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friendship between the oppressor and the oppreffed. Even in peace,

the latter think themselves entitled to the rights of war against the former. We will, if you think good, enter into a treaty with you according to our manner, which is, not by figning, sealing, and taking the gods to witness, as is the Grecian custom'; but by doing actual services.' The Scythians are not used to promise; but to perform without promising. And they think an appeal to the gods fuperfluo ous; for that those, who have no regard for the esteem of men, will not hesitate to offend the gods, by perjury. You may therefore consider with yourself, whether you had better have a people of such a character, and so fituated to have it in their power either to serve you, or to annoy you, according as you treat them, för allies, or for enemies.

QUINTUS CURTIUS,

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GALGACUS THE GENERAL OF THE CALEDONII

HIS ARMY, TO INCITE THEM TO ACTION AGAINST THE ROMANS,

TO

of

cire cumstances of our situation, I feel a strong perfuafion that our united efforts on the present day will prove the beginning of universal liberty to Britain. For none of us are hitherto debased by slavery ; and we have no prospect of a secure retreat behind us, either by land or fea, whilst the Roman feet hovers around. Thus the use of arms, which is at all times honourable to the brave, here offers the only safety even to cowards. In all the battles which have yet been fought with various success against the Romans, the resources of hope and aid were in our hands ; for we, the

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noblest inhabitants of Britain, and therefore stationed in its deepest recesses, far from the view of servile shores, have preserved even our eyes unpolluted by the contact of subjection. We, a: the farthest limits both of land and liberty, have been defended to this day by the obscurity of our fitu. ation and of our fame. The extremity of Britain is now disclosed ; and whatever is unknown becomes an object of importance. But there is no nation beyond us ; nothing but waves and rocks ; and the Romans are before us. The arrogance

of these invaders it will be in vain to encounter by obsequiousness and submission. These plunderers of the world, after exhausting the land by their devastations, are rifling the ocean : stimulated by avarice, if their enemy be rich ; by ambition, if poor : unsatiated by the East and by the West: the only people who behold wealth and indigence with equal avidity. To ravage, to slaughter, to ufurp under false titles, they call empire ; and when they make a defert, they call it peace.

Our children and relations are by the appointment of nature rendered the dearest of all things to us. torn away by levies to foreign fervitude. Our wives and fifters, though they should escape the violation of hostile force, are polluted under the names of friendship and hospitality. Our estates and possessions are consumed in tributes ; our grain in contributions. Even the powers of our bodies are worn down amidst stripes and insults in clearing woods and draining marshes. Wretches born to slavery are first bought, and afterwards fed by their masters : Britain continually buys, continually feeds her own fervitude. And as among domestic llaves every new comer serves for the scorn and derision of his fellows ; fo, in this ancient household of the world, we, as the last and vileft, are fought

out

These are

out for destruction. For we have neither cultivated lands, nor mines, nor harbours, which can induce them to preserve us for our labours; and our valour and unsubmitting spirit will only render us more obnoxious to our imperious masters; while the very remoteness and secrecy of our situation in proportion as it conduces to security, will tend to inspire fufpicion. Since then all hopes of forgivencís are vain, let thofe at length assume courage, to whom glory, to whom safety is dear. The Brigantines, even under a female leader, had force enough to burn the enemy's settlements, to storm their camps; and, if success had not introduced negligence and inactivity, would have been able entirely to throw off the yoke : and shall not we, untouched, unsubdued, and struggling not for the acquisition, but the continuance of liberty, declare at the

very

first onset what kind of men Caledonia has reserved for her defence ? Can you imagine that the Romans are

as brave in war as they are insolent in peace ? Acquiring renown from our discords and dissensions, they convert the errors of their ernmies to the glory of their own army; an army compounded of the most different nations, which as success alone has kept together, misfortune will certainly dislipate. Unless, indeed, you can suppose that Gauls, and Germans, and (I blush to say it) even Britons, lavishing their blood for a 'foreign state, to which they have been longer foes than subjects, will be retained by loyalty and affection ! Terror and dread alone, weak bonds of attachment, are the ties by which they are restrained ; and when these are once broken, those who cease to fear will begin to hate. Every incitement to victory is on our side

The Romans have no wives to animate them : no parents to upbraid their fight, Most of them have either no habitation, or a distant one,

Few

Few in number, ignorant of the country, looking around in filent horror at the woods, feas, and a haven itself unknown to them, they are delivered by the gods, as it were, imprisoned and bound, into our hands. Be not terrified with an idle shew, and the glitter of filver and gold, which can neither protect nor' wound. In the very ranks of the enemy we shall find our own bands. The Britons will acknowledge their own cause. The Gauls will recollect their former liberty. The Germans will desert them, as the Usipii have lately done. Nor is there any thing formidable behind them : Ungarrisoned forts ; colonies of invalids ; municipal towns distempered and distracted between unjuft masters, and ill-obeying subjects. Here is your geineral; here your army. There, tributes, mines, and all the train of servile punishments; which whether to bear eternally, or instantly to revenge, this field must determine. March then to battle, and think of your ancestors and your pofterity.

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The EARL OF ARUNDEL'S SPEECH, PROPOSING

AN ACCOMMODATION BETWEEN HENRY II.
STEPHEN.

AND

IN the midp of a wide and open plain

, Henry found Stephen encamped, and pitched his own tents within a quarter of a mile of him, preparing for a battle with all the eagerness, that the desire of empire and glory could excite, in a brave and youth. ful heart, elate with success. Stephen also much wished to bring the contest between them to a speedy decision : but, while he and Euftace were consulting with William of Ipresyin whose affe&ion they most confided, and by whose private advicc they took all their

measures,

measures, the earl of Arundel, having assembled the English nobility, and principal officers, spoke to this effect :

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T is now above fixteen years, that on a doubtful and dif

puted claim to the crown, the rage of civil war has almost continually infested this kingdom. During this melancholy period how much blood has been shed! What devaftations and misery have been brought on the people! The laws have lost their force, the crown its authority : licentious, ness and impunity have shaken all the foundations of public fecurity. This great and noble nation has been delivered a prey to the baseft of foreigners, the abominable scum of Flanders, Brabant, and Bretagne, robbers rather than soldiers, re

strained by no laws, divine or human, tied to no country, • subject to no prince, instruments of all tyranny, violence, and

oppression. At the same time, our cruel neighbours, the Welch and the Scotch, calling theniselves allies or auxiliaries to the Empress, but in reality enemies and destroyers of England, have broken their bounds, ravaged our borders, and taken from us whole provinces, which we never can hope to recover; while, instead of employing our united force against them, we continue thus madly, without any care of our public safety or national honour, to turn our swords against our own booms. What benefits have we gained, to compenfate all these losses, or what do we expect! When Matilda was mistress of the kingdom, though her power was not yet coafirmed, in what manner did she govern! Did she not make even those of her own faction and court regret the king ? Was not her pride more intolerable still than his levity, her rapine than his profuseness? Were any years of his reign fo grievous to the people, so offensive to the nobles, as the first days of her's ? When she was driven out, did Ste

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