« AnteriorContinuar »
EXERCISE TO BE WRITTEN.
Let the punctuation of such of the following sentences as require to be pointed
accord with the Rule and Remarks (pp. 98-100): –
Joint effort conquers nature hews through mountains rears pyra. mids dikes out the ocean. (Rule.)
With a callous heart, there can be no genius in the imagination or wisdom in the mind. (Rule, and Remark c.)
Genius deals with the possible creates new combinations discovers new laws and acts from an insight into principles. (Rule.)
Refined manners and polite behaviour must not be deemed altogether superficial. (First of Remark b.)
To be wise in our own eyes to be wise in the opinion of the world and to be wise in the sight of our Creator seldom coincide. (Rule.)
Thou art capable of something purer nobler infinitely better than thou hast become. (Remark e.)
Familiarity with the world's vices can never reveal to you the world's great truths or enable you to fathom its deep realities. (Rule.)
It should be the first object of education to form a pure heart high principle an earnest and ingenuous spirit. (Rule.)
We live in times that call for wisdom in contemplation and virtue in action. (Rule, and Remark c.)
Every human being has a work to carry on within duties to perform abroad influences to exert which are peculiarly his. (Rule.)
Resolute thoughts find words for themselves and make their own vehicle. (Rule.)
The man of enlightened understanding and persevering ardor has many sources .of enjoyment which the ignorant man cannot reach. (First of Remark b.)
The only distinctions in society which should be recognized are those of the soul of strong principle of incorruptible integrity of usefulness of cultivated intellect of fidelity in seeking for truth. (Rule.)
To the poor and the desolate the timid and the anxious the weary and the aged the idea of a common brotherhood must be full of light. (Rule, and Remark i.)
The pure, kind, trustful heart, intent on duty and only arnbitious of usefulness, bears, in the beaming eye and open brow and gladsome voice, unfailing evidence of inward peace and joy. (Last of Rem. h.)
Do the voice of the wise and the arm of the brave and the blood of the patriot go for nothing in the wild conflict that is desolating the earth? (Rule, and first of Remark h.)
I know of no great expounder of moral principle I know of no eloquent teacher of divine truth who is more useful in God's world, than a business-man that carries his religion into his business. (Rule.)
Can we imagine that God's highest gifts of intelligence imagination and moral power were bestowed to provide only for animal wants? (Remark e.)
Ancient superstition introduced the fine arts into her train called the powers of genius to her aid and employed the painter and the poet to hold out her charms to the world. (Rule.)
Want and anxiety and habitual discontent and hate of fancied oppression can never raise a class and excite it to noble efforts (Rule, and Remarks i, g.)
How often, in surveying the great man's splendid mansion and wandering through his ancient woods and beautiful gardens, have we met with some touching memorial of human affection! (Remark b, both sentences.)
That fortitude which has encountered no dangers that prudence which has surmounted no difficulties that integrity which has been attended by no temptations can at best be considered but a not yet brought to the test. (Rule.)
Surely this is a world of plenteousness and beauty and gladness of loves and friendships of blessed homes and holy altars of sacred communions and lofty aspirations and immortal prospects. (Rule, and Remarks g, b, and first of h.)
Faith is the root and foundation of whatever is noble and excellent in man of all that is mighty and admirable in his intellect of all that is amiable and praiseworthy in his affections of all that is sound and stable in his moral being. (Rule.)
Put holy truth in every false heart; instil a sacred piety into every worldly mind and a blessed virtue into every fountain of corrupt desires; and the anxieties of philanthropy might be hushed and the tears of benevolent prayer and faith might be dried up and patriotismı and piety might gaze upon the scene and the prospect with unmingled joy. (Rule, and Remarks d, h, k, l.)
The culture of the intellect is an unmixed good, when it is sacredly used to enlighten the conscience to feed the flame of generous sentiment to perfect us in our common employments to throw a grace over our common actions to make us sources of innocent cheerfulness and centres of holy influence and to give us courage strength stability amidst the sudden changes and sore temptations and trials of life. (Rule, and Remarks b, e.)
Clauses having a Verb understood. When, in a compound sentence, the clauses have each a different nominative, but have only one verb, expressed in the first clause and understood in the others, the ellipsis, or place of the verb, should be supplied by a comma.
1. A wise man seeks to shine in himself; a fool, to outshine others. 2. The wise man considers what he wants; the fool, what he abounds in. 3. The wise man is happy in his own approbation; the fool, in the applause
of his fellows.
a. In the above examples, a comma is inserted after the second nominative, “ fool," to indicate, in the first sentence, the ellipsis of the verb “ seeks;” in the second, that of the verb " considers ;” and, in the third, that of the verb and adjective, “is happy.” Hence a semicolon is required before the second nominative to divide each sentence into the two larger portions of which it consists, and to show the relation of its various parts.
b. But, if two clauses have a bearing on a final expression, the comma should be omitted after the second nominative, and the semicolon before it changed into a comma; as, “ Herder had more of the Oriental fancy, Schleiermacher more of the European acuteness, in his composition.” For, were a semicolon put after “fancy,” and a comina after “ Schleiermacher,” as in the rule, the phrase “ in his composition” would seem to be connected only with the last clause, though it belongs equally to both.
c. So, also, when two short clauses are joined by either of the conjunctions and, or, wur', but, and any word but a noun follows the second nominative, the comma should be omitted where the verb is understood, and the semicolon after the first clause exchanged for a comma; as, “Life is precarious, and death certain." If a semicolon were placed after the word “ precarious," it would be necessary to separate “ (leath” and “ certain" by a comma; as, “Life is precarious; and death, certain.” But such a mode of punctuation would be too rigid, and is not required for bringing out the sense.
d. When, too, in a series of clauses, each ellipsis is followed by a preposition or by the comparative us, the free style of pointing seems more appropriate; as, “ Mathematicians have sought knowledge in figures, philosophers in systems, logicians in subtilties, and metaphysicians in sounds."
e. Js, however, obscurity would arise, either in two clauses or in a series, from the omission of the comma, - as, for instance, when the preposition of is used, – the punctuation adopted in the examples under the rule must be followed. Thus: “Power reminds you of weakness; permanency, of change; life, of death; light, of darkness; and the true, of the false.”
f. When lightness or vivacity characterizes the style, the free mode of pointing is preferable to the other, if no ambiguity would arise from its use, as in the following passage: “ There is a magic in the sound of · Stop thief! stop thief!' The tradesman leaves his counter, and the carman his wagon; the butcher throws down his tray, the baker his basket, the milkman his pail, the errandboy his parcels, the school-boy his marbles, the paver his pickaxe, the child his battledoor: away they run pellmell, helter-skelter.”
Why, according to Rule XVII., are cominas inserted in these sentences ? — Curiosity allures the wise; vanity, the foolish; and pleasure, both. The Grecians excelled in precepts; the Romans, in examples. Homer was the greater genius; Virgil, the better artist. Passion overcomes shame; boldness, fear; and madness, reason. Anger prompts men to contention; avarice, to oppression. The benevolent man is esteerned; the penurious, despised. A robber employs violence; and a thief, cunning and guile. The young are slaves to novelty; the old, to custom. War is the law of violence; peace, the law of love. The Doric dialect was broad and rough; the Ionic, smooth. Semiramis built Babylon; Dido, Carthage; and Romulus, Rome. Labor brings pleasure; idleness, pain. Plants are formed by culture; men, by education. One murder makes a villain; millions, a hero. Pleasant recollections promote cheerfulness; and painful ones, gloom, Crowns were the playthings of Napoleon; thrones, his footstool. Truth belongs to the man; error, to his age. Benevolence is allied to few vices; selfishness, to fewer virtues.
Assign the reasons for the punctuation of the following sentences, agreeably to
the Remarks (pp. 104-5): Our existence lias no support, our life no air, our spiritual weak. ness no power to lean upon, without God.
Shakspeare was the greatest poet, Newtou the most distinguished mathematician, that England ever produced.
The coarse worm yields us a beautiful fly, and the thorny bush a lovely flower.
The notious of Dryden were formed by comprehensive speculation, but those of Pope by minute attention.
Shakspeare died in 1616, Milton in 1674, Dryden in 1700, Pope in 1744, and Goldsunith in 1774.
Bonaparte was a man of unbounded ambition; and Washington, of disinterested patriotism.
EXERCISE TO BE WRITTEN.
Punctuate those sentences to which no references are given, in accordance with
Rule XVII.; and the others agreeably to the Remurks :
The character of Milton was peculiarly distinguished by loftiness of thought; that of Dante by intensity of feeling.
Concession is no humiliation nor admission of error any disgrace. (Remark c.)
Among the ancient critics, Longinus possessed most delicacy; Aristotle most correctness.
The sculptor sees a statue and the philosopher a principle, where, to the general eye, all is “ without form, and void.” (Remark b.)
Homer's imagination is by much the mosi rich and copious; Virgil's the most chaste and correct.
The cupola is taken from the human skull pillars from legs thatching from hair and tiling from the scales of fish. (Reinark d.)
Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.
Avarice must come to the hour of utter destitution and pride to the hour of utter prostration. (Remark c.)
The quality the most difficult to be found in public situations is probity; the least difficult confidence.
Some men are eminent for what they possess some for what they achieve and others for what they are. (Remark. d.)
The first ingredient in conversation is truth; the next good sense ; the third good-humor; and the fourth wit.