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A distinction ought to be made between fame and true honor. (Remark e.)
The balmy influences of neither sea nor sky could revive or restore him.
Refinement of mind and clearness of thinking usually result from grammatical studies. (Remark f:)
The greatest genius is never so great as when it is chastised and subdued by the highest reason.
In composition there is a transposed or inverted order of words, as well as a conventional or common arrangement. (Remark j.)
The first end to which all wisdom or knowledge ought to be einployed is to illustrate the wisdom and goodness of God.
Morality and religion itself is degraded by the use of unmeaning terms. (Remark d.)
Is it sickness or selfishness that spreads most misery through our homes?
A quickness of observation and an ingenuousness of character are often found in very young children. (Rule, and Remarks c, g.)
The Greek and Roman writers were once understood and relished in a remarkable degree.
Some have neither the resolution nor the power of carrying their projects to a completion. (Rule, and Remarks c, g.)
Pope examined lines and words with minute and punctilious observation.
The nineteenth century has been and is a time of extraordinary mental activity. (Remark h.)
I would calmly and humbly submit myself to the good and blessed will of God.
Let us greet and take by the hand those who were our youthful companions. (Remark d.)
The human heart beats quick at the sight or hearing of courageous and disinterested deeds.
The senses or sensibility of one body may be radically more acute than those of another. (Remark i.)
The most ferocious conflicts have been brightened by examples of magnanimous and patriotic virtue.
It was the greatest act ever done either by or for human beings. (Rule, and Remark b.)
Whenever, therefore, we divide Christianity into doctrines of faith and doctrines of practice, we must remember that the division is one of our own tabrication. (Rule, and last portion of Remark g.)
Conjunction. Two words, of the same part of speech and in the same construction, if used without a conjunction between them, are separated from each other by a comma.
1. Lend, lend your wings.
REMARR S. a. The adverbs more and most, the former of which occurs in the seventh example, are considered here as united with the adjectives or the adverbs which they qualify. Thus, “ more beautiful” is equivalent to the single but antiquated word beautifuller.
b. Besides the comma inserted between two nouns, or between two words equivalent to nouns, the same point is put after the last, when it does not end a sentence or a clause; as, “ Thought, thought, is the fundamental distinction of mind.” – “Reason, virtue, answer one great aim.” – “The earth is filled with the labors, the works, of the dead.” In these and similar instances, the comma is required to show that both nouns are equally related to what follows.
c. But the comma should be omitted after the second of the nouns, if it alone is connected in sense with the last portion of the clause; as, " The miseries of war bear the impress of cruelty, of hardness of heart.”
d. Strict accuracy seems to require the insertion of a comma after the last of the governing and qualifying words in the examples under the rule; namely, after “lend," "cold,” “invigorates," “wonderfully,'' “ around.” But this mode of punctuating is opposed to the most reputable usage, and is seldom needed to bring out the sense; not to mention the uncouth appearance which modifying or governing words have when standing alone, or in disruption from the context; as, “ All great works of genius come from deep, lonely, thought.” Contrast the sentence, thus pointed, with “ All great works of genius come from deep, lonely thought," and the superiority of the latter form will be obvious.
e. When, however, the adjectives or adverbs are used to qualify a word that precedes them, a comma should be placed after the second, if the clause is unfinished; as, “ The world that is outward, material, is the shadow of that which is spiritual." A comma should also be placed after the second of two governing words, when they precede, not a single word, but a phrase or clause; as, “ To deny ourselves is to deny, to renounce, whatever interferes with our convictions of right.”
f. The comma should be omitted between two adjectives, when the first qualifies the second adjective and a noun; as,“ The emperor possessed a beautiful white horse;" that is, the emperor had a white horse that was beautiful. Were a comma placed between the adjectives, the sense would be that he possessed a horse that was beautiful and white.
g. When two adjectives that are not synonymous precede a noun, and convey only one idea, they are treated as a compound epithet, and united by a hyphen; as, “ The maidens danced amid the festalsounding shades."
h. If two nouns are used as a compound, whether so written or not, or if the former partakes of the nature of an adjective, they are not separated by a comma; as, “ Walter Scott ranks high as a fiction-writer." -“Ward Room, Franklin Schoolhouse, Washington Street.” Words similar to those mentioned in this and the preceding remark will be explained under the “Hyphen."
i. When a word iterated is the resumption of a sentiment broken off, a dash is used before the repetition, instead of a comma; as, “But I fear – I fear Richard hardly thought the terms proposed were worthy of his acceptance." The punctuation of broken sentences will be more fully treated of under the “ Dash.”
j. A comma may be put after two adverbs, or after an adverb repeated, as well as between them, when they qualify a clause; as, “Verily, verily, I say unto you.” But when one adverb is followed by another, the former qualifying the latter, no comma is admissi. ble; as, “ The part was remarkably well performed.”
k. The last of two verbs, participles, or prepositions, if used with. out governing the words that follow them, is set off with a comma; as, “ On, on, when honor calls.”
l. It not unfrequently happens, that two prepositions or conjunctions come together, without requiring any separation by a marked pause; as, “ He walks up towards the hill." -" The pupil of a docile disposition not only loves, but also venerates, his preceptor." In respect, however, to the former example, it may be observed that the first preposition is not in construction with the second, but forms part of the verb “walk," which is compound, and would in some languages be expressed by a single word; and, as to the latter, that the conjunctions“but” and “ also " are so closely connected in sense as to be inseparable in construction.
ORAL EXERCISES. Explain how Rule II. requires the insertion of commas between words of the
same part of speech in the following sentences :Nothing is so intelligible as sincere, disinterested love. Sound, sound the tambourine! Strike, strike the mandaline! Men live abroad in regions which are milder, more temperate. Socrates and Plato were philosophers, sages. The outward, material world is the shadow of the spiritual. Genius is not a quality of idle, lazy men. Rash, fruitless war is only splendid murder. Fairly, rightly regarded, religion is the great sentiment of lite. Storms purge the air without, within the breast.
State how the reasons given in the Remarks for the insertion or the omission of
commas (pp. 33, 34) will apply to the following sentences :It is a matter of the finest, the most deliberate calculation. The only test of goodness, virtue, is moral strength. Virtue, religion, is the one thing needful. Woe, woe, to the rider that tramples them down! A steady, durable good cannot be derived from an external cause Work that is easy, pleasant, does not make robust minds. Remove, expel the blustering, blundering blockhead! The history of the humblest human life is a tale of marvels. How delightful to gaze at the dark-blue sky! Behold that crowd of keen, anxious-looking men. Some village Hampden here may rest. Mirthfully, wildly, the bright waves flash along. A benevolent man is very much esteemed, respected. Fallen, fallen, is the mighty Babylon!
EXERCISE TO BE WRITTEN.
In writing the following sentences, punctuate those words only which require
commas, in accordance with the second Rule and the Remarks : -The young shepherd promised to buy me a pretty brown ribbon. (Remark f.)
The man of true refinement will not object to enter into the honest heartfelt enjoyments of common life. (Rule, and Remark d.)
The rosy-crowned Loves, with their many-twinkling feet, frisk with antic Sports and blue-eyed Pleasures. (Remark g.)
A good that is steady durable cannot be derived from an external cause. (Rule, and Remark e.)
The intellect and the conscience are intimately indissolubly bound together. (Rule, and Remark d.)
Employment activity is one of the fundamental laws of human happiness. (Rule, and Remark b.)
Not a few of the wisest grandest spirits have toiled at the work bench and the plough. (Rule, and Remarks d, h.)
A hardy honest peasantry are the glory of an agricultural country. (Rule, and Remark d.)
Weeping sighing the mother hid the children in her gory vest. (Rule, and Remark k.)
The human mind spreads its thoughts abroad into the immeasurable the infinite.
Does not every man feel, that nothing nothing could induce him to consent to become a slave? (Rule, and Remark b.)
All all conjure us to act wisely faithfully in the relation which we sustain. (Rule, and Remarks b, j.)
We should have a deeper a more vivid conviction of the importance the sacredness of our work. (Rule, and Remarks a, b.!
Of intellectual gifts, the rarest the most glorious is great inventive genius. (Rule, and Remarks a, e, f.)
Who will deny that imagination refines elevates the other mental powers ? (Rule, and last sentence in Remark e.)
The most abandoned men have sometimes professed courage contempt of mere bodily suffering. (Rule, and Remarks c, f.)
A desolate lonely feeling springs up of having exchanged their home for a distant foreign country. (Rule, and Remarks d, l.)
All things must work together for certain good, so long as we continue in free unconditional self-surrender to the service of God. (Rule, and Remarks d, h.)