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ground Here he found Count de Barrass who had
to the Dutch Lutheran Church, and return thanks to
the allied armies for the approaching winter. Major General St. Clair was detached with two brigades to South Carolina to reinforce C. eneral Green. The French forces remained in Virginia. The Eastern troops embarked early in November for the Head of Elk, under the command of General Lincoln, who was crdered to march them from the place of their landing into New-Jersey and New-York, and to canton them for the winter in those states. Count de Grasse with his fleet sailed for the West Indies, and General WAsh 2ngton proceeded to Philadelphia.
Preparations for another Campaign—Sir Guy Carleton arrives at New-York and announces the vote of Parliament to acknowledge American Independence—Army anxious for their "Woo mous Address exciting them to a Revolt—General Washington convenes and addresses the Officers—Their resolutions—Preliminary Articles of Peace received—Cessation of Hostilities proclaimed—General Washington addresses a Circular Letter to the Executives of the Several States—Army disbanded—New Levies of Pennsylvania revolt—The Commander in Chief enters New-York—Takes leave of his Officers—Resigns his Commission to the President of Congress—Retires to Mount Vernon. 1. THE brilliant issue of the last campaign did not relax the vigilance of General WAshington. He deemed it true policy to call forth all the resources of the country, that the United States might be prepared for the conflicts of another year, or, might take a commanding attitude in a negotiation for peace. From Mount Vernon, on his way to the seat of government, he wrote General Green, “I shall attempt to stimulate Congress to the best improvement of our late success, by taking the most vigorous and effectual measures to be ready for an early and decisive campaign the next year. My greatest fear is that, viewing this stroke in a point of light which may too much magnify its im, portance, they may think our work too nearly closed, and sall into a state of languor and relaxation. To
prevent this errour, I shall employ every means in my power, and, if unhappily we sink into this fatal mistake, no part of the blame shall le mine.”
He reached Philadelphia the 27th of November, and on the next day had an audience of Congress. The President informed him that a committee was appointed to arrange the military establishment of the next year, and that he was requested to remain in Philadelphia to assist in this important business. At the consultations of this committee, the Secretary of War, the Minister of Finance, and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs assisted. The arrangements were made with despatch, and on the 10th of December, Congress passed the resolves for the requisitions of men and money for the year 1782 upon the several states; and the personal influence of the Commander in Chief was on this occasion used, to persuade the state governments seasonably to comply with the resolutions of Congress.
1782. The first intelligence from the British government, after the surrender of Earl Cornwallis, indicated a design to continue the American war; but early in May, Sir Guy Carlton arrived at New-York, to super sede Sir Henry Clinton as Commander in Chief of the British army; and he and Admiral Digby were appointed Commissioners to treat with the United States upon terms of peace. He communicated to General WashingtoN a vote of the British Parliament against the prosecution of the American war; and a bill au thorising the King to conclude a peace or truce with the revolted provinces of North America. Sir Guy professed his pacifick disposition, and proposed that hostilities should cease, as these would produce individual distress without national advantage. This bill, when Sir Guy left England had not passed into a law, and Sherefore was not a proper basis of negotiation; and the Commander in Chief continued his defensive preparations
In August Sir Guy officially informed General WAshingtoN, that negotiations for a general peace had commenced at Paris; and that his Britannick Majesty had directed his Minister to propose the In dependence of the United States as a preliminary. The deficiency of the states in paying their respec tive requisitions of money into the national treasury subjected the Minister of Finance to extreme difficulty; but by anticipating the publick revenue, and by exerting, to the utmost, his personal influence, he was enabled barely to support the army. Neither Officers nor men received any pay. In September Congress contemplated the reduction of their military establishment. By this measure many of the officers would be discharged. In a confidential letter to the Secretary of War, the Commander in Chief expressed a full persuasion, that the gentlemen would gladly retire to private life, could they be reinstated in a situation as favourable as that which they quitted for the service of their country; but added he, “I cannot help fearing the result of the measure, when I see such a number of men goaded by a thousand stings of reflection on the past, and of anticipation on the future, about to be turned into the world, soured by penury, and what they call the ingratitude of the publick; involved in debts without one farthing of money to carry them home, after having spent the flower of their days, and many of them, their patrimonies in establishing the freedom and independence of their country; and having suffered every thing which human nature is capable of enduring on this side of death. I repeat it, when I reflect on these irritable circumstances, unattended by one thing to sooth their feelings, or brighten the gloomy prospect, I cannot avoid apprehending that a train of evils will follow of a very serious and distressing nature. “I wish not to heighten the shades of the picture so far as the real life would justify me in doing, or I