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The intellectual powers may be exercised to the neglect and stilling of the moral and spiritual. (Rule, ý 11.)
Half of what passes among men for talent is nothing but strong health. (Rule, $ 1.; and Remark g.)
Sensible men show their good sense by saying much in a few words. (Rule, ý 1.)
Shake not the credit of others in endeavoring to establish your oil. (Rule, ý II.)
Ariosto, the eminent Italian poet, was born in the year of our Lord 1474, and died 1533. (Remark j.)
Let your affections be cultivated with ardor and purity through all the successive periods of life. (Rule, ý 1.; and Remark e.)
Let us not think of the departed as looking on us with earthly, partial affections. (Rule, ý 1.)
Who can look on this scene without an increase of love and reverence and trust? (Rule, ý 11.)
The dormant faculties of men seem only to be awaiting more favorable circumstances to disclose themselves. (First of Rem. h.)
The soul is nursed for heaven by the discipline of a sacred sorrow. (Rule, $ 1.)
The well-being of a community cannot flow from the simple effect of one great change however necessary or successful. (Rule, § 11.)
* The grandeur and vastness of human hope are corresponded to by a similar grandeur and vastness of human nature. (Rule, $ 1.)
Some men put on the appearance of virtue in order to succeed in their nefarious enterprises. (Rule, ý 11.; and Remark i.)
There are many topics on which individuals may hold the greatest diversity of opinion without any diminution of holy sympathy in the essential principles of religion. (Rule, ý 11.; and Remark e.)
Seek for distinction only among the honest and pious. Seek for distinction but only among the honest and pious. (Rule, $$ I., II. ; and Remarks c, d.)
Let us employ the powers which our Creator has given us in such a manner as will be fitted to purify and elevate our nature. (Rule, Ø 11.)
Moral light must be intermingled with intellectual light to conduct us safely through our mortal course. (Rule, \ 11.; and last portion of Remark h.)
No man can struggle, for years together, to evolve his character into pure moral manhood without shedding around him a benignant, life-giving influence. (Rule, § 11.)
Inverted or Transposed Expressions.
Many phrases which, in their natural or usual order, do not require to be punctuated, are, when inverted, set off by a comma from the rest of the sentence.
1. By Cowley, the philosopher Hobbes is compared to Columbus. 2. To the wise and good, old age presents a scene of tranquil enjoyment 3. Of all our senses, sight is the most perfect and delightful. 4. In perusing the works of enlightened men, we ought to think much.
a. The natural or usual order of words in English composition, if adopted in the above sentences, would run as follows: “The philosopher Hobbes is compared by Cowley to Columbus." age presents a scene of tranquil enjoyment to the wise and good.” — “ Sight is the most perfect and delightful of all our senses.”—“We ought to think much in perusing the works of enlightened men.” It will be seen, that the phrases which have been punctuated in the examples, are, when put in the usual order, written without commas, in accordance with the first part of Rule XII., p. 78.
b. In the inverted or rhetorical style in which these sentences are exemplified under the rule, it is obvious, that, if the comma were omitted, we could not read or understand them, without a greater exercise of the judgment than is required when that point is inserted after each transposed phrase.
c. But the rule, as commonly laid down by grammarians, is by no means universal in its application. The mere circumstance of the transposition of a word or phrase is not a sufficient reason for introducing a comma, as may readily be seen by inspecting either a single page of an author who adopts this style, or a few lines in any of the poets; and indeed, were all such inversions punctuated, both perspicuity and good taste would be in numberless instances violated. On the other hand, actual usage is so discordant, that, in many cases, it would seem to be a matter of mere choice, whether an inverted phrase should have a comma or not. By attention, however, to the various modes in which the sentences under notice are formed, most of the practical difficulties would be overcoine.
d. In accordance with the remark just made, the comma should be dispensed with under the following circumstances, - unless the inverted portions of a sentence are both of them clauses, or severally end and begin with words of the same part of speech, with a noun and an adjective, or vice versâ :
1. When the first inverted portion contains a noun governed by a verb in the last part of the sentence; as, “ That interesting and valuable history he did not read.” — “ Him and his actions you will very probably imitate.”
“ The praise of judyment has Virgil justly contested with Homer."
2. When the second portion of the sentence commences with a verb, whether principal or auxiliary, before its nominative; as, At the bottom of the garden ran a little rivulet.” –“ Of the variegated mountain shall nought remain unchanged." “ Underneath our happiest mirth is a calm fountain of sober thought.”
3. When a preposition is removed from the word to which it usually belongs, and placed at the beginning of the inverted phrase;
“ With that portion of the work he was the least satisfied;" instead of, “ He was the least satisfied with that portion of the work."
—" To egotists and pedants I have a strong antipathy." —“ Of all truly noble feelings they were quite unsusceptible.”
4. When the first of the inverted portions of a sentence begins with the words it is, or only; as, “ It is in the sphere of intellect alone that men are becoming truly civilized.” — “ Only on a few slight occasions they felt disposed to be merciful.”
5. When, though a distinct articulation may require a slight pause, an inverted phrase can be read in close connection with what follows it, without affecting the import of the sentence; as, “ In infancy the mind is peculiarly ductile.” — “ To each the soul of each how dear!” — " By these swords we acquired our liberties.” — “In a lucid manner the orator expressed his ideas.”
6. When an expression precedes an inverted phrase which is connected more closely with the latter portion of the sentence than with the former; as, “ However opposite may be the sides from which we start at the foot of the mountain, in approaching its summit we approach one another.”
e. By carefully comparing the examples given under Remark d with those under the rule, and with a few additional ones, which, for the sake of reference, we shall now present, the student will be struck with the fact, that, though in some respects similar to each
other, they are in other and various respects dissimilar; and he will also perceive, that, while the insertion of a comma in the examples belcnging to Remark d would be of no advantage in bringing out the true meaning of the sentences, the omission of the point between the inverted portions of those about to be exhibited would operate to a greater or less extent in impeding an easy comprehension of the
1. That interesting and valuable history which you lent him, he did not read.
Ilim whose actions you approve, you will very probably imitate.
The praise of judgment, Virgil has justly contested with Homer. 2. At the bottom of the garden, a little rivulet ran.
Of the variegated mountain, nought shall remain unchanged.
Underneath our happiest mirth, there is a calm fountain of sober thouglıb. 3. With that portion of the work, Jeffrey was the least satisfied.
To egotists and pedants, sensible men have a strong antipathy.
Of all feelings that are truly noble, they were quite unsusceptible. 4. In the sphere of intellect alone, men are becoming truly civilized.
On a few slight occasions, they felt disposed to be merciful.
By forgetfulness of injuries, we show ourselves superior to them. 5. In youth, shun the temptations to which youth is exposed.
To each, honor is given. — By these, various opinions may be held.
In a remarkably striking and lucid manner, the orator expressed his ideas. 6. In approaching the summit of a mountain, we approach one another.
f. When, however, no serious error would be produced by the omission of the comma, the briefer inverted phrases, even those belonging to the above class, may be left unpointed, if they occur in clauses set off by commas; as, “ On piety humanity is built, and on humanity much happiness, and yet still more on piety itselt.” Instances of this kind are often met with in poetry.
g. But such inverted words as appear in the second and third examples of No. 5 above, where the omission of the comma would manifestly tend to confusion or error, must in all cases be punctuated. So also must any phrase that is equivalent to a clause, or into which it is easily convertible; as, In believing attainment inpossible, you will make it so;” that is, “ If you believe," &c. (see Rule XIV., p. 89); the only exception to the use of the point here being when such a phrase is used under the circumstances specified in Remark d 6.
h. All inverted phrases, when preceded by other phrases or by clauses, are treated as parenthetical expressions, and punctuated according to Rule VIII. and the remarks thereon, pp. 64, 65.
Why, according to Rule XIII. and Remarks (pp. 83-85), nre commas inserted 01
omitted between the transposed expressions in the following sentences ? -