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above the green pastures of the Grindelwald valley, and over 12,000 feet above the level of the sea.
(2) The Weisshorn-One of the highest mountains in Switzerland. Its dazzling pyramid of snow makes it one of the most conspicuous of the Pennine Alps (a chain of magnificent mountains in the Canton Valais, south of the upper valley of the Rhone).
(3) Mont Blanc.—The highest mountain in the Alps. It stands just beyond the south-western point of Switzerland, its summit forming part of the boundary between Italy (Piedmont) and France (Savoy).
(4) Monte Rosa. — The second highest mountain in the Alps. It stands on the boundary line between Italy (Piedmont) and Switzerland (Canton Valais).
(5) Grindelwald.-A village in the north of the Oberland, about sixteen miles from Interlachen. The Grindelwald valley is celebrated for the grandeur of its scenery. Its southern boundary is formed by the stupendous precipices of three mountains-the
Wetterhorn, the Mettenberg, and the Eiger. 104. (1) The Jura.-A range of mountains partly in the west of
Switzerland, and partly in the east of France (departments of Jura and Doubs). Their highest points are considerably below the level of perpetual snow.
(2) The Black Forest.-A range of mountains in Southern Germany (Grand Duchy of Baden), running northward from the Swiss Alps, and parallel to the river Rhine. The dark appearance of the pine woods which clothe their sides has given rise to the name.
(3) Stonehenge.-A remarkable structure on Salisbury Plain, consisting of circles of large rough-hewn, upright stones.
(4) The Matterhorn.-One of the loftiest and most precipitous mountains in Switzerland. Like Monte Rosa it belongs to the chain of the Pennine Alps, and stands on the Italian frontier. For the last 6000 feet of its height it rises in a seemingly inaccessible horn of naked rock, so steep that it is for the most part bare of snow.
(5) The Rigi (or Righi).-An isolated mountain between the lakes of Lucerne and Zug. From its summit a magnificent view of the snow mountains may be obtained on a clear day.
(6) The Faulhorn.-Amountain about 8000 feet high, about halfway between the Wetterhorn and the Lake of Brienz. Like the Rigi, it commands a magnificent view of the snow-clad mountains
of the Oberland. . 105. (1) The Eiger, Mönch, and Jungfrau.—Three of the highest and
most conspicuous mountains in the Oberland.
(2) The Vale of Chamouni.-A valley watered by the River Arve, and bounded on the south-west by the great mountain chain of Mont Blanc, The Arveiron breaks forth from one of the glaciers of that chain, and after a short and impetuous course
falls into the Arve. 111. (1) The Geysirs.-Geysirs (or Geysers) are hot springs and wells
which are subject to periodical eruptions, and which are doubtless connected with volcanic forces at work the surface of the earth. The best known group is that which Lord Dufferin describes in his Letters from High Latitudes. It is about seventy miles froin Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, and not far from the volcano of Hecla. The geysers in the Yellowstone region (the 'public park of the United States, in the upper basin of the Missouri) are probably the most wonderful group in the world.
(2) The Fisherman's Genie. - According to one of those Eastern stories called The Arabian Nights' Entertainment, a fisherman caught a copper vase in his net and drew it ashore. He set it down before him, and while he was looking at it a thick smoke came out of it, which gradually collected itself into a solid body and took the form of a genie (an imaginary being supposed to be intermediate between men and angels, and capable of assuming
any shape). 113. The Grotto Azzuro of Capri.—The Grotta Azzura (not Grotto
Azzuro), or Blue Grotto of Capri, is a remarkable cavern entered from the sea by a very narrow entrance, but inside of mag
nificent proportions and beautiful colouring. 115. Enceladus.—One of the giants, a race of monstrous beings who
made an attempt upon Heaven, but were defeated by the gods aided by Hercules (the great legendary hero of Greece, famous for his strength and courage) and buried beneath volcanoes. Enceladus was imprisoned under Mount Etna, and the frequent eruptions of the mountain were supposed to be caused by his
attempts to free himself from its weight. 116. Eruption of Mount Vesuvius. - The eruption described in this
passage is that which took place in the year 79 A.D., and destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. This was the first recorded eruption. Since then there have been 60 great and
numerous smaller ones. 123. The island of Jan Mayen.—An island in the Arctic Ocean, lying
between Iceland and Spitzbergen. Mount Beerenberg is a conical
volcano nearly 7000 feet high. 124. The first fires of the New Hemisphere. — “As the evening
darkened, Columbus took his station on the top of the castle or cabin on the high poop of his vessel, ranging his eye along the southern extremity is more than 300 miles north of the North
dusky horizon, and maintaining an intense and unremitting watch. About ten o'clock he thought he beheld a light glimmering at a great distance. Fearing his eager hopes might deceive him, he called to Pedro Gutierrez, gentleman of the king's bedchamber, and inquired whether he now saw such a light; the latter replied in the affirmative. Doubtful whether it might not yet be some delusion of the fancy, Columbus called Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, and made the same inquiry. By the time the latter had ascended the round-house, the light had disappeared. They saw it once or twice afterwards in sudden and passing gleams, as if it were a torch on the barque of a fisherman, rising and sinking with the waves, or in the hand of some person on shore, borne up and down as he walked from house to house. So transient and uncertain were these gleams, that few attached any importance to them; Columbus, however, considered them as certain signs of land, and, moreover, that the land was inhabited. They continued their course until two in the morning, when a gun from the Pinta gave the joyful signal of land.'
(Life of Columbus, by Washington Irving.) 125. The Last Expedition with Franklin. -- Sir John Franklin, the
celebrated Arctic explorer, started in May 1845 in command of an expedition which was sent out to discover the north-west passage to Asia. His ships were seen for the last time in July of the same year. It was subsequently ascertained that he himself had died in 1847, and that his men had perished one by one from
cold, hunger, and exhaustion. 127. Cape Farewell.–The southern extremity of Greenland. Baffin's
Bay lies to the west of Northern Greenland. 131. Andromeda-like.- Andromeda, one of the heroines of Greek
mythology, was the beautiful daughter of the Ethiopian king, Cepheus. Her father's territory having been ravaged by a terrible sea-monster, the oracle declared that the wrath of this monster could only be appeased by the sacrifice of Andromeda, who was accordingly bound to a rock and left to her fate. She was, however, rescued by the hero Perseus, who slew the monster
and won its intended victim as his bride. 136. Spitzbergen.-A group of islands in the Arctic Ocean. Their
Cape. 142. Dr. Scoresby (1789-1857). -A celebrated Arctic explorer and a
diligent investigator in the fields of magnetism, meteorology, etc. Wrote An Account of the Arctic Regions (1820), and other
works. 145. Author's farewell to his native country.--In the year 1786,
Burns, who had been unsuccessful in farming and unfortunate in other ways, resolved to emigrate to Jamaica. Partly in order to procure the means of paying his passage, he published the first collection of his poems-a volume which brought him fame and profit, and was thus instrumental in detaining him in his own
country. 153. The great giant Christopher.-The story of St. Christopher,
the Giant of Canaan, who carried the child Christ on his back across a swollen river, is one of the most remarkable legends of
the Middle Ages. The word Christopher means bearing Christ. 154. (1) Prometheus.- One of the heroes of Greek mythology. The
story goes that, as a punishment for having stolen fire from heaven and given it to man, he was chained to a rock by command of Zeus (or Jove), king of the gods, and an eagle was sent to feed upon his liver, which was consumed by day and renewed by night. The word Prometheus means forethought.
(2) The island of Ushant. — Ushant (French Ouessant), the most westerly point of France, is an island in the Atlantic about twenty miles north-west from Brest. The course of the journey
described in this passage ought to be followed on a map. 162. Home thoughts from the sea.-All the places mentioned in
this poem are associated with deeds of English prowess. Off Cape St. Vincent the English fleet under Admiral Jervis defeated the Spanish fleet in 1797. In the roads of Cadiz, 30 English ships under Sir Francis Drake attacked and destroyed 100 Spanish vessels which were being got ready for the invasion of England (1587). Gibraltar was taken by Sir George Rooke in 1704, successfully withstood a formidable siege from 1779 to 1782, and is at this day garrisoned by English troops. Off Cape Trafalgar the English fleet under Nelson, who died in the hour of victory, defeated and almost entirely destroyed the combined navies of
France and Spain (1805). 178. Overtaken by the Tide.—This passage is an extract from The
Antiquary, one of the best and most popular of Scott's novels. The cliffs, under which Sir Arthur and his daughter were so nearly engulfed by the tide, are those of Red Head, on the coast
of Forfarshire between Arbroath and Montrose. 182. (1) I heard ye were here frae the bit callant.--The dialect in
which Edie Ochiltree, the beggar, speaks, needs to be translated into ordinary English. The following list of words with their English equivalents may possibly be of use :- —(P. 182) Frae, from; bit, le; lant, boy; na, not; bide, abide, endure; of; Icddy, lady; aye, ever; ilka, every ; cam', came; sae, so; lookit, looked ; lift, rise ; rin, run; eneugh, enough; gie, give; wad,
would; weel, well ; ee, eye ; sic, such; neb, summit, point; abune, above; aneath, beneath ; mak', make; haud, hold; auld, old; sair, sore; winsome, merry, gay; wee, small; amang, among; sma', small; muckle, much, large; winna, will not; gane, gone ; (p. 183) hae, have ; dyke, mound, wall ; snaw, snow ; wame, belly; gaberlunzie, wandering beggar; nae, no; twal, twelve ; (p. 185) bauld, bold; craig, crag; ance, once; mony, many; lungie, guillemot; thae, those ; lang, long ; syne, since ; speel, climb; a', all; sinsyne, since then ; stane, stone; plies, loops ; weize, twist; yoursell, yourself ; easelward, eastward; mair, more ; ither, other; ca'd, called ; lug, ear; canny, clever, careful; tak, take; tent, care ; vera, very ; braid, broad; wi', with ; tow, rope ; thegither, together; win at, get to.
(2) Ratton's Skerry.-Skerry is a Danish word meaning a rocky
islet, or a detached rock. 186. Zetland. --Shetland, a group of islands in the Atlantic, about
fifty miles north-west from the Orkneys, and twice that distance
from the coast of Scotland. 188. The Udaller.-A freeholder in the Shetland Isles, i.e. one who
holds land under the old Norwegian law, free of rent or service, instead of by feudal tenure, which involves the acknowledgment of obligation and the payment of rent or service to a lord para
mount. 190. Ingleton. -A small town in the extreme west of Yorkshire, on
the borders of Westmoreland. Chapel le Dale is a solitary spot in one of the quiet pastoral valleys which intersect the wild uplands
in this part of Yorkshire. 192. (1) The Magi. — The priests of the ancient fire-worshipping
religion of Persia. Their temples and altars had to be for ever fed with the holy fire, brought down by tradition from heaven.
(2) The Vestal Virgins. —Six virgins who were priestesses of Vesta (the goddess of the hearth), an ancient Latin divinity. Their chief duty was that of keeping the fire on the altar of the
goddess ever burning. 196. (1) Some village Hampden.—John Hampden, a Buckingham
shire squire, distinguished himself in the reign of Charles I. by the resistance which he offered to the arbitrary encroachments of the Crown. In particular he refused to pay the tax of Ship Money which Charles attempted to levy without the authority of Parliament (1634-37).
(2) With incense kindled at the Muse's fame.—This line alludes to the fulsome flattery in the shape of laudatory verses, elaborate dedications, and the like, with which poets in the