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Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases. ✓ Adverbs or adverbial phrases, when used as connectives, or when they modify net single words, but clauses or sentences, are each followed by a comma; and, if used intermediately, they admit a comma before as well as after them.
1. Why, these are testimonies of what the unfriended may do.
REMARKS. a. The following words, with others of a similar kind, are pointed in accordance with the rule: — Again, further, moreover, once more, as yet, yea, nay, why, well, first, secondly, finally, accordingly, cousequently, unquestionably, indisputably, namely, at present, in truth, in short, in fine, in general, in particular, in the meantime, in the next place, in all probability, of late, of course, above all, nevertheless, doubtless, without doubt, true (used for indeed), that is (for namely), on the one hand, on the contrary, for the most part, now and then.
b. When any of the adverbs or adverbial phrases in the preceding list, or others of a like character, are used to qualify single words, the commas should be omitted; as, “ The lecture was again delivered." —“Some men are in the highest degree mystical.”
c. Besides the adverbs and adverbial expressions which qualify single words, many of those relating to the whole clause or sentence in which they occur are sometimes written and printed without commas; as, “ Perhaps I will give it.” — “ He was formerly a wealthy citizen." The omission of the point is recommended wherever the adverb readily coalesces with the context, as it does in the examples just given.
d. If, however, there is any harshness in the construction or the collocation, the adverbial word or expression may be set off by commas; as, “Poverty, perhaps, has been the most fertile source of literary crimes"
e. The insertion or the omission of commas in respect to such words as hence, also, seems, in general practice, to be a matter of taste or caprice. But, except when required by peculiar reasons, the points are better omitted; for, in general, these adverbs unite very readily with the context; as, “ Hence have arisen dangerous factions.” – “The earth is also clothed with verdure."
f. Flere and there, when used antithetically before an adjective or a noun, and placed at the beginning of a clause or sentence, should be each followed by a comma; as, “ Here, every thing is in stir and fluctuation: there, all is serene and orderly." Commonly, however, these words do not require to be punctuated.
g. When two intermediate adverbs, not qualifying any particular word, come together, that which coalesces least with the other portions of the sentence should alone have a comma both before and after it; as, “ There were, surely, always pretenders in science.”
h. Many words ranked as adverbs are sometimes employed conjunctively, and require a different treatment in their punctuation. When used as conjunctions, however, now, then, too, indeed, are divided by commas from the context; but when as adverbs, qualifying the words with which they are associated, the separation should not be made. This distinction will be seen from the following examples: -
1. HOWEVER. — We must, however, pay some deference to the opinions of the wise, however much they are contrary to our own.
2. Now. - I have now shown the consistency of my principles; and, now, what is the fair and obvious conclusion?
3. Then. – On these facts, then, I then rested my argument, and afterwards made a few general observations on the subject.
4 Too.— I found, too, a theatre at Alexandria, and another at Cairo; but he who would enjoy the representations must not be too particular.
5. INDEED. — The young man was indeed culpable in that act, though, indeed, he conducted himself very well in other respects.
When placed at the end of a sentence or a clause, the conjunction too must rot be separated from the context by a comma; as, “I would that they had changed voices too."
i. The particle therefore, which is used sometimes as an adverb, and sometimes as a conjunction, may be set off by commas when it is of a parenthetical nature, or obstructs the flow of the composition, and lett unpointed when it coalesces easily with the other parts of the sentence; as, “ Music has charms, and therefore ought to be admured: if, therefore, you have an opportunity of learning that delightful art, study it with avidity.”
j. Besides, when used as a preposition, should not be punctuated: but, when occurring as an adverb or a conjunction, a comma is required after, and, if occurring intermediately, also one before it; as, “ Besides him, there was another man who acted in the samo manner: there were present, besides, several ladies, who seemned to give their approbation.” The same remark is applicable to the word notwithstanding.
k. Though the examples in Remarks h, i, j, are not to be regarded as models of composition, they probably illustrate the use of the comma, by the juxtaposition of the particles, much better than if these were put separately in sentences less liable to critical objection.
l. Used adverbially, yesterday, to-day, to-morrow, &c., are, like the adverbs of time, now, then (Remark h), not separated by points from the words with which they are connected; as, “ John went yesterday to Cincinnati."
m. All adverbial words or phrases, if followed by a parenthetical expression, must, according to p. 64, have a comma after them; but, if finishing a sentence or a clause, they should have that point which is required by their position.
n. When an adverbial word or phrase comes between two phrases or clauses, it must be separated by a comma only from that expression which it does not qualify; as, “ He was saved, for a time at least, from a relapse." — " Though Nature has given to all her children some conceptions of immortality, still her information is far from proving satisfactory.".
ORAL EXERCISES. Show how the punctuation in these sentences corresponds to Rulc XI. :Lastly, let me repeat what I stated at the beginning of my lecture. Such, undoubtedly, is the characteristic of genuine virtue. On the contrary, I believe that truth is the great inspirer. There is, now and then, a youth of more than youthful powers. He made the most, mentally, of whatever came in his way. Undoubtedly, the statement he has made is not correct. There are many ends, doubtless, for which each thing exists. But, lastly, let us examine the truth of these arguments. In fact, modern civilization is a corrupted Christianity. Such, in general, is the humiliating aspect of the tomb. Accordingly, the chronicles of the middle ages teem with crimes. The national life, in short, is to a certain extent diseased. Well, proceed with the speech which you have so well begun.
According to Remarks on pages 72-74, assign reasons for the punctuation of the
adverbial or conjunctive words and phrases which occur in the following sentences, or for the umission of coinmas :
At present, the individual is often crushed by circumstances.
EXERCISE TO BE WRITTEN.
Insert commas only where required by Rule XI. and Remarks (pp. 72–74):
Hence the organs of sense are probably in a state of the greatest sensibility in an early period of life. (Remarks e, c.)
Shakspeare was the most brilliant example unquestionably of a triumph over the defects of education. (Rule, and Remark a.)
The children of our cottagers too appear to derive peculiar pleasure from the soft breath of spring. (Remark h 4.)
As yet science has hardly penetrated beneath the surface of nature. (Rule, and Remark a.)
Characters endowed with great excellences will unfortunately uften stand in need of great allowances. (Remark g.)
Do we in a word reduce the whole of human duty to a bald and punctilious discharge of worldly business? (Rule.)
However much he was persecuted, he loved his persecutors not the less. (Remarks b, h 1.)
The happiness of the dead however is affected by none of these considerations. (Remark h 1.)
First men of uncommon moral endowments may be expected to be men of uncommon intellectual powers. (Rule, and Remark a.)
If therefore you find that you have a hasty temper, watch it narrowly. (Remark i.)
The Greeks were great reasoners; and their language accordingly abounds in connectives. (Rule, and Remark a.)
This was the object to which the meeting first directed its attention. (Remark b.)
His prudent conduct may heal the difference; nay may prevent any misunderstanding in future. (Rule, and Remark a.)
Having now removed the objections made to our conduct, I shall take up very little more of your lordships' time. (Remarks b, h 2.)
There was great scarcity of corn, and consequently dearth of all other victuals. (Rule, and Remarks a, d.)
Every thing that grows is a world probably of uncounted myriads of beings. (Rule, and Remark d.)
Sooner or later insulted virtue avenges itself on states, as well as on private men. (Rule.)
The author therefore commences his undertaking by an analysis of names. (Remark i.)
Wi:hout being rash on the one hand or fearful on the other we shall find all things working together for good. (Remark n.)