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33. Lucian. -A celebrated satirist and humourist of antiquity.

Born in Syria. Travelled in Greece, Italy, and Gaul. Flourished

in the 2nd century A.D. 34. Montaigne (1533-1592). -A famous French essayist and moral

philosopher. 36. The son of Dædalus.-Icarus, who was said to have borrowed

his father's wings and flown so near the sun that the wax by which his wings were fastened on was melted, and he fell into

the sea.

38. (1) Cleopatra. Queen of Egypt in the 1st century B.C.

Famous for her beauty and extravagance.

(2) Marc Antony (83–30 B.c.).—One of the leading men at Rome after the death of Julius Cæsar. He was so captivated by the charms of Cleopatra that he took up his abode with her, and lived for some years in a most extravagant and voluptuous manner. He died at last by his own hand, having been conquered by his rival Octavian (afterwards the Emperor Augustus).

(3) Xenophon (445-359 B.C.). — An Athenian general and historian. The Cyropædia, a story of the education of Cyrus the Elder--a romance-was one of his chief works.

(4) Cyrus (the Elder). -Founder of the ancient Persian monarchy. Flourished in the 6th century B.C. Conquered the greater part of Western Asia from the river Indus to the

Mediterranean Sea. 41. (1) Macrobius.—A Latin grammarian of the 5th century A.D.

(2) Varro (116–28 B.C.).—A Roman author famous for his learn.

ing and for the number and variety of his writings. 42. (1) St. Jerome.-One of the most learned and eloquent of the

Latin fathers of the Christian Church. Flourished in the 4th century A.D.

(2) Livy (60 B.C. -20 A.D.). -One of the greatest of the Roman historians. Wrote a history of Rome from its supposed foundation down to his own age. He was neither an accurate nor a critical writer, but as a story-teller he has never been surpassed.

(3) Tully (106-43 B.C.).—Better known by his third nameCicero. An active politician, an able administrator, an eloquei. + moralist, and one of the greatest orators that the world has ever known.

(4) Virgil (70–19 B.c.).—The greatest of the Roman poets. His Æneid, or story of the adventures of Æneas—the legendary ancestor of the Roman people--is one of the greatest epics that

have ever been produced. 47. The Borough.-A

of London on the south or Surrey side of the river. The Strand is a long street on the north side,


running near to and parallel with the river. Fleet Street is a con

tinuation of the Strand towards the east. 49. The Valley of the Loire.

The places mentioned in this narrative are all situated in the middle part of the valley of the Loire (the longest of the French rivers). Orleans is about seventy miles south-west of Paris. Tours is about seventy miles from Orleans by road, and is lower down the river. Blois is about half-way between Tours and Orleans. Mer is between Orleans and Blois. The castle of Chambord is about twelve miles from Blois and four from the river. Amboise is on the river between Blois and Tours. Chenonceau is about ten miles from Amboise, and stands on the

Cher, a tributary of the Loire. 32 (1) Had followed the imperial eagle across the Alps and the

Pyrenees and the burning sands of Egypt.-Allusion is here made to Napoleon's campaigns (1) in the north of Italy–1796, 1797, and 1800; (2) in Spain-1808 (his marshals carried on the war in the Peninsula till 1813); and (3) in Egypt—1798, 1799.

(2) Vieille moustache.-Old moustache, i.e. old soldier. In many countries every soldier is required to wear a moustache.

(3) The Little Corporal.—The title by which Napoleon was commonly known among his soldiers. He was exceptionally short

in stature; hence the epithet 'little. 55. (1) Erancis the First (1494-1547).--Ascended the throne of

France in 1515. Waged frequent wars in Lombardy, Savoy, and else. where, chiefly against the Emperor of Germany (Charles V., also king of Spain). Francis was a gay and voluptuous monarch, with an insatiable thirst for glory and a passion for military adventure.

(2) Hugh Capet.-Founder of a line of kings which lasted for nearly 400 years. He was elected king of France by the army,

and consecrated at Rheims, 987 A.D. 56. (1) Catherine de Medici (1529–1589). - Queen of Henri II. of

France. On the death of her eldest son, Francis II., in 1559, and accession of her younger son Charles IX., the government fell entirely into her hands, and an era of intrigue, strife, and blood. shed was inaugurated which was most disastrous to France. The massacre of the Protestants on St. Bartholomew's day, 1572, was the most atrocious of her many crimes.

(2) Henry the Fourth (1553-1599).—King of Navarre and afterwards of France. Leader of the Protestant party in the religious wars which so long desolated France. Succeeded Henry III.in1589. Won the battle of Ivry in 1590. Professed himself a member of the Church of Rome in 1593, in order to disarm the hostility of the Catholic factions. Restored peace to his country, and


ruled it with admirable firmness, vigour, and wisdom. Was

assassinated by a fanatic at the instigation of the Jesuits. 57. (1) Ettrick's western fall.—The river Ettrick flows through the

south of Selkirkshire and empties itself into the Tweed. The hilly district through which it flows is known as Ettrick Forest. Ettrick Pen is a lofty hill on the borders of Selkirkshire and Dumfriesshire, near the source of the Ettrick river.

(2) Gala.-A small river which rises in Edinburghshire, forms for some distance the boundary between Selkirkshire and Roxburgh. shire, and empties itself into the Tweed, not far from its con

fluence with the Ettrick. 63. (1) Winnipeg.--The capital of Manitoba, a fertile province in the

centre of British North America, about 400 miles west of Lake Superior. The Province is being colonized and brought under cultivation, and Winnipeg is extending itself so rapidly that before many years have passed it will probably be the largest town in the whole dominion of Canada.

(2) Laurentian.-Belonging to the basin of the river St.

Lawrence. 64. (1) The Ottawa.-A river which joins the St. Lawrence a little

above Montreal. The town of Ottawa, the nominal capital of the Dominion, is on its banks.

(2) Thunder Bay.-A bay on the north-west of Lake Superior. The rivers and lakes which are enumerated on p. 64 form an almost unbroken line of water communication between Thunder Bay and Winnipeg.

(3) The Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence.—The St. Lawrence, where it issues from Lake Ontario, is called, on account of its width and the number of islands that stud its surface,

the Lake of the Thousand Isles. 56. (1) The Red River and the Assineboine. — These two

rivers, the latter flowing eastward and the former northward, meet at the town of Winnipeg, and flow into the lake of the same name, the waters of which are carried off by the Nelson River into Hudson's Bay.

(2) The Saskatchewan.-The two rivers which bear this name flow eastward from the Rocky Mountains, mingle their waters about 300 miles from Lake Winnipeg, and enter that lake at its north-west corner.

(3) The Athabasca and Mackenzie rivers. -The Athabasca flows northward into the lake of the same name. The waters of the lake are drained by the Slave River into the Great Slave Lake, from the western extremity of which issues the Mackenzie river, which flows in a north-west direction into the Arctic Ocean.


(4) The Fraser River.-Rises in the Rocky Mountains, and flow: southward through British Columbia into the channel which separates Vancouver's Island from the mainland. The Thompson

river is one of its tributaries. 68. (1) Thou art the Iris.—The Iris of Greek mythology was a

messenger of the gods. Hence the name was applied to the rainbow, supposed to be a messenger of peace from heaven to earth.

(2) The Muses of Greek mythology were nine sister goddesses,

revered as the patrons of art, literature, music, and science. 79. (1) Yarrow visited. -- The river Yarrow rises on the borders of

Dumfriesshire, flows in an open pastoral valley through Selkirkshire, and joins the Ettrick near the town of Selkirk, a few miles above the point where the joint stream empties itself into the Tweed.

(2) Saint Mary's Lake.- A lake formed by the Yarrow in its

upper course. 80. The Flower of Yarrow Vale.-The tragic death of a betrothed

lover in the waters of Yarrow is celebrated in many ballads. The use of the word flower in this passage is not uncommon in Border minstrelsy. In the beautiful Lament for Flodden, the men of Ettrick who fell in battle are spoken of as The Flowers

of the Forest.' 82. The River Dove. A beautiful river which rises in the wild hills

near Buxton, forms the boundary between Staffordshire and Derbyshire, flowing on its way through one gorge of surpassing

loveliness, and joining the Trent a few miles below Burton. 83. My Father Walton.-Cotton, the writer of this passage, was the

adopted son of Izaak Walton, author of the Complete Angler

(see Biographical Notes). 89. Victoria. -A town in Vancouver's Island,—the capital of British

Columbia. 91. The Cascade Range.--A range of mountains in the west of North

America, which run parallel to the Pacific Ocean at a distance of

about 150 miles from the sea-coast. 93. The site of Venice.-The cluster of islands on which Venice

stands was first colonized in the 5th century A.D.) by refugees from Padua, who, driven from their homes by the Huns, sought shelter in the marshy lagoon between the mouths of the Adige and the Piave, trusting to the muddy shallows to protect them from invasion by land, and to the intricacy of the water channels to protect them from hostile fleets. The colony grew apace, and in the Middle Ages Venice was the wealthiest and most important commercial city in the world, and ruled an empire which extended over a large part of south-eastern Europe.


95. (1) The Brenta. A river which rises in the Tyrol and flows

through the Venetian provinces into the Gulf of Venice.

(2) The Port of the Lido.-Formerly the chief entrance from the sea into the lagoon of Venice. Through it all the great merchantmen of the Venetian Republic used to pass direct

into the city. 98. (1) Friuli.—Formerly the name of a district in the extreme north

east of Italy.

(2) Iris. — The Iris of Greek mythology was a messenger of the gods. Hence the name was applied to the rainbow, which was supposed to be a messenger of peace from heaven to earth.

(3) Meek Dian's Crest.---The moon. Diana (Artemis in Greek mythology) was the twin sister of Apollo the sun-god. She herself was regarded as the goddess of the moon, and as such is represented as bearing a crescent on her brow.

(4) The far Rhætian Hill. --The Rhætian Alps form the northern boundary of Lombardy, which they separate from Switzerland. The ridge is continued into the Tyrol.

(5) The deep-eyed Brenta.—(See note (1) to p. 95.) 99. The Stream seen by Mirza.The Vision of Mirza, by Addison,

is here referred to. (See Reader for Standard V. pp. 278-283.) The tide is that of eternity, which is spanned by the bridge of

human life. 100. (1) The Lord Mayor's Procession.-A procession in state of the

Lord Mayor through the streets of London, on Lord Mayor's day, the 9th of November.

(2) The hollow valley of Bagdad. — The Vision of Mirza is again referred to. The vision is supposed to have been seen from one of the high hills of Bagdad (a town on the river Tigris in the south-east of Turkey in Asia).

(3) The Edda.—There are two works which bear this name,

(i) The Edda of Saemund.-A collection of Scandinavian songs in which the exploits of the gods and heroes of the Norse mythology are celebrated. Most of the songs were composed between the 6th and 8th centuries A.D.

(ii) The Snorro Edda.-A prose work of much later date. It also treats of the myths of the gods, but from a more critical

point of view. 101. (1) The Wetterhorn. - One of the grandest, though not

one of the highest, of the snow mountains of the Bernese Oberland (a mountain district in the south of the Canton of Berne). It occupies the north-east corner of the central range. On its northern side, where it faces the lower country, it rises in a tremendous wall of precipices to a height of over 8000 feet

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