other, it is not roused even by its sense of the present.

On the Changes in Society.

From the Essay on the History of Civil Society. Mankind have twice within the compass of history ascended from rude beginnings to very high degrees of refinement. In every age, whether destined by its temporary disposition to build or to destroy, they have left the vestiges of an active and vehement spirit. The pavement and the ruins of Rome are buried in dust, shaken from the feet of barbarians, who trod with contempt on the refinements of luxury, and spurned those arts the use of which it was reserved for the posterity of the same people to discover and to admire. The tents of the wild Arab are even now pitched among the ruins of magnificent cities; and the waste fields which border on Palestine and Syria are perhaps become again the nursery of infant nations. The chieftain of an Arab tribe, like the founder of Rome, may have already fixed the roots of a plant that is to flourish in some future period, or laid the foundations of a fabric that will attain to its grandeur in some distant age.

Great part of Africa has been always unknown; but the silence of fame, on the subject of its revolutions, is an argument, where no other proof can be found, of weakness in the genius of its people. The torrid zone, everywhere round the globe, however known to the

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LORD MONBODDO's Essay on the Origin and Progress of Language, published in 1771-3 and 1776, is one of those singular works which at once provoke study and ridicule. The author was a man of real learning and talents, but a humorist in character and opinions. He was an enthusiast in of Homer. So far did he carry this, that, findGreek literature and antiquities, and a worshipper ing carriages were not in use among the ancients, he never would enter one, but made all his journeys to London-which he visited once a year-and other places on horseback, and continued the practice till he was upwards of eighty. He said it was a degradation of the genuine dignity of human nature to be dragged at the tail of a horse instead of mounting upon his back! The eccentric philosopher was less careful of the dignity of human nature in some of his opinions. He gravely maintains in his Essay that men were originally monkeys, in which condition they remained for ages destitute of speech, reason, and social affections. They gradually improved, according to Monboddo's theory, as geologists say the earth was changed by successive revolutions; but he contends that the orang-outangs are still of the human species, and that in the Bay of Bengal there exists a nation of human beings with tails like monkeys, which had been

discovered a hundred and thirty years before by a Swedish skipper. When Sir Joseph Banks returned from Botany Bay, Monboddo inquired after the long-tailed men, and, according to Dr Johnson, was not pleased that they had not been found in all his peregrinations. All the moral sentiments and domestic affections were, according to this whimsical philosopher, the result of art, contrivance, and experience, as much as writing, ship-building, or any other mechanical invention; and hence he places man, in his natural state, below beavers and sea-cats, which he terms social and political animals! The laughable absurdity of these doctrines must have protected their author from the fulminations of the clergy, who were then so eager to attack all the metaphysical opponents of revealed religion. In 1779, Monboddo published an elaborate work on ancient metaphysics, in three volumes quarto, which, like his former publication, is equally learned and equally whimsical. James Burnet, Lord Monboddo, died in Edinburgh, May 26, 1799, at the advanced age of eighty-five.

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said with some satisfaction: "There 'twas our fleet lay." Mr Anson demanded: "What fleet?" "What fleet!" replied the old man, a little piqued at the question; "why, our Grecian fleet at the siege of Troy.' As a specimen of Harris's ingenious though often unsound grammatical speculations, we subjoin a short and lively definition from his Hermes :

Of Pronouns.

All conversation passes between individuals, who will often happen to be till that instant unacquainted with each other. What, then, is to be done? How shall the speaker address the other, when he knows not his name? or how explain himself by his own name, of which the other is wholly ignorant? Nouns, as they have been described, cannot answer this purpose. The first exor indicating by the finger or hand; some traces of which pedient upon this occasion seems to have been pointing, are still to be observed, as a part of that action which naturally attends our speaking. But the authors of language were not content with this. They invented a race of words to supply this pointing; which words, as they always stood for substantives or nouns, were characterised by the name of pronouns. These also they distinguished into three several sorts, calling them pronouns of the first, the second, and the third person, with a view to certain distinctions, which may be exsub-plained as follows: Suppose the parties conversing to on either side known, and the subject of the conversation be wholly unacquainted, neither name nor countenance to be the speaker himself. Here, to supply the place of pointing by a word of equal power, the inventors of language furnished the speaker with the pronoun I. I write, I say, I desire, &c.; and as the speaker is always principal with respect to his own discourse, this they called, for that reason, the pronoun of the first person. Again, suppose the subject of the conversation to be the party addressed. Here, for similar reasons, they invented the pronoun thou; thou writest, thou walkest, &c. And as the party addressed is next in dignity to the speaker, or at least comes next with reference to the of the second person. Lastly, suppose the subject of discourse, this pronoun they therefore called the pronoun conversation neither the speaker nor the party addressed, but some third object different from both. Here they provided another pronoun, he, she, or it; which, in distinction to the two former, was called the pronoun of the third person. And thus it was that pronouns came to be distinguished by their respective persons.

WILLIAM HARRIS (1720-1770), a dissenting divine in Devonshire, published historical memoirs of James I., Charles I., Oliver Cromwell, and Charles II. These works were written in imitation of the manner of Bayle, the text being ordinate to the notes and illustrations. Very frequently only a single line of the memoir is contained in the page, the rest been wholly notes. As depositories of original papers, the memoirs of Harris-which are still to be met with in five volumes-were valuable until superseded by better works: the original part is trifling in extent, and written without either merit or pretension.

JAMES HARRIS of Salisbury (1709-1780), a learned benevolent man, published in 1744 treatises on art, on music and painting, and on happiness. He afterwards (1751) produced his celebrated work, Hermes, or a Philosophical Inquiry concern ing Universal Grammar. The definitions of Harris are considered arbitrary, and often unnecessary, and his rules are complicated; but his profound acquaintance with Greek literature, and his general learning, supplying numerous illustrations, enabled him to produce a curious and valuable publication. Every writer on the history and philosophy of grammar must consult Hermes. Two distinguished antiquarian writers, whose Unfortunately the study of the ancient dialects of researches illustrate the history of their native the northern nations was little prevalent at the country, may be here mentioned-WILLIAM time of Mr Harris, and to this cause-as was the STUKELEY (1687-1765), who published Itinercase also with many of the etymological distinc-arium Curiosum, or an Account of the Antiquities tions in Johnson's Dictionary-must be attributed and Curiosities of Great Britain, An Account of some of his errors and the imperfection of his Stonehenge, &c. &c. Stukeley studied medicine, plan. Mr Harris was a man of rank and fortune: but afterwards took orders, and at the time of his he sat several years in parliament, and was suc- death, was rector of St George's Church, Queen cessively a lord of the admiralty and lord of the Square, London. EDWARD KING (1735-1807), treasury. In 1774, he was made secretary and an English barrister, published Observations on comptroller to the queen, which he held till his Ancient Castles, and an elaborate work, in three death in 1780. His son, Lord Malmesbury, pub- folio volumes, Munimenta Antiqua, descriptive of lished, in 1801, a complete edition of his works in English architecture anterior to the Norman contwo volumes quarto. Harris relates the following quest. A still more valuable literary pioneer was interesting anecdote of a Greek pilot, to shew that DR THOMAS BIRCH (1705-1766), one of the even among the present Greeks, in the day of secretaries of the Royal Society, and a trustee of servitude, the remembrance of their ancient glory the British Museum. Birch wrote elaborate but is not extinct: 'When the late Mr Anson-Lord dull Lives of Queen Elizabeth; Henry, Prince of Anson's brother-was upon his travels in the East, Wales, son of James I.; of Dr Ward, Archbishop he hired a vessel to visit the Isle of Tenedos. Tillotson, &c. He edited Thurloe's State Papers, His pilot, an old Greek, as they were sailing along, Spenser's Faery Queen, and Milton's prose works.

He collected a great amount of materials, literary and historical, and deserves honourable mention in any retrospect of British literature.

ENCYCLOPÆDIAS AND MAGAZINES.

Hence the sagacious printer argued that a magazine was necessary to preserve what was valuable in the multifarious half-sheets. Original_communications were afterwards admitted, and Cave's success led to rival works of the same kind. The London Magazine, the Universal, the Grand, the Town and Country, and others followed. The Literary Magazine or Universal Review, commenced in 1756, was chiefly supported, during its three years of existence, by the admirable criticisms of Johnson. The Lady's Magazine and Public Ledger

ments, died in 1740. His work was printed five times during the subsequent eighteen years, and has finally been extended, in the present century, under the care of DR ABRAHAM REES, to forty volumes in quarto. The Preceptor of ROBERT DODSLEY, published in 1748, long continued to be a favourite and useful book. It embraced within the compass of two volumes, in octavo, treatises on elocution, composition, arithmetic, geography, logic, moral philosophy, human life and manners, and a few other branches of knowledge, then supposed to form a complete course of education. In 1751-54 appeared Barrow's New and Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. The celebrated French Encyclopædia was published between the years 1751 and 1765, and the popularising of scientific knowledge went rapidly forward both

The Cyclopedia of EPHRAIM CHAMBERS, published in 1728, in two folio volumes, was the first dictionary or repertory of general knowledge produced in Britain. Chambers, who had been reared to the business of a globe-maker, and was a man of respectable though not profound attain-contained many of the fine essays of Goldsmith; and about the same time Smollett started the British Magazine, which appeared under the distinction of the royal license. At this period many other monthly miscellanies were commenced, but most of them were short-lived and obscure. Scotland was not long behind the sister-country in having a monthly periodical. In January 1739 was issued the first number of the Scots Magazine, produced, among other reasons, as stated by the publishers, that the Caledonian Muse might not be restrained by want of a public echo to her song!' This magazine continued down to 1826.

in France and Britain.

The first periodical devoted exclusively to criticism on new books was the Monthly Review, established in 1749 by Griffiths, a bookseller, assisted by Dr Kippis, Ralph, Langhorne, Grainger, and others. As the Monthly was Whig and Low Church, the Tory and High Church party in 1756 set up a rival, the Critical Review, which was placed under the editorship of Smollett, and led the irritable novelist into many feuds and wars. Griffiths, indignant at having his province invaded, said his review was not written by 'physicians without practice, authors without learning, men without decency, or writers without judg ment.' Smollett, in reply, said the Critical Review was not written by a parcel of obscure hirelings under the restraint of a bookseller and his wife, who presume to revise, alter, and amend the articles.' Both reviews kept the field for a long period, and were the chief publications of the kind previous to the commencement of the British Critic in 1793.

This reign may also be termed the epoch of magazines, reviews, and journals. Of the latter, there were no less than fifty-five weekly publications-enumerated by Nichols in his Literary Anecdotes-and some of them were conducted with spirit and ability. The Grub Street Journal was begun in 1730, and continued till 1737, enriched by the personal attacks of Pope, and by some acute and lively criticism. Fielding also had his True Patriot's Journal and Covent Garden Journal. The monthly form of publication was first adopted by EDWARD CAVE, Johnson's humble literary friend and patron, who commenced in 1731 the Gentleman's Magazine, which still exists. Cave, in his introduction, said: 'Upon calculating the number of newspapers, Another useful and valuable periodical was it is found that, besides divers written accounts, commenced in 1758-the Annual Register, tono less than 200 half-sheets per month are thrown wards which, as previously stated, Burke was a from the press only in London, and about as contributor, and which is still (1875) continued in many printed elsewhere in the three kingdoms; a generally improved form. It is the best record a considerable part of which constantly exhibit we have of the history, political and literary, of essays on various subjects for entertainment.' | the times at home and abroad.

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END OF VOL. I.

Edinburgh:
Printed by W. and R. Chambers.

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