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ground Flere he found Count de Barrass who had taken a wide circuit to avoid the English, and had, while the hostile fleets were at sea, entered the Chesapeak with the squadron from Newport, consisting of five ships and fourteen transports, laden with heavy artillery and military stores for the siege. Admiral Greaves returned to New-York to repair.
In the course of a few days, the British squadron was augmented to twenty-five ships of the line, and Sir Henry Clinton determined to encounter every hazard in the attempt to relieve Earl Cornwallis. He embarked seven thousand of his best troops, and, con voyed by the fleet, sailed on the very day of the capitulation, for Virginia. At the entrance of the Chesapeak, on the 24th of October, he received information of the surrender of his Lordship, and he returned to New York.
The capture of Lord Cornwallis and his army excited universal joy through the United States. In a circuitous route from Charleston to Yorktown, this army had marched ele, on hundred miles and had spread terrour and distress through the whole extent. From this dread the country was delivered. The surrender of a second royal army, the Americans deemed
decisive of the independence of the United States, and which would speedily terminate the war.
The day after the capitulation General WashingTos ordered, "that those who were under arrest should be pardoned and set at liberty;" and announced, that “ Divine service shall be performed to-morrow in the different brigades and divisions. The Commander in Chief recommends, that all the troops that are not upon duty do assist at it with a serious deportment, and that sensibility of heart, which the recollection of the surprising and particular inte position of provi. dence in our favour claims.” Congress as soon as they received General Washington's official letter giving information of the event, resolved to go in procession
to the Dutch Lutheran Church, and return thanks to Almighty God for the signa. success of the American arms; and they issued a proclamation, recommending to the citizens of the United States to observe the thirteenth of December as a day of Publick Thanksgiving and Prayer. The news of the capture of Earl Cornwallis was every where received with exultation and publick rejoicing.
Congress for this achievement, voted the thanks of the United States to General WASHINGTON, to Coun! Rochambeau, to Count de Grasse, to the officers of the allied army generally, and to the corps of artillery and engineers in particular. They also resolved that a marble column should be erected at Yorktewn in Virginia, bearing emblems of the alliance be. tween the United States and his Most Christian Majesty, and inscribed with a succint narrative of the surrender of the British army under the command of Earl Cornwallis. Two stands of colours taken from the royal troops, were presented to General WashIngton, two field pieces to Count Rochambeau ; and application was made to the French Court that Count de Grasse might be permitted to accept a testimonial of the approbation of Congress, similar to that which Rochambeau had received.
To the Commander in Chief the most affectionate and respectful addresses were presented by the governments of the states, by the authorities of cities, and by the corporations of literary institutions.
The decided superiority of the allies in naval and land forces, General Washington wished to direct to the conquest of the British posts at Carolina and Geor gia. He addressed a letter to Count de Grasse on this subject, requesting his co-operation in measures di. rected to these objects. But the Count declined, declaring that the service of his King demanded his immediate return to the West Indies.
Orders were of course issued for the disposition of Vol. II.
the allied armies for the approaching winter. Major General St. Clair was detached with two brigades to South Carolina to reinforce General Green. The French forces remained in Virginia. The Eastern troops embarked early in November for the Head of Elk, under the command of General Lincoln, who was crdered to march them from the place of their landing into New-Jersey and New-York, and to canton them for the winter in those states. Count de Grasse with his fleet sailed for the West Indies, and General Wash INGTON proceeded to Philadelphia.
Preparations for another Campaign--Sir Guy Carleton arrives at
New-York and announces the vote of Parliament to acknowledge American Independence-Army anxious for their Pay-Anonymous Address exciting them to a Revolt--General Washington convenes and addresses the Officers-Their resolutions-Preliminary Articles of Peace received-Cessation of Hostilities proclaimed-General Washington addresses a Circular Letter to the Executives of the Several States-Army disbanded-New Levies of Pennsylvania revolt—The Commander in Chief entert New-York-Takes leave of his Officers-Resigns his Commis sion to the President of Congress—Retires to Mount Vernon.
1. The brilliant issue of the last campaign did not relax the vigilance of General Washington. He deemed it true policy to call forth all the resources of the country, that the United States might be prepared for the conflicts of another year, or, might take a com. manding attitude in a negotiation for peace. From Mount Vernon, on his way to the seat of government, he wrote General Green," I shall attempt to stimulate Congress to the best improvement of our late success, by taking the most vigorous and effectual measures to be ready for an early and decisive campaign the next year. My greatest fear is that, viewing this stroke in a point of light which may too much magnify its in. portance, they may think our work too nearly closed, and fall into a state of languor and relaxation. To
prevent this errour, I shall employ every means in my power, and, if unhappily we sink into this fatal mistake, no part of the blame shall L = mine.”
He reached Philadelphia the 27th of November, and on tho next day had an audience of Congress. The President informed him that a committee was appointed to arrange the military establishment of the z.ext year, and that he was requested to remain in Pniladelphia to assist in this important business. At the consultations of this committee, the Secretary of War, the Minister of Finance, and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs assisted. The arrangements were made with despatch, and on the 10th of December, Congress passed the resolves for the requisitions of men and money for the year 1782 upon the several states; and the personal influence of the Commander in Chief was on this occasion used, to persuade the state governments seasonably to comply with the resolutions of Congress.
1782. T'he first intelligence from the British government, after the surrender of Earl Cornwallis, indicated a design to continue the American war; but early in May, Sir Guy Carlton arrived at New-York, to super sede Sir Henry Clinton as Commander in Chief of the British army; and he and Admiral Digby were af. pointed Commissioners to treat with the United States upon terms of peace. He communicated to General Washington a vote of the British Parliament against the prosecution of the American war; and a bill au thorising the King to conclude a peace or truce with the revolted provinces of North America. Sir Guy professed his pacifick disposition, and proposed that hostilities should cease, as these would produce individual distress without national advantage. This bill, when Sir Guy left England had not passed into a law, and Therefore was not a proper basis of negot the Commander in Chief continued his defensive preparations
In August Sir Guy officially informed General Washington, that negotiations for a general peace had commenced at Paris; and that his Britannick Majesty had directed his Minister to propose the In dependence of the United States as a preliminary.
The deficiency of the states in paying their respec tive requisitions of money into the national treasnry subjected the Minister of Finance to extreme dificul. ty ; but by anticipating the publick revenue, and by exerting, to the utmost, his personal influence, he was enabled barely to support the army. Neither Officers nor men received any pay. In September Congress contemplated the reduction of their military establishment. By this measure many of the officers would be discharged. In a confidential letter to the Secretary of War, the Commander in Chief expressed a full persuasion, that the gentlemen would gladly retire to private life, could they be reinstated in a situation as favourable as that which they quitted for the service of their country ; but added he,
"I cannot help fearing the result of the measure, when I see such a number of men goaded by a thousand stings of reflection on the past, and of anticipation on the future, about to be turned into the world, snured by penury, and what they call the ingratitude of the publick ; involved in debts without one farthing of money to carry them home, after having spent the flower of their days, and many of them, their patrimonies in establishing the freedom and independence of their country; and having suffered every thing which human nature is capable of enduring on this side of death. I repeat it, when I reflect on these irritable circumstances, unattended by one thing to sooth their feelings, or brighten the gloomy prospect, I cannot avoid apprehending that a train of evils wil follow of a very serious and distressing nature.
“ I wish not to heighten the shades of the picture so far as the real life would justify me in doing, or !