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Queen Victoria.-Alexandrina Vic- 1 of mathematics, Latin and Greek. In toria, only child of Edward, Duke of 1837 the Princess Victoria, now heirKent, fourth son of George III., by his apparent, attained her legal majority, marriage with Victoria, daughter of and the event was celebrated by great Francis, Duke of Coburg, the widow of rejoicings in London and elsewhere. Carl Ludwig, Prince of Leiningen, was A grand ball was given at St. James's born at Kensington Palace on May 24, Palace, when the Princess for the first 1819. Her father died early in the time took official precedence of her following year, almost at the same time mother. Less than a month later, as George III. At this time the Princess June 20-21, she became Queen. The Charlotte, the Prince Regent's daugh. announcement was made to her at ter, was living, and in 1820 a daughter 5 A.M. by the Archbishop of Canterbury was born to the Duke of Clarence (after (Dr. Howley) and the Lord Chamberwards William IV.), so that the Prin lain (Marquess of Conyngham), who cess Victoria's chance of succeeding had her roused from bed to receive to the throne appeared remote. Her their news. She received them in mother continued to live quietly at Ken. her nightgown and shawl, her feet in sington, but in 1828 she was a spectator slippers, and her hair falling upon her at a Drawing Room, where the young shoulders. On the following day the Queen of Portugal was present, and Queen was proclaimed in the City and in the same year George IV. gave a at St. James's by the title of Victoria, juvenile ball in her honour. After this and a few days later went to prorogue time, although the greater part of the Parliament, which was then, in accordyear was spent at Kensington, the ance with the existing constitutional Duchess of Kent and the Princess Vic law, dissolved. In her first speech she toria usually passed the autumn at said, “I ascend the Throne with a Ramsgate, Broadstairs, St. Leonards. deep sense of the responsibility which on-Sea, the Isle of Wight, or at Tun is imposed upon me; but I am supbridge Wells. The Princess Victoria's ported by the consciousness of my own name appeared in the Regency Bill right intentions, and by my dependence passed on the accession of William IV. upon the protection of Almighty God.” as heir-presumptive to the throne. On In the following November she dined the acceptance of the Crown of Belgium with the Lord Mayor at the Guildhall, by her brother, Prince Leopold, the and shortly afterwards opened in person Duchess of Kent took up her abode the new Parliament. One of its first at Claremont, where she had occasion acts was to settle the Queen's Civil ally resided with him. There she List, which was fixed at 385,0001., and pushed her daughter's education far her Privy Purse at 60,0001. At the beyond the ordinary limits of girls of same time Parliament settled 30,0001. those days, the Princess becoming pro a year upon the Duchess of Kent. In ficient in both French and Italian the following summer, on June 28, she German, of course, she knew-and an was solemnly crowned in Westminster accomplished musician, whilst she also Abbey, Archbishop Howley placing the devoted some of her time to the study | crown upon her head and anointing her hands, and she returned to Bucking- supervision of Prince Albert, and they ham Palace wearing her crown. In entered upon its occupation on Sep1839 there occurred the incident known tember 7, 1855. as the “ Bedchamber Plot.” The Mel Among the untoward incidents of the bourne Ministry having resigned on a Queen's life must be mentioned the question connected with the govern various attempts made upon her person ment of Jamaica, in the negotiations -all of which were happily unattended which ensued Sir Robert Peel stipu. with any serious injury, and all the lated that if he took the Premiership acts of lunatics. The first was in 1841 the ladies of the household-mainly of when she was fired at by Edward Whig families-should be replaced by Oxford while driving in Hyde Park. Tories. The Queen being personally In the following year a man named attached to the ladies in question, Francis and a deformed lad named resisted this requirement-a course in Bean were the assailants, and three which she was encouraged by her subsequent attempts were made at long uncle, the Whig Duke of Sussex - with intervals. In all cases these attempts the result that Lord Melbourne re excited intense public aversion and turned to office. The young Queen's anger, only mitigated by their unvary. action in this matter, though natural, ing futility. The personal popularity was disapproved in many quarters, and of the Queen was a powerful element she never repeated it. In December of among the influences which kept the same year an announcement was England free from any dangerous dismade that the Queen had resolved to turbances in 1848, when Continental marry her first-cousin, Prince Albert, thrones were almost everywhere totteryounger son of Duke Ernest of Saxe ing, if not actually overthrown. Louis Coburg and Gotha. The announce Philippe, the fallen French King (whom ment was well received by the nation, the English Queen had visited at the and the marriage, which was celebrated Château d'Eu in 1843), took refuge in at the Chapel Royal, St. James's, on this country, was pecuniarily assisted February 10, 1840, was the occasion of by Queen Victoria, and subsequently general popular rejoicing. The Queen's had Claremont assigned as his resieldest child, the Princess Royal, was dence. born in the following November, and In August, 1849, the Queen, accomthe Prince of Wales a year later. Seven panied by Prince Albert, and the little other children followed at intervals Princess Royal and Prince of Wales, down to 1857, the youngest being the visited Ireland, sailing from the Isle Princess Beatrice. Up to her marriage of Wight to the Cove of Cork (thence and for a short time afterwards, the renamed Queenstown), and was reQueen, when not in London or at ceived with great enthusiasm both at Windsor, passed most of her time at Cork and in Dublin, though so short a Claremont, which she loved, or at time had passed after the abortive Brighton, which she disliked ; but in rising of Smith O'Brien. On August 1841 she purchased Osborne House, 12, 1850, the Queen found it necessary near Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, and to write a very strong letter requiring, from time to time added to it by the through the Prime Minister, Lord J. purchase of adjoining property. In Russell, that the Foreign Secretary, 1842 the Queen and Prince Albert paid Lord Palmerston, should distinctly their first visit to Scotland, staying state what he proposed in any given with the Duke of Atholl at Dunkeld, case of foreign policy, and that when the Duke of Buccleuch at Dalkeith, she had sanctioned any measure it and others of the Scottish nobility. should “not be arbitrarily altered or They had previously paid visits to the modified by the Minister,' and generDuke of Bedford at Woburn, to Earl ally that she should be kept informed Cowper at Panshanger, and Lord Mel of what passed between him and foreign bourne at Brocket Hall. During a Ministers. Ultimately, in consequence tour in Scotland, in 1847, they first of his sending & friendly despatch saw Balmoral, and were so charmed without the sanction or knowledge with the spot and neighbourhood that of the Queen or the Premier, with they decided, if possible, to become its reference to Louis Napoleon's coup owners. After protracted negotiations d'Etat (Dec. 2, 1851), Lord Palmerston the estate was finally purchased from was dismissed from office. These inthe Fife trustees in 1852, and the old cidents illustrated the conscientious castle was inhabited by them in the manner in which, mainly doubtless autumn of that year. In the course under her husband's advice during his of the three following years the new lifetime, but later on her solitary castle was erected under the direct responsibility, the Queen exercised her constitutional supervision over the con- | subjects enabled her by degrees to reduct of foreign affairs.

sume her official functions, although In 1851 the Queen opened in state she ever afterwards held aloof from the “Great Exhibition' in Hyde Park, Court festivities. On the occasion of which had been mainly brought about the marriage of the Prince of Wales, by the influence of Prince Albert, in in March, 1863, she looked down from the hope of inaugurating a reign of the royal pew in St. George's Chapel, peace, and of encouraging art and in Windsor, on the ceremony, but it was dustry, and in the following year she long (not until 1868) before she could opened an International Exhibition in undertake the duties of a DrawingDublin. When the exhibition build room. Her heart, however, was always ing, subsequently to be known as the open to every sorrow which fell upon Crystal Palace, was removed in 1854 any section of her subjects, and the to Sydenham, the Queen re-opened it tender womanly sympathy which she there. In March of the same year, on invariably expressed with the sufferers the eve of the outbreak of the Crimean from any calamity endeared her prowar, she reviewed the Baltic fleet. foundly to the popular mind. As soon, During the progress of the war she en also, as her strength allowed she foltertained (April, 1855) herally Napoleon lowed public affairs, at home and III. and the Empress Eugénie at Wind abroad, with close and wise vigilance. sor, and in the course of the same year Her personal influence was exercised paid a return visit to them. Her in. with powerful effect in 1867 by letters terest in the sick and wounded of the to the Emperor Napoleon and the King war was displayed in her superintend of Prussia, towards the peaceful neutraence of relief committees of ladies, in lisation of the Duchy of Luxemburg. her frequent visits to the hospitals, In 1869 she interested herself actively, and in the exercise of her influence through Archbishop Tait, whose apfor the building of Netley. In June, pointment she had strongly favoured, 1857, she distributed in Hyde Park to in preventing a conflict between the some sixty members of both services two Houses of Parliament over the bill the new decoration of the Victoria Cross, for the Disestablishment of the Irish for personal valour in action. In the Church. She regretted that Mr. Gladfollowing year the Queen and Prince stone had thought it necessary to raise Albert paid visits to Birmingham and the question, but in view of the decisive Leeds, and also (at Potsdam) to the result of the general election of that Princess Royal, who had been married year she felt that further resistance to a few months previously to Prince the Disestablishment policy would be Frederick William of Prussia. In 1859 unwise. the Queen's husband received the title It was in 1868 that the Queen comof Prince Consort. In 1860 the Queen menced the custom, which later became reviewed 18,000 Volunteers in Hyde an annual one, of going to the Con. Park (the Volunteer movement having tinent in the early spring. The Lakes been started in the previous year), and of Lucerne and Maggiore were her first with her husband again visited their selected spots, and in the following year daughter in Prussia. In March, 1861, she stayed for some time at the summit the Queen's mother, to whom she was of the Furka Pass near the Rhône devotedly attached, died; and in the Glacier. In 1868 also there appeared the following December the happiness of touching tribute to the Queen's married her life was wrecked by the death of her life, in which she took her people into husband from gastric fever. He had her confidence by showing how simple outlived the prejudices long entertained and domestic were the ways of royalty. against him in various quarters, and “Leaves from a Journal of Our Life the admirable wisdom and tact with in the Highlands," was edited by Sir which he had discharged the difficult Arthur Helps, and illustrated by and delicate duties of his station were sketches from her Majesty's own penuniversally recognised. Almost his last cil, and it at once took hold of the public public act was to write suggestions heart. In December, 1871, the Prince with a view to the framing of Lord of Wales was brought to the verge of John Russell's despatch on the Trent death by an attack similar to that affair on lines facilitating the acquies. which ten years earlier had been fatal cence of the United States in the just to his father. The Prince, however, and necessary demands of this country. happily recovered, and in March, 1872,

The Queen's bereavement was crush the Queen, accompanied by her son, ing, and it was feared that she would went in state to St. Paul's to return never recover from it, but her strong thanks to God for his safety. From this sense of duty and her devotion to her | time the Queen occasionally appeared in public for some important ceremony, I state. From the period of her great like the opening of the new Blackfriars bereavement the Queen divided her Bridge and the Holborn Viaduct, or time between Windsor, Osborne and laying the first stones of the new St. Balmoral, only coming to London for Thomas's Hospital and the new wing a day or two at a time for special of the East London Hospital. In 1876 functions at Buckingham Palace. and again in 1877 she opened Parlia In June, 1887, the completion of ment in person, although she did not the fiftieth year of her reign was celewear her robes, and deputed the Lord brated by a public thanksgiving serChancellor to read her speeches. This vice in Westminster Abbey, and was was during the Premiership of Lord made the occasion of general festivi. Beaconsfield, who exercised a consider ties throughout the nation. She was able influence over her. He had greatly escorted through the streets from the encouraged the idea of the Prince of Palace to the Abbey by the heirsWales's visit to India in the winter of apparent of all the Thrones of Europe, 1875-6, and on January 1, 1877, at a attended by brilliant suites, and on a great durbar of the Princes and Rulers subsequent day a general review of the of India, the Queen was proclaimed Fleet was held at Spithead, the Queen Empress of India, "in order to testify steaming through the lines. Statues the satisfaction felt by her Majesty at were erected, and hospitals and charitthe reception given to her son in the able institutions were founded in many Far East, and also to emphasise at the places in honour of the event. In same time the object of his visit." March, 1888, the Queen went to FlorThe additional title was not at first ence, where she spent nearly two favourably received in England, and months, and there received alarming Mr. Disraeli endeavoured to reconcile news of the health of her son-in-law, public opinion to the change by hint the Emperor Frederick of Germany. ing that it was intended for use in On her way to Charlottenburg she was India only. This restriction gradually met by the Emperor of Austria at Innsdisappeared, and the Queen came brück, and at Berlin she had several habitually to sign formal documents interviews with, and by her political “ Victoria R.I.” The political wisdom, capacity greatly impressed, Prince Bisfrom the Indian point of view, of the marck, between whom and the Emperor assumption of the new title was latterly Frederick there had been much friction, recognised, even by those who had been and the Queen's influence was exerstrongly averse to it.

cised in promoting a better understandIn December, 1878, on the anniver ing between the Chancellor and his sary of her father's death, Princess dying master. Alice, who had married the Grand The years intervening between the Duke of Hesse, died of typhoid fever first and the second jubilees of the at Darmstadt, and the blow was felt Queen's reign were by no means most acutely by the Queen, who exempt from family sorrow in her case. subsequently addressed a letter to She felt very deeply both the death of her people expressing her “ heartfelt the Prince of Wales's eldest son, the thanks for the universal and touching Duke of Clarence, in 1892, and that sympathy of all classes of her subjects." of Prince Henry of Battenberg, the

In 1879 the Queen spent a month at husband of her youngest daughter, Baveno on Lago Maggiore, and in the Princess Beatrice, from a fever confollowing year was present at the con tracted by him when on an expedition firmation of the two daughters of the against Ashanti in the winter of 1895-6. Princess Alice at Darmstadt. In 1882 Prince Henry with his wife had shared she paid a state visit to the entrance of the Queen's home life, and he was the City in order to open the new Law very greatly missed. The health and Courts, but early in 1884 the death, strength of the Queen, however, were at Cannes, of her youngest son, the throughout this period marvellously Duke of Albany, who had long been in maintained, partly, no doubt, by the delicate health, was another blow which aid of a visit each spring to the South of confirmed the Queen's ways of retire. Europe-Biarritz and San Sebastian, ment. In 1886, however, she came Aix-les-Bains, Grasse, Costebelle, near to London to open the Colonial and Hyères, Florence once more, and Cimiez. Indian Exhibition at South Kensing. near Nice, being visited in different ton; a few weeks later she went to years. Her subjects saw much more Liverpool to open some public build of her on public occasions than during ings, and in the autumn she spent a the earlier years of her widowhood. couple of nights at Holyrood, and There may be mentioned, for example, visited the Edinburgh Exhibition in | visits paid to Eton on the Fourth of June, and to Glasgow and Paisley | geant at Spithead-the Queen attend(1889), the launching of two battleships ing all but the last named. at Portsmouth (1891), the marriage of The completion of her eightieth year, the Duke of York to Princess May of June 24, 1899, was also made the Teck, and the opening of the Imperial occasion of general but less formal Institute at Kensington (1893), and the rejoicing, and her reception whenever opening of the Manchester Ship Canal she appeared in public showed the (1894). More than once the Queen warmth of the attachment she inspired. received visits from her grandson, the The breaking out of the war in South Emperor William II. of Germany, and Africa was, however, destined to put in 1896 she entertained, at Balmoral, & severe strain upon her health and the Tsar of Russia, who had married strength. The autumn visit to Balher granddaughter, Princess Alix of moral was given up, and the Queen Hesse, and also received the members of remained at Windsor to be in close the Ancient and Honourable Artillery touch with her Ministers, to review and Company of Boston, U.S.A., and their to encourage by a few words the soldiers wives at Windsor.

who were being rapidly sent to the On the completion of sixty years of front, and to visit and comfort those her reign, the Queen celebrated her who returned maimed or sick. At the Diamond Jubilee in a way totally same time she did not forget those distinct from that by which the Golden in the field, and a box of chocolate Jubilee of 1887 had been observed. It specially designed was sent to every was made the fête day of the British soldieron service in South Africa. Empire, on which representatives of all Her thoughts were constantly with her her colonial dominions and depen army, and she expressed in many ways dencies were represented. The pro her unfailing interest in them. Brushcession through the densely thronged ing aside the petty restrictions of the and beautifully decorated streets passed War Office, and thoughtful of the feelfrom Buckingham Palace through ings of her brave Irish soldiers, she Piccadilly, Pall Mall, the Strand and issued an order early in 1900 that on Fleet Street to St. Paul's Cathedral, St. Patrick's Day of each year they where a brief thanksgiving service was | should wear the shamrock. On her held outside the cathedral, and then, visits to London during the year 1900, passing over London Bridge, returned she drove through quarters of the through the main streets south of the metropolis which had been neglected Thames, over Westminster Bridge to the on the occasion of both jubilees, and Palace. Colonial troops from Canada, showed herself to her poorer subjects, Australia and South Africa, and China meeting everywhere the warmest remen from Hong-Kong, Hausas, Dyaks, ception. The spring journey to the Sikhs, and Imperial Service troops sent Continent was given up, and in its by the native Princes of India, all held place a visit was arranged to Dublin, places of honour along the route or where she spent "a most agreeable in the procession, and the Queen's time," as she said in her letter addressed reception from the crowd was such to the Irish people through the Viceroy. that in her subsequent letter to her During her stay she had been received people she said that the enthusiasm with enthusiasm and affection, and she manifested could never be effaced "carried away a most pleasant and from her heart. “It is, indeed, deeply affectionate memory of the time she gratifying," she added, " after so many spent in Ireland.” years of labour and anxiety to find that But there were other events of a my exertions have been appreciated sadder kind which marked the Queen's throughout my vast Empire. In weal last year,-the protracted struggle in and in woe, I have ever had the true South Africa, the attempt upon the sympathy of all my people, which has life of the Prince of Wales at Brussels, ever been warmly reciprocated. ... the death of her son, the Duke of SaxeI shall ever pray God to bless them, Coburg and Gotha, followed by that of and to enable me to discharge my Prince Christian Victor of Schleswigduties to their welfare as long as life Holstein from fever in South Africa, lasts."

and finally, on Christmas Day, that of During the succeeding three weeks her old friend, Lady Churchill, which there was a constant succession of occurred at Osborne. Of the gradual ovations and receptions at Windsor, ebbing of her strength the public were the presentation of addresses from both kept in ignorance, and even when a Houses of Parliament at Buckingham | week or two later the symptoms bePalace, a grand review of troops at came more threatening, she refused to Aldershot, and a splendid naval pa-l allow her illness to be made known,

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