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d. Proper names, when inverted, are separated by a comma; as, " James, Thomas; Williamson, John;" meaning Thomas James and John Williamson.

e. After the word price, when immediately preceding the value of any commodity, the comma may be omitted; as, “ Price $5," or “ Price fifty cents."

f. A comma is put between two nouns or pronouns if used synonymously, or if the latter expresses an illustrative or an additional thought; as, “ Force of voice is strength, energy; vivacity is life, animation.— “A son, John, was born after his father's death."

g. When a proper name is put after a phrase in apposition, the comma may be omitted; as, “ The great orator Cicero was famed for many excellences.” Unless where the noun is introduced by way of explanation or parenthesis; and, in such a case, it is preceded by a comma, and, in an unfinished clause, followed by the same point; as, “ The wisest of the Jewish kings, Solomon, became a fool.”

h. When the first of two nouns of the possessive case has the sign of possession, a comma should intervene between them; as, “ The work will be found at Appleton's, the bookseller.” But, if the possessive sign is omitted after the first noun, and put after the second, the comma may be dispensed with; as, “It will be seen at Putnam the publisher's.” Should, however, this mode of writing be so constructed as to have, for the unmarked possessive, several names constituting a firm, a comma should be inserted before the noun ending with the s and apostrophe; as, “ The young man is a clerk at Little, Brown, and Company, the publishers';" the awkwardness of the punctuation here arising from the clumsiness of the expression.

i. If a term, preceding a noun or a pronoun, is used absolutely, a comma is inserted only between them; as, “A trifling scholar, he heeds not the lessons of instruction."

j. When a pronoun of the second person immediately precedes a noun, a relative pronoun, or a word or phrase used for a noun, the comma is unnecessary between them; as, “Thou river, roll; ye who are aged, come; all ye high Powers.” But if the pronoun, as the norrinative to a verb, or as the antecedent of a relative, is separated from them, or if it is put in the objective case, a comma should be put before and after the intervening term; as, “Thou, Father, markest the tears I shed.” “What art thou, execrable shape, that darest advance?” On thee, beloved, I wait.”

k. When the latter of two nouns or phrases is predicated of the former, the comma is not required between them; as, “ Plutarch calls

lying the vice of slaves.” — “The Romans thought Augustus Cæsar a god." -"1 consider Dr. Johnson as an excellent moralist.So also if the subject spoken of be a pronoun; as, “ The people elected him president of the United States."

ORAL EXERCISES. Show how the following sentences exemplify the fourth Rule, in respect to the

insertion or omission of commas : – Friends, the beloved of my bosom, were near. Mahomet was a native of Mecca, a city in Arabia. The emperor Antoninus wrote an excellent work on morals. The term “reason” has been variously defined. Diogenes, the Greek philosopher, lived in a tub. Bowditch the astronomer translated the “ Mécanique Céleste.” Newton, the great mathematician, was very modest. The butterfly, child of the summer, flutters in the sun. Hope, the balm of life, soothes us under every misfortune. Spenser the poet lived in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Art thou that traitor angel who first broke peace iri heaven? I Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ for you Gentiles. I, thy father-in-law Jethro, am come unto thee.

Say why, according to the Remarks (pp. 41, 42), commas are inserted or omitted

in the following sentences :

The emperor Augustus was a patron of the fine arts.
The frigate “ Jainestown” conveyed corn to the suffering Irish.
God is a Father-God, a God of paternal love.
To thee we bow, Friend, Father, King of kings!
“ Adjunct” is derived from adjunctum, addition, something added.
Ease, rest, owes its deliciousness to toil.
William was slain; leaving one child, Alice.
The eloquent preacher Massillon was a Frenchman.
The author of " Paradise Lost," Milton, was a noble-minded man
At Thomson the batter's store. At Thomson's, the hatter.
A brave boy, he could not injure others.
O Thou whose love can ne'er forget its offspring, man!
Ye powers and spirits of this nethermost abyss.
Thou, Lord, art the life and light of all this wondrous world.
All agree in designating Howard a philanthropist.


Insert commas where, according to pages 41-43, they are required :In Greek, the word “poet” denotes a maker a creator. (Rule, $ 1.; and Remarks a, f.)

The apostle John was peculiarly beloved by his divine Master Jesus Christ the Saviour of the world. (Rule, and Remark b.)

The capital of Turkey Constantinople is finely situated on the European side of the Bosphorus. (Last of Remark g.)

General Washington the first president of the United States was a true patriot a genuine lover of his country. (Rule, and Remark b.)

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus says, “ Often return to your true mother philosophy.” (Remark b, first portion; and Remark f.)

Much stress was laid upon pronunciation delivery by the most eloquent of all orators Demosthenes. (Remark f, and last of g.)

London the capital of Great Britain contains nearly three millions of inhabitants. (Rule, $ 11.)

A great and gloomy man the king sat upon the throne of his ancestors. (Remark i.)

I recommend the reading of good books as a source of improvement and delight. (Remark k.)

The first expedition of Columbus was fitted out by John of Anjou Duke of Calabria. (Rule, 11.; and Remark b.)

0 Thou who hast at thy command the hearts of all men in thy hand! (First of Remark j.)

I Artaxerxes the king decree that whatsoever Ezra the priest the scribe of the law shall require, &c. (Rule, and Remark b.)

You blocks! you stones! you worse than senseless things! O you hard hearts! you cruel men of Rome! (First of Remark j.)

And, when the angel Death stands by, be thou my God my helper nigh. (Rule, Remark b, and last of j.)

When, as returns this solemn day, man comes to meet his Maker God. (Last of Remark b.)

The world-famed dramatist Shakspeare lived in the reign of the greatest of English queens Elizabeth. (Remark g.)

Adonijah the son of Haggith came to Bathsheba the mother of Solomon. (Rule, Ş 11.)

In the firm of Graham Brother and Co. there are three persons in partnership, - James Graham, his younger brother, and John Jones; but I do not know how many there are in the firm of Kennedy Brothers, - whether there be two or more. (Remark c.)


Words or Phrases in Contrast. ✓ Words or phrases contrasted with each other, or having a mutual relation to others that follow them, in the same clause, are separated by commas.

E XAMPLES. 1. False delicacy is affectation, not politeness. 2. The author of that work was a distinguished poet, but a bad man. 3. Many persons gratify their eyes and ears, instead of their understandings 4. Prudence, as well as courage, is necessary to overcome obstacles. 5. Strong proofs, not a loud voice, produce conviction. 6. One may utter many pompous, and speak but few intelligible, words. 7. Avoid, or rather prevent the introduction of, so pernicious a fashion. 8. Good men are not always found in union with, but sometimes in oppositior

to, the views and conduct of one another

REMARKS. a. Not a few authors would write the sixth example without a comma after the adjective “intelligible.” But though it is well to avoid the use of the point after a qualifying or a governing word when its omission could effect no ambiguity, as in the phrase ( deep, lonely thought," and others referred to in p. 33, Remark d; yet where, as in the instance under the present rule, the words or phrases, which have a common bearing on one and the same expression, are apart, and the first is properly set off by a comma, the insertion of a corresponding comma after the second seems requisite for an easy obtaining of the sense. And this, indeed, is the usage of the best, though perhaps not of the most numerous, punctuators.

6. The seventh and eighth examples are introduced here, not as models of composition, but to show that the harshness of their con

struction demands a corresponding rigor in the mode of punctuation. • This, however, the student may sometimes avoid in his own compo

sition, by giving to his style greater freedom and elegance. For instance, the seventh example might be thus constructed and pointed: “Avoid so pernicious a fashion, or rather prevent its introduction."

c. When two contrasted or related words, united by either of the conjunctions but, though, yet, as well as, qualify a following noun or phrase, or refer to the same preposition, the comma may be omitted: as, “ Cæsar delivered his orations in elegant but powerful language."

“ He was ( great though an erring man.” – “Hercules had the strength as well as the courage of the lion.”

d. But if the adverb not, either with or without a conjunction, comes between two such words, a comma should be used after each, in accordance with the Rule, to indicate their common dependence on the last portion of the sentence; as, “ The strong and violent emotions are the natural produce of an early, if not of a savage, state of society."

e. If the above-mentioned conjunctions unite not two words, but a word and a phrase, or two phrases, the commas should be inserted; as, “Intemperance not only wastes the earnings, but the health and minds, of men."

f. Two words or phrases connected by but or yet, or if either of these conjunctions be understood, are separated by a comma, when the first term is preceded by not or though; as, “Not beautiful, but graceful.” —“Though black, yet comely; and though rash, benign."

g. Commas should not be used between words contrasted in pairs, and having prepositions or conjunctions between them; as, “ Let elevation without turgidness, purity without primness, pathos without whining, characterize our style.” – “Nothing is nidre wise or more admirable in action than to be resolute and yet calm, earnest and yet self-possessed, decided and yet modest.”

h. When a negative word or phrase is put before an affirmative one, and does not commence the sentence, the phrases are separated by a comma, not only from each other, but from that portion of the sentence with which they are connected; as, “ The greatest evils arise to human society, not from wild beasts, but from untamed passions."

i. If, however, the word expressing negation is not put in imme diate connection with one of the phrases, but in that portion of the sentence on which they depend; or if a finite verb, active or neuter, immediately precedes the negative, the comma should be omitted before the first phrase; as, “ The greatest evils do not arise to human society from wild beasts, but from untamed passions." “ The greatest evils to human society arise not from wild beasts, but from untamed passions.” — “ It is not from wild beasts, but from untamed passions, that the greatest evils arise to human society.”

j. In some instances, where the insertion of a comma between contrasted phrases, used as a compound intermediate expression, would tend to obscure the connection subsisting between the parts of a sentence, the point between the phrases may be omitted; as

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