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gone. The time is now come to reap the full recompense of your toilsome marches over so many mountains and rivers, and through so manỳ nations, all of them in arms. This is the place which fortune has appointed to be the limits of your labours ; it is here that you will finish your glorious warfare, and receive an ample recompense of your compleated service. For I would not have you imagine, that victory will be as difficult as the name of a Roman war is
and founding. It has often happened that a despised enemy has given a bloody battle, and the most renowned kings and nations have by a small force been overthrown. And if you but take away the glitter of the Roman name, what is there, wherein they may stand in competition with you ; For (to fay nothing of your service in war for twenty years together with fo much valour and success) from the very pillars of Hercules, from the ocean, from the utmost bounds of the earth, through so many warlike nations of Spain and Gaul, are you not come hither victorious ? And with whom are you now to fight ? With raw foldiers, an undisciplined army, beaten, vanquished, besieged by the Gauls the very laft fum. mer, an army unknown to their leader, and unacquainted with him.
OR shall I, who was born I might almost fay, but certainly brought up, in the tent of my father, that most excellent general, shall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations, but, which is greater yet, of the Alps themselves, shall I compare myfelf with this half-year captain ? A captain before whom should one place the twn armies without their enligns, I am persuaded he would not know to which of them he is conful? I esteem it'no small advantage, soldiers, that there is not one among you, who has not often been an eye witness of my exploits нб
in war ; not one of whose valour I myself have not been a spectator, so as to be able to name the times and places of his noble atchievements; that with soldiers, whom I have a thousand times praised and rewarded, and whose pupil I was, before I became their general, I shall march against an army of men,, strangers to one another.
On what‘lide soever I turn my eyes, I behold all full of courage and strength ; a veteran infantry; a most gallant cavalry ; you, my allies, most faithful and valiant ; you, Carthaginians, whom not only your country's cause, but the jusfest anger impels to battle. The hope, the courage
of affailants, is always greater than of those who act upon the defensive. With hoftile banners displayed, you are come down upon Italy ; you bring the war. Grief, injuries, indignities fire your minds, and spur you forward to revenge! -First they demanded me ; that I, your general, should be delivered
up tô them ; next, all of you, who had fought at the fiege of Saguntum ; and we were to be put to death by the extremeft tortures, Proud and cruel nation ! Every thing must be yours, and at your disposal ! You are to prescribe to us with whom we shall make war, with whom we shall
! You are to fet us bounds; to shut us up within hills and rivers ; but you-you are not to observe the limits which yourselves have fixed. Pass not the Iberus. What next? Touch not the Saguntines. Saguntum is upon the Iberus, move not a step towards that city. Is it a small matter then, that you have deprived us of our ancient poffeffions, Sicily and Sardinia ; you would have Spain too? Well, we fall yield Spain ; and then-you will pass into Africa. Will pass, did I say?- This very year they ordered one of their consuls into Africa, the other into Spain. No, foldiers, there is nothing left for us but what we can
vindicate with our swords. Come on then. Be men. The Romans may with more safety be cowards ; they have their own country behind them, have places of refuge to flee to, and are secure from danger in the roads thither; but for
you there is no middle fortune between death and victory. Let this be but well fixed in your minds, and once again I say, you are conquerors.
ING TO APPOINT HIM GENERAL IN THE EXPEDI.
terial difference between the behaviour of those, who stand candidates for places of power and trust, before, and after their obtaining them. They solicit them in one manner, and execute them in another. They set out with a great appearance of activity, humility, and moderation ; and they quickly fall into foth, pride, and avarice. It is, undoubtedly, no easy matter to discharge, to the general fatisfaction, the duty of a supreme commander in troublesome times. I am, I hope, duly sensible of the importance of the office I propose to take upon me, for the service of my country. To carry on, with effect, an expensive war, and yet be frugal of the public money ; to oblige those to ferve, whom it may be delicate to offend ; to conduct, at the same time, a complicated variety of operations; to concert measures at home answerable to the state of things abroad ; and to gain every valuable end, in spite of oppofition from the envious, the factious, and the disaffected ; to do all this, my countrymen, is more difficult, than is gene
rally thought. And, besides that disadvantages which are common to me with all others in eminent stations, my case is, in this respect, peculiarly hard ; that, whereas a commander of Patrician rank, if he is guilty of a neglect, or breach of duty, has his great connections, the antiquity of his family, the important services of his ancestors, and the multitudes he has by power engaged in his interest, to screen him from condign punishment ; my whole safety depends upon myself; which renders it the more indispensably necessary for me to take care, that my conduct be clear and unexceptionable. Besides, I am well aware, my countrymen, that the eye of the public is upon me ; and that, though the impartial, who prefer the real advantage of the commonwealth to all other confiderations, favour my pretensions, the Patricians wants nothing fo much, as an occasion against me. It is, therefore, my fixed resolution, to use my best endeavours, that you be not disappointed in me, and that their indirect designs against me may be defeated. I have from my youth, been familiar with toils, and with dangers, I was faithful to your intereft, my countrymen, when I served. you for no reward, but that of honour. It is not my design to betray you, now that you have conferred upon me a place of profit.
You have committed to my conduct the war against Jugurtha. The Patricians are offended at this. But where would be the wisdom of giving such a command to one of their honourable body, a person of illuftrious birth, of ancient family, of innumerable statues, but of no experience! What service would his long line of dead ancestors, or his multitude of motionless ftatuies, do his country in the day of battle ? What could such a general do, but, in his tripidation and inexperience, have recourse to some inferior commander, for direction in dificulties, to which he was not
himself equal ? Thus, your Patrician general would in fact, have a general over him ; so that the acting commander would still be a Plebeian. So true is this, my countrymen, that I have myself known those, who have been chosen confuls, begin then to read the history of their own country, of which till that time they were totally ignorant ; that is, they first obtained the employment and then bethought themselves of the qualifications fiecessary for the proper discharge of it. I fubmit to your judgment, Romans, on which side the advantage lies, when a comparison is made between Patrician haughtiness, and Plebeian experience. The very action which they have only read, I have partly seen, and partly myself atchieved. What they know by reading, I know by action, They are pleased to fight my mean birth : I despise their mean character. Want of birth and fortune is the objection against me: want of personal worth against them. But are not all men of the same species? What can make a difference between one man and another, but the endowments of the mind? For my part, I shall always look upon the bravest man as the noblest man. Suppose it were enquired of the fathers of such Patricians as Albinus and Beftia, whether, if they had their choice, they would defire fons of their character, or of mine ; what would they answer, but that they should with the worthiest to be their sons ? If the Patricians have reason to despise me, let them likewise despise their ancestors, whofe nobility was the fruit of their virtue. Do they envy the honours beitowed upon me? Let them envy likewise my labours, my abstinence, and thedangers I have undergone for my country; by which I have acquired them. But those worthless mer lead such a life of inactivity, as if they despised any honours you can beftow; whilft they aspire to honours, as if they had deserved them by the most industrious virtue.