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that a young man of twenty-two will be stronger than the circumstances which environ him in a Vizier-ridden country such as Morocco, where the forces of self-interest and tradition are opposed to reform, as reform is understood by Europeans ; but it has become clear that in his Shereefian Majesty Morocco has a ruler of ability and earnestness of purpose, from whom something may be hoped in the coming years. A most interesting sketch of him and a statement of his views appeared in the Times of November, 1901, contributed by an Arabic-speaking correspondent who had a long interview with him.

The history of Algeria during 1901 is one of the consolidation of the French occupation of the Tuat oasis, and of the gradual establishment of relations with the Soudanic tribes in the vast French sphere lying between the Upper NigerLake Chad Line, the Egyptian provinces of the Soudan, the hinterland of Tripoli and the French Congo. Little is known of the work actually accomplished in winning over the tribes, but it seems that the Tuaregs are exhibiting the implacability expected from them. Three caravans, under French protection, on their way to Algerian ports from the Upper Niger, have been attacked during the year, and their escorts slain. As treaties of friendship are believed to exist between the French and Tuareg confederation, the inference is that they are proving to be worthless; and it is supposed that the Sheik Senussi is at the bottom of the trouble. The policy of this Mahomedan leader is rooted in hostility to the infidel, and, as his sect is powerful throughout the French sphere, the possibility of war on a large scale--of war comparable with that in the Nile Soudan for many years—is one that France cannot disregard. Whatever may be the real danger likely to arise from the Senussi movement and from Tuareg association with it, the fact remains that the French protection over caravans endeavouring to re-open the desert routes from Lake Chad and Nigeria to the north coast is not yet effective.

Tripoli presents no features of note beyond reports that the Sultan of Turkey, who objected to the Soudanic Agreement, which gave the Tripoli hinterland to France, has since endeavoured to strengthen his hold upon this remnant of his Empire in Africa. The necessity for doing this will still further have been brought home to his mind by an understanding arrived at between France and Italy, by which the former Power undertakes not to thwart Italian aspirations for the eventual acquirement of Tripoli in return for Italian acquiescence in French ambitions at the expense of Morocco. For the present, however, Tripoli belongs to the Sultan of Turkey; and whatever the interchange of views between the Powers named may have been, they do not affect that dominant fact.

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V. MALTA The agitation against British rule in Malta-an agitation disguised under a claim for self-government–became disagreeably prominent in 1901. At the close of the previous rear a deadlock occurred owing to the refusal of the elected members of the Legislature to vote supplies for educational purposes. Similar difficulties arose later in the session, and in March, 1901, certain sums for educational purposes were reduced by the elected members as a protest because they were not allowed to legislate with the object of establishing the Italian language as the medium for instruction in Government institutions. Impassioned appeals were addressed to the Maltese people, both at meetings and through the local Press, by the elected members and their supporters, and a vigorous agitation was prosecuted. On July 30 Mr. Chamberlain addressed a despatch to Acting-Governor Lord Congleton, in which he dealt with the entire matter, taking as his starting point an incident in 1898, when a British officer was committed by a Maltese court of law for contempt for having refused to sign a deposition in the Italian language, of which he was ignorant. An Order in Council was therefore issued on March 7, 1899, giving British subjects not born or naturalised in Malta the right to have legal proceedings conducted in English. And as to the language question generally the Government arrived at the conclusion that the time was not far distant when the English language should be definitely adopted in the courts of Malta, and the period of fifteen years from March 22, 1899, was fixed, so that the legal profession and all concerned might have time to prepare for the change. New regulations had also been passed providing that children in the elementary schools should be taught Maltese as the only language for the first two years, and that then the parents were to choose between English and Italian as the language to be taught their children in the higher standards. The opponents of this free choice, baving, said Mr. Chamberlain, failed to force Italian on the majority of the people, had refused taxation and public improvements, and it became imperative to consider how this abuse of the Constitution should be met. After an exhaustive examination of the administrative questions hampered by the action of the elected members, Mr. Chamberlain showed that an expenditure of 380,5001. was necessary. The amount would be spread over thirteen years. A sum of 38,0001. (including 9,0001. for Civil contingencies) would have to be raised by additional taxation. bringing the total taxation per head of the Maltese to about 11. 78. 6d. per year, as against 21. 14s. 3d. in Italy (where wages were much lower), and 41. 13s. per head in England. An Order in Council would therefore be issued giving effect to the necessary scheme of taxation for raising the additional 38,0001. Mr. Chamberlain denied that it was the policy of the Govern

ment to force either the English or the Italian language on the Maltese; the policy was to leave the matter entirely to their free choice. This despatch was published, and on August 11 a demonstration was made against it by a mass meeting of 12,000 to 15,000 persons in Valetta. There was disorder as the result of hostile and excited speeches, and two days afterwards some person unknown threw corrosive fluid over the statue of Queen Victoria. At the end of the year the agitation was smouldering ineffectually.

H. WHATES.

CHAPTER VIII.

AMERICA.

I. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES.

At the beginning of the year 1901 the President of the United States was William McKinley, of Ohio, who had been elected to the presidency in 1896 for the term beginning March 4, 1897. His term expired on March 4, 1901. In 1900 he was re-elected for a second term by the Republicans, Theodore Roosevelt, of New York, being the Vice-President. The Members of the Cabinet at that time were :-Secretary of State, John Hay, of Ohio ; Secretary of the Treasury, Lyman J. Gage, of Illinois ; Secretary of War, Elihu Root, of New York; Secretary of the Navy, John D. Long, of Massachusetts ; Postmaster-General, Charles Emory Smith, of Pennsylvania ; Attorney-General, John W. Griggs, of New Jersey ; Secretary of the Interior, Ethan A. Hitchcock, of Missouri ; Secretary of Agriculture, James Wilson, of Iowa. On March 5 AttorneyGeneral Griggs resigned and was succeeded by Philander C. Knox, of Pennsylvania. On December 17 Postmaster-General Smith resigned and was succeeded by Henry C. Payne, of Wisconsin. In December Secretary Gage notified the President of his intention to resign and Governor Leslie M. Shaw, of Iowa, was designated his successor, to take office early in the New Year.

President McKinley was inaugurated for the second time on March 4. In his inaugural message he called attention to the prosperity of the country as compared with the anxiety when he was inaugurated four years before, and added :

Four years ago we stood on the brink of war without the people knowing it and without any preparation or effort of preparation for the impending peril. I did all that in honour could be done to avert the war, but without avail. It became inevitable, and the Congress at its first regular session, without party division, provided money in anticipation of the crisis and in preparation to meet it.

“It came. The result was signally favourable to American arms and in the highest degree honourable to the Government. It imposed upon us obligations from which we cannot escape and from which it would be dishonourable to seek to escape. We are now at peace with the world, and it is my fervent prayer that if differences arise between us and other Powers they may be settled by peaceful arbitration, and that hereafter we may be spared the horrors of war.

“Entrusted by the people for a second time with the office of President, I enter upon its administration appreciating the great responsibilities which attach to this renewed honour and commission, promising unreserved devotion on my part to their faithful discharge, and reverently invoking for my guidance the direction and favour of Almighty God.

My fellow-citizens, the public events of the past four years have gone into history. They are too near to justify recital. Some of them were unforeseen ; many of them momentous and far-reaching in their consequences to ourselves and our relations with the rest of the world. The part which the United States bore so honourably in the thrilling scenes in China, while new to American life, has been in harmony with its true spirit and best traditions, and in dealing with the results its policy will be that of moderation and fairness.

“Our countrymen should not be deceived. We are not waging war against the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands. A portion of them are making war against the United States. By far the greater part of the inhabitants recognise American sovereignty and welcome it as a guaranty of order and security for life, property, liberty, freedom of conscience and the pursuit of happiness. To them full protection will be given. They shall not be abandoned. We will not leave the destiny of the loyal millions in the islands to the disloyal thousands who are in rebellion against the United States. Order under civil institutions will come as soon as those who now break the peace shall keep it. Force will not be needed or used when those who make war against us shall make it no more. May it end without further bloodshed and there be ushered in the reign of peace, to be made permanent by a government of liberty under law !”

Vice-President Roosevelt, on taking the oath of office, said :

“Great privileges and great powers are ours, and heavy are the responsilities that go with these privileges and these powers. According as we do well or ill so shall mankind in the future be raised or cast down. We belong to a young nation, already of giant strength, yet whose present strength is but a forecast of the power that is to come. We stand supreme in the continent, in a hemisphere. East and west we look across the two great oceans toward the larger world-life in which, whether we will or not, we must take an ever-increasing share. And as, keen-eyed, we gaze into the coming years, duties new and

old rise thick and fast to confront us from within and from without.

“There is every reason why we should face these duties with a sober appreciation alike of their importance and of their difficulty. But there is also every reason for facing them with high-hearted resolution and eager and confident faith in our capacity to do them aright.

“A great work lies ready to the hand of this generation; it should count itself happy indeed that to it is given the privilege of doing such a work. A leading part must be taken by this, the august and powerful legislative body over which I have been called to preside. Most deeply I appreciate the privilege of my position; for high indeed is the honour of presiding over the American Senate at the outset of the twentieth century."

On September 6, while holding a reception in the Temple of Music of the Pan-American Exhibition at Buffalo, President McKinley was shot by Leon Czolgosz, an American anarchist of Polish extraction, and died early on the morning of September 14. The body of the late President was brought to Washington, and a State funeral held in the Rotunda of the Capitol, the interment taking place at Canton, Ohio, the President's former home. Under the provision of the Constitution, Theodore Roosevelt at once took the oath of office, and became the President of the United States. He announced that he would follow the policy of his predecessor, and he requested the members of the McKinley Cabinet to retain their portfolios, which they consented to do. The assassin was placed on trial on September 23 at Buffalo, found guilty and sentenced to death three days later. He was executed by electricity at the State prison at Auburn, New York, October 29.

The area of the United States, not including foreign possessions, is (census of 1900) 3,616,484 square miles, with a population of 76,303,387 as compared with 63,069,756 in the previous decade. There were 9,312,585" coloured " persons, under that head being enumerated negroes, persons of negro descent, Chinese, Japanese and Indians. The dependencies have a population of 8,083,683 as follows : Philippine Islands, 6,961,339 (estimated); Porto Rico, 953,243; Hawaii, 154,001; Guam, 9,000; American Samoa, 6,100.

For the fiscal year 1901 487,918 immigrants arrived in the United States as compared with 448,572 in 1900. The principal countries sending immigrants to the United States were Italy, 135,996; Austria-Hungary, 113,390; Russia, 85,257 ; Ireland, 30,561; Sweden, 23,331; Germany, 21,651; Great Britain (excluding Ireland), 14,985.

The regular Army of the United States, including coloured troops, is limited to a maximum strength of 100,000 enlisted men, but at the present time 3,820 officers, line and staff, and 77,287 enlisted men, exclusive of coloured troops, constitute the military establishment. The Army Act of February 2, 1901,

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