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share in bringing about the revival of learning. The studies of each character show a thorough mastery of the history of that upheaval. Mr. Fitzgerald Molloy's pleasant gossiping book, The Queen's Comrade (Hutchinson & Co.), may suffice to beguile a pleasant hour, but will scarcely satisfy those who wish for real information concerning the life and times of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. There is no lack of materials for such a work, and the wonder is that it has not been undertaken by some competent writer, who would furnish the neces. sary supplement to Lord Wolseley's unfinished life of Sarah's great husband. There is something more satisfying and original to be found in the volume compiled from family records by Lady NewdigateNewdegate, entitled Cavalier and Puritan (Smith, Elder & Co.). The diary of Sir Richard Newdigate is full of glimpses of the life of an active, eager and somewhat mettlesome gentleman at a time when political and religious strife was at its keenest. King Monmouth (Lane), by Mr. Allan Fea, is another and more generally interesting volume, compiled from original sources, which throws much light upon the career of a man who, with all his vanity and weakness, exercised great fascination over friends and followers. As to Monmouth's paternity considerable doubt exists, which Mr. Fea does not clear up. His position at Court and his quarrels with the Duke of York supported the idea that he was the King's son, and he was willingly adopted by the Protestant party as its candidate for the throne. How little he was qualified for the place, notwithstanding his brilliant qualities, Mr. Fea clearly shows. Coming to more recent times, Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice has produced a singularly interesting monograph on Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, 1735-1806 (Longmans), whose memory is nearly forgotten. His career as a soldier was blurred by his hesitancy as a politician. He was offered the supreme command of the French revolutionary forces, and six months later was holding that appointment for the Allies when they took up the cause of Louis XVI.
The quiet uneventful life of Mary Rich, Countess of Warwick has attracted the attention of two biographers-Miss C. Fell Smith (Longmans) and Miss M. E. Palgrave (Dent)-the former dealing mainly with her domestic life and the latter with its devotional side. Both give a pleasing idea of how in the seventeenth century a woman of warm heart and active temperament could make her life attractive and beneficial to others. The Francis Letters (Hutchinson) contribute only indirect evidence to the controversy as to the authorship of the “Letters of Junius," which recent investigation shows pretty conclusively were not written by Sir Philip Francis. There is certainly nothing in the present collection of dull letters to his family to suggest his authorship of the vigorous and virulent attacks upon public men which were for so long associated with his name. The Benenden Letters (Dent), edited by C. F. Hardy, have an interest as throwing a sidelight-somewhat pale-upon town and country life at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century, but neither the writers nor the receivers seem to have been mixed up with any im. portant incidents.
The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte (Macmillan), by Professor W. M. Sloane, now issued in four magnificent volumes, must take a prominent place among the biographies of the great Corsican. The author has had access to innumerable documents, hitherto unpublished, whilst his acquaintance with existing Napoleonic literature is almost unique. He is by no means a blind worshipper of his hero--and he lays special stress upon his histrionic talents, which from his first start in life he employed with persistent success. His duel with Metternich, who finally outwitted and brought down his rival, is treated with less attention than it would seem to deserve; but its episodes would not furnish many materials for illustrationand it is to its almost inexhaustible store of illustrations that these splendid volumes will owe their chief popularity. In one way this is to be regretted, for Mr. Sloane has written a work for students of history as well as for the admirers of the marvellous career of the most extraordinary man of the time which he himself created.
Mr. Barry O'Brien's Life of Lord Russell of Killowen (Smith, Elder & Co.) gives a vivid idea of the great lawyer and eminent judge who lived so short a time to enjoy his honours. The life of Charles Russell abounded with picturesque details, and he has been more lucky in his biographer than falls to the lot of most men. He was almost as well known on the turf, in the club card-room and in society as he was at the bar, on the bench and in the House of Commons. His strong personality made itself felt in every field of activity, and Mr. Barry O'Brien has succeeded in bringing before us the man as he lived and fought his way from a solicitor's office to be Lord Chief Justice of England.
Quite the most interesting and attractive contribution to the domestic history of the past are the two volumes written and compiled by Lady Ilchester-The Life and Letters of Lady Sarah Lennox (Murray). When only sixteen years old she received a proposal of marriage from George III., and this was seriously renewed two years later, but it was prevented by the King's mother and the then powerful Lord Bute. Lady Sarah Lennox seems to have taken the loss of her Royal lover and of the throne of England with great equanimity, and in 1762 married Sir Charles Bunbury, a marriage which turned out unfortunately. Thirteen years later she married Colonel Napier, and became the mother of three men, all of whom achieved distinction. The story of the life of this fascinating lady is told with admirable fulness, which never becomes tedious, and the details are recounted in a series of vivacious letters to her lifelong friend, Lady Susan FoxStrangways-a cousin of Charles James Fox.
It is strange that up to the present time no attempt should have been made to write an authentic history of the popular naturalist of Selborne, whose own work has passed through so many editions and after a century is perhaps even more popular than at the time of its publication. There was therefore ample reason that Mr. Rashleigh Holt-White should take in hand The Life and Letters of Gilbert White (Murray), and vindicate his great-uncle from some of the undeserved charges of absenteeism and pluralism. Even had he been guilty of these then venial errors, his work as a naturalist should obtain for him full forgiveness.
Dean Holes Then and Now (Hutchinson) is ostensibly another book of personal reminiscences, but the contrast between the past and present is illustrated rather by the sayings and doings of others than by those of the Dean himself. Possibly he may have thought that in his former work, “ Memories," he had already told us enough about his wellspent life, but his readers may think otherwise. The late Mr. W. J. Stillman's Autobiography of a Journalist (Grant Richards) records the adventures in many lands of an American who began life as an art student and as an ardent Liberal. He studied in the United States, England and Paris, made friends everywhere, resided in famous cities and was newspaper correspondent wherever nations were fighting for liberty. With such materials and a facile pen, his recollections are full of interest, but they are not autobiographical except in the conventional sense. Mr. G. S. Layard's object in publishing Mrs. Lynn Linton's Life, Letters and Opinions (Methuen) was doubtless laudable, as it was as well that she should be known as others saw her, as well as she saw herself. She was a distinctly lovable woman, with strong sympathies and antipathies, living more for others than for herself; but the life of a journalist or even an author, and Mrs. Lynn Linton was both, is not always of public interest. The supplementary volumes to Lady Granville's letters, which appeared some years ago, has been edited by her grand-daughter, Mrs. Oldfield, under the title of Some Records of the later Life of Harriet Countess Granville (Longmans). Although the brightness of life passed away after she became a widow and serious thoughts took the place of “society” chit-chat, there is much in this volume which will amuse, and more that will instruct the reader. Mary Boyle, Her Book (Murray) is a more gossiping but very attractive autobio. graphy of a lady who lived " in society” and noted its foibles with ready perception but with kindly forbearance. She lived through a period in which men and women of society held a more important place in the world-a place now occupied by newspapers. Mary Boyle mixed with these makers of history and teaches us to know them. Sir Edward Malet's wish to add his own to the numerous volumes of reminiscences which have appeared in recent years is at least justified by the result, for in his Shifting Scenes (Murray) he is able to give some fresh though superficial views of the sights that he saw and of the people whom he met. The most valuable part of his work refers to his service in Egypt in the days of the Khedive Tewfik--and he has some interesting memories of Bismarck and the Franco-Prussian war. From the other side of the Atlantic we have in A Sailor's Log (Smith, Elder & Co.) the lively recollections of Rear-Admiral Robley D. Evans of the United States Navy, who has a graphic way of telling the important part played by himself in various parts of the world during forty years, including his share in the late war with Spain. Sir M. E. Grant-Duff has published two more volumes of Notes from a Diary (Murray), extending from 1889-91. It is obviously too soon to speak with freedom of persons and events after so short a lapse of time, and it is equally premature to judge fairly of the results of foreign and domestic policy.
The only apparent use of such a publication is to enshrine the sayings of those who at the time held a position in the world, and to preserve, if needed in the future, some record of their personality. Mrs. Charles Bagot's Links with the Past (Edward Arnold) certainly fulfils its title, for the writer, a daughter of Admiral Josceline Percy, recounts how she danced with old Lord Huntly, who in his early life had danced with Marie Antoinette. Apparently Mrs. Bagot previous to her marriage had kept a journal, which she destroyed. The freshness of her memory, however, enables her to tell some excellent and, what is more, several new anecdotes of the past century and its leading personages in town and country. The Conversations with James Northoote, RA (Methuen & Co.), edited by Ernest Fletcher, took place chiefly with James Ward, an artist of some local celebrity, but not to be confounded with James (or “Bull”) Ward, R.A. They contain some interesting criticisms upon the painters of the day, and this volume, coming as a sort of supplement to Hazlitt's life, will give a higher idea of Northcote's capacities as a talker than his pictures convey of his abilities as a painter; being thus the absolute opposite to Reynold's, who was a wretched conversationalist. Reynolds' remark that anything would do for a diploma work is certainly borne out by the contents of the Gallery, which now contains two hundred specimens of Academicians' work.
Mr. Francis H. Skrine has done well to keep alive the memory of an Anglo-Indian official who in his administrative career and still more by his literary work did more than any man “to obtain a hearing for India.” The Life of Sir William W. Hunter (Longmans) is a book which shows that few men have grasped more clearly the needs of India or understood better how the Empire should be administered in the interests of the rulers and the ruled.
The Letters of John Richard Green (Macmillan), edited by Mr. Leslie Stephen, throw a pleasant light upon a life which was known only to a few intimate friends. The author of the “Short History of the English People,” which has taken its place among the “Classics," was generally imagined to be a student who manfully fought against the disease to which he at last succumbed. These letters reveal him as the sympathetic friend, ever bright and genial, encouraging others and never desponding of himself, and from Mr. Leslie Stephen's slight details which connect the letters we learn that his conversation was as bright and as fascinating as his letters.
The Memoirs and Letters of Sir James Paget (Longmans) is also a pleasant record of the career of a man who raised himself to distinction by character as much as by ability in his profession. He was a man of singular simplicity of mind and feeling, and it is no wonder that he attracted the friendship of the most worthy and notable men and women of his time. Mr. Stephen Paget contributes a modest memoir of his father's long and happy life.
The Life of Sir R. Murdoch Smith (Blackwood), by his son-in-law, Mr. W. K. Dickson, recounts the varied and useful career of an officer in the Royal Engineers who accompanied Sir Charles Newton to Halicarnassus and Cnidus, and subsequently laid the European telegraph across Persia, thus establishing direct communication with India. Latterly he was director of the Science and Art Museum at Edinburgh, a post for which his taste and knowledge well qualified him, as may be gathered from the magnificent collection of Persian ware and metal work which he made for the South Kensington Museum during his stay in that country.
Other Indian soldiers and administrators have received attention from biographers. Colonel R. H. Vetch has dealt with The Life, Letters and Diaries of Lieutenant-General Sir Gerald Graham, V.C., KC.B. (Blackwood), whose career in India, China, and the Soudan was brilliant and successful; and Captain L. Trotter has come forward to refute once more the charges brought against Hodson of Hodson's Horse. In his A Leader of Light Horse (Blackwood) Captain Trotter sketches the career of one of the most adventurous and apparently the most attractive of men, who won the regard of his superiors as well as the devotion of his followers. The Autobiography of LieutenantGeneral Sir Harry Smith, G.C.B. (Murray), is the record of a longer and more successful career, which began before the Peninsula and extended until Natal was added to the British Empire and our hold upon South Africa firmly established. Sir Harry Smith served in all parts of the King's and Queen's dominions, and sometimes outside them, and the personal incidents which befel him furnish abundant material for an autobiography in which modesty plays a prominent part.
The Life and Correspondence of the Right Honourable H. C. E. Childers (Murray), by his son, Colonel Spencer Childers, recounts at some length the varied career of a man who occupied a prominent place as an administrator and a financier. His colonial experiences, to which justice is scarcely done, would have fitted him especially for the Colonial Office, but it was at the Admiralty, in the War Office, the Home Office and the Exchequer that his abilities were employed in successive Liberal Administrations. He left behind him the reputation in all departments of a hard-working, capable man, but his name will be chiefly associated with the introduction of the territorial system of regiments into the Army.
Mr. Herbert W. Paul's Life of William Ewart Gladstone (Smith, Elder & Co.), whilst it does not aim at being exhaustive or in rivalry to any more official life, practically gives all the information respecting the public life of the great Liberal leader that it is necessary for ordinary folk to know. The volume is something more than a mere expansion of Mr. Herbert Paul's article on the same subject in the “ Dictionary of National Biography.” Mr. Sydney Buxton's Mr. Gladstone (Murray) deals only with the statesman as a financier, whom he places by the side of Walpole, Pitt and Peel, assigning him a high place in the quartet. Mrs. Fawcett endeavours to revive interest in the Right Honourable Sir William Molesworth (Macmillan), who for some years was Colonial Secretary in more than one Whig Administration and often differed from his colleagues on questions of colonial government. He was an interesting type of the timid Imperialist, and in future times will probably be more remembered by Lady Molesworth's social qualities than by his own political abilities. Parliamentary blue books at best are dry materials for a biographer.