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CHAPTER XI.

Inauguration of the President—His Address to Congress—Answers of the two H The Arra s of his flousehold-His Regulations for Visitors—The Reasons of their adoption—The Relations of the United States with Foreign Powers—Congress establishes the Departments of the Government—The President fills them—He visits New-England—His Reception—Addresses to him–His Answers—Negotiations with the Indians—Treaty with the Creeks—War with the Wabash and Mismis Tribes —General Harmar's Expedition—St. Clair defeated—General Wayne victorious and makes a Treaty with them—Second Sesslon of Congress—Fiscal Arrangements of the Secretary of the Treasury—sndisposition of the President—He visits Mount Vernon–Meets Congress at Philadelphia—His Tour to the Southern States—Second Congress—The President refuses his signature to the Representative Bill—-Contemplates retiring to Prive le Life —Consents to be a Candidate for the Second Presidency.

1789. In adjusting the ceremonies of the inauguration of the President, Congress determined that tho oath of office should be administered to him in an open gallery adjoining the Hall of the Senate. Accordingly on the 30th of April, General WASHINGTon attended, and, in a view of a vast assemblage of people, was constitutionally qualified for the administration of the government. On his being proclaimed President of the United States, reiterated acclamations testified the interest and the pleasure which the attending multitude felt in the transaction. The President immediately entered the Senate chamber and made the following Speech to the two branches of the Legislature. “FELLow citizens of THE SENATE, AND of THE Hous E of REPRESENTATIVEs, “Among the vicissitudes incident to life, no event could have filled me with greater anxieties than that of which the notification was transmitted by your or. der, and received on the 14th day of the present month. On the one hand, I was summoned by my country, whose voice I can never hear but with veneration and

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love, from a retreat which I had chosen with the fondest
predilection, and, in my flattering hopes, with an im-
mutable decision as the asylum of my declining years:
a retreat which was rendered every day more necessa-
-y as well as more dear to me, by the addition of habit
to inclination, and of frequent interruptions in my
health to the gradual waste committed on it by time.
On the other hand, the magnitude and difficulty of the
trust to which the voice of my country called me, be-
ing sufficient to awaken in the wisest and most expe-
rienced of her citizens, a distrustful scrutiny into his
qualifications, could not but overwhelm with despond-
ence one, who, inheriting inferiour endowments from
nature, and unpractised in the duties of civil adminis-
tration, ought to be peculiarly conscious of his own
deficiencies. In this conflict of emotions, all I dare
aver is, that it has been my faithful study to collect
my duty from a just appreciation of every circum-
stance by which it might be affected. All I dare hope
is, that if in accepting this task I have been too much
swayed by a grateful remembrance of former instances,
or by an affectionate sensibility to this transcendent
proof of the confidence of my fellow citizens; and
have thence too little consulted my incapacity as well
as disinclination for the weighty and untried cares be-
fore me ; my errour will be palliated by the motives
which misled me, and its consequences be judged by
my country, with some share of the partiality in which
they originated.
“Such being the impressions under which I have,
in obedience to the publick summons, repaired to the
present station, it would be peculiarly improper to
omit in this first official act, my fervent supplications
to that Almighty Being, who rules over the universe,
who presides in the councils of nations, and whose
providential aids can supply every human defect, that
his benediction may consecrate to the liberties and
happiness of the people of the United States, a govern-

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ment instituted by themselves for these essential purposes, and may enable every instrument employed in its administration, to execute with success the func tions allotted to his charge. In tendering this homage to the great Author of every publick and private good, I assure myself that it expresses your sentiments not less than my own; nor those of my fellow citizens at large, less than either. No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the invisible hand, which conducts the affairs of men, more than the people of the United States. Every step by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation, seems to have been distinguished by some token of providential agency. And in the important revolution just accomplished in the system of their united government, the tranquil deliberations and voluntary consent of so many distinct communities, from which the event has resulted, cannot be compared with the means by which most governments have been established, without some return of pious gratitude along with a humble anticipation of the future blessings which the past seem to presage. These reflections, arising out of the present crisis, have forced themselves too strongly on my mind to be suppressed. You will join with me, I trust, in thinking that there are none under the influence of which, the proceedings of a new and free government can more auspiciously commence. “By the article establishing the executive department, it is made the duty of the President ‘to recommend to your consideration, such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.’ The circumstances under which I now meet you, will acquit me from en. tering into that subject, farther than to refer you to thq great Constitutional Charter under which we are assembled; and which in defining your powers, designates the objects to which your attention is to be given. It will be more consistent with those circumstances, and far more congenial with the feelings which actu

ate me to substitute in place of a recommendation of particular measures, the tribute that is due to the talents, the rectitude, and the patriotism which adorn the characters selected to devise and adopt them. In these honourable qualifications, I behold the surest pledges, that as on one side, no local prejudices or attachments, no separate views nor party animosities, will misdirect the comprehensive and equal eye which ought to watch over this great assemblage of commumities and interests: so, on another, that the foundations of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality; and the pre-eminence of a free government be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens, and command the respect of the world. “I dwell on this prospect with every satisfaction which an ardent love for my country can inspire; since there is no truth more thoroughly established, than that there exists in the economy and course of nature, an indissoluble union between virtue and happiness—between duty and advantage—between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy, and the solid rewards of publick prosperity and felicity. Since we ought to be no less persuaded that the propitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right, which Heaven itself has ordained: and since the preservation of the sacred fire of liberty, and the destimy of the republican model of government, are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally staked, on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people. “Besides the ordinary objects submitted to your care, it will remain with your judgment to decide hew far an exercise of the occasional power delegated by the fifth article of the Constitution is rendered expe. dient at the present juncture, by the nature of objec. tions which have been urged against the system, or by

the degree of inquietude which has given birth to
them. Instead of undertaking particular recommen-
dations on this subject, in which I could be guided by
no lights derived from official opportunities, I shall
again give way to my entire confidence in your dis-
cernment and pursuit of the publick good; for I assure
myself, that whilst you carefully avoid every altera-
tion which might endanger the benefits of an united
and effective government, or which ought to await the
future lessons of experience; a reverence for the
characteristick rights of freemen, and a regard for the
publick harmony, will sufficiently influence your de-
liberations on the question, how far the former can be
more impregnably fortified, or the latter be safely and
advantageously promoted.
“To the preceding observations I have one to add,
which will be most properly addressed to the House
of Representatives. It concerns myself, and will
therefore be as brief as possible. When I was first
honoured with a call into the service of my country,
then on the eve of an arduous struggle for its liberties,
the light in which I contemplated my duty, required
that I should renounce every pecuniary compensation.
From this resolution I have in no instance departed.
And being still under the impressions which produced
...t, I must decline as inapplicable to myself, any share
in the personal emoluments, which may be indispensa-
bly included in a permanent provision for the execu.
tive department; and must accordingly pray that the
pecuniary estimates for the station in which I am plac-
ed, may, during my continuation in it, be limited to
such actual expenditures as the publick good may be
thought to require.
“Having thus imparted to you my sontiments, as
they have been awakened by the occasion which brings
us together, I shall take my present leave; but not
without resorting once more to the benign Parent of
the Wuman race, in humble supplication, that since he

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