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Rather do good than seem to be. — So live with men as if God saw you. (Rule, \ 1.)

The progress of some men is so rapid that they keep ahead of common sense. (Remark f.)

Neither could he obtain the benefits which he desired nor avert the calamities which he feared. (Rule, \ 11.; and first of Remark h.)

I am als much known to God as if I were the single object of his attention. (Rule, $ 1.)

Art is capable of not only imitating nature in hier graces but even of adorning her with graces of her own. (Rule, § 11.)

Either the mere will of the magistrate or the conscience of the individual must decide in the case. (Remark h, second portion.)

The more the love of poetry is cultivated and refined the more do men strive to make their outward lives rhythmical and harmonious. (Rule, \ u.)

There is no part of social life which affords more real satisfaction than those hours which one passes in rational and unreserved conversation. (Rule, $ 1.)

Not more do we discern in the writings of Shakspeare the greatest manifestation of human genius than in the reality of Christ the highest expression of the Divine. (Remark e.)

The more highly we cultivate our minds here the better shall we be prepared for the nobler pursuits of the next stages of our existence. (Rule, 11.)

It had been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness than, after they have known it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them. (Remark c or e.)

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The age in which George II. reigned was not by any means marked by such striking features of originality or vigor as some of the preceding eras. (Rule, $ 1.)

There is nothing which employs the mind and the heart so attractively as the close study of character in all its smaller peculiarities. (Rule, $ 1.)

The universe at large would suffer as little in its splendor and variety by the destruction of our planet as the verdure and sublime magnitude of a forest would suffer by the fall of a single leaf. (Remark e.)

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CECILA

LLATION DEPART

ARTMENT

RULE XVI.

Phrases and Clauses in the same Construction. Two or more phrases or clauses, when in the same construction, are separated by a comma from each other, and, when they do not complete a proposition, from the remainder of the sentence.

EXAMPLES. 1. No one ought unnecessarily to wound the feelings of his neighbors, or to

insult their religious prepossessions. 2. Regret for the past, grief at the present, and anxiety respecting the future

are plagues which affect the generality of men. 3. Beauty haunts the depths of the earth and sea, and gleams out in the hues

of the shell and the precious stone. 4. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them.

REMARKS. a. The first and second of these sentences exemplify the use of phrases in the same construction; the third and fourth, that of clauses. Both kinds of expressions are said to be in the same construction, for these reasons, - that, in the first example, the infinitives " to wound,” “to insult,” are each governed by one and the same verb, “ought;" that, in the second, the whole series of phrases forms a compound nominative to the verb “are;” that, in the third, the verbs “ haunts” and “gleams,” occurring respectively in the two clauses, have the same nominative, “ beauty;” and that, in the fourth, the clauses are all formed alike, and have a mutual relation. In the second example, the co-ordinate expressions do not conclude the proposition; and therefore a comma is put after the last of these, in order to point out their common dependence on what follows.

b. When two brief phrases are formed alike, and united by either of the conjunctions and, or, nor, the comma is better omitted between them; as, “ A healthy body and a sound mind should be preserved as real blessings.” — “ The pastimes of youth have a tendency to invigorate the body or to expand the mind." The omission of the point is particularly recommended, when two phrases form a compound parenthetical expression, or belong to one; as, “ We must file a protest against the practice of destroying the birds of the garden; for, besides depriving us (of the beauty of their appearance and the music

of their song, it lets in a flood of insects, whose numbers the birds were commissioned to keep down.” — See p. 46, j.

c. If, however, by omitting the comma, two such phrases might be read so as to obscure or pervert the meaning, the point must be inserted; as, “Receive blessings with thankfulness, and afflictions with resignation." – See also p. 29, f.

d. When two connected phrases are different in form or in the number of words, their relation to the context is better seen when they are set off by commas; as, “ Undue susceptibility, and the preponderance of mere feeling over thoughtfulness, may mislead us."

e. The same mode of punctuation is adopted for a word and a phrase, or for a series consisting partly of words and partly of phrases; a comma, however, being put after the last particular, when it does not end the clause; as, “ Calmness, modesty, candor, forgetfulness of self, and love of others, are all required for the occasion."

f. But, to prevent ambiguity, a little care is sometimes necessary to discriminate phrases from single words, as in the tollowing sentence: “ Their depravity, their spiritual ignorance and destitution, are awfully great." Were a comma put after “ignorance," the sentence would be analyzed improperly, and convey a wrong meaning; whereas the sense of the passage requires the Italicized portion to be viewed, not as a phrase and a word, but as a mere phrase, and punctuated as above. By omitting the adjectival words, “ their spiritual," which qualify both of the nouns “ignorance” and “ destitution,” the punctuation would, according to Rule III., p. 37, be thus exhibited: “ Their depravity, ignorance, and destitution are awfully great."

3. When a series consists both of words and phrases, all connected by one of the conjunctions and, or, nor, the comma should be omitted between the single words, but inserted between the phrases ; as, “ Some men would be distinguished in their occupation or pursuit or profession, or in the style of living, or in the dignity of office, or in the glare and pride and pomp of power." — See p. 38, h.

h. When a series consists of phrases or clauses, united by either of the conjunctions just named, the particulars are separated from one another by a comma; as, “ Reach the goal, and gain the prize, and wear the crown.” But, if the series is used parenthetically, the commas may be omitted; as, “ Through the soul we have direct access to God, and, by a trustful heart and a submissive will and a devoted service, may spiritually unite ourselves with him." --- See b.

i Pairs of words are regarded as phrases, and punctuated in accor:lance with the rule; as, “ Anarchy and confusion, poverty and

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distress, follow a civil war.” — " Whether we eat or drink, labor or sleep, we should be moderate."

j. It is very usual, particularly in the United States, to omit the comma between the number of a house or shop and the street, and after the name of a month when preceding that of the year to which it belongs; but, as these words are employed neither adjectively nor in apposition, the point should, beyond all doubt, be inserted; as, “ No. 140, Broadway, New York, January, 1855." — " Thomas Tegg, bookseller, 73, Cheapside.” In accordance with the same principle, a comma should be put after a reference made to any of the sacred books, when it is followed immediately by the chapter and verse; as, * John, xvi. 20:” unless the references to Scripture are numerous, when, for the sake of neatness, the comma is better omitted.

k. Consecutive or co-ordinate clauses, if not joined by a conjunction, are sometimes better distinguished by a semicolon or a colon than by a comma; as, “ Death is certain; time, uncertain." _“Death is certain: time is uncertain." — See Rule XVII., p. 104.

l. To exhibit the limits of the rule, it may not be improper to anticipate what will be more fully treated of in the next section; namely, that clauses, when separable into smaller portions requiring the comma, are separated from each other by a semicolon; as, “How strange it seems, that the passion of love should be the supreme mover of the world; that it is this which has dictated the greatest sacrifices, and influenced all societies and all times; that to this the loftiest and loveliest genius has ever consecrated its devotion; that but for love there were no civilization, no music, no poetry, no beauty, no life beyond the brute's!” The sentences given to, exemplify the rule are not thus divisible, and are therefore punctuated only by means of the comma.

ORAL EXERCISES.

Say why, according to Rule XVI., commas are inserted in these sentences :

To cleanse our own opinions from falsehood, our hearts from malignity, and our actions from vice, is our first concern.

Speak as you mean, do as you profess, and perfòrm what you promise.

Great moral principles, pure and generous disposrtions, cannot be confined to this or that spot.

The true worshipper of beauty sees it in the lowliest flower, meets it in every path, enjoys it everywhere.

Eloquence is to be attained by the full culture, the general enriching, of the heart and mind.

Has God provided for the poor a coarser earth, a thinner air, a paler sky?

The voice of merriment and of wailing, the steps of the busy and the idle, have ceased in the deserted courts.

Man was created to search for truth, to love the beautiful, to desire what is good, and to do the best.

You may dazzle men's eyes with large enterprises in philanthropy, but possess nothing of the philanthropic spirit.

Beauty flows in the waves of light, radiates from the human face divine, and sparkles in the pathway of every child.

The devil loves nothing better than the intolerance of reformers, and dreads nothing so much as their charity and patience.

Infinite space, endless numbers, and eternal duration, fill the mind with great ideas.

Assign the reasons given in the Remarks (pp. 98, 99) for the insertion or the

omission of commas in such sentences as the following :It is education that characterizes mental power as the talent of an angel or the capacity of a fiend.

Eminent talent and distinguished attainment are sometimes connected with obliquity of character.

The student may; by close application and by proper culture, attain ease and grace in his composition.

Some persons mistake abhorrence of vice for uncharitableness, and piety for enthusiasm.

Suffering often calls forth our best feelings, and the highest energies of the mind.

Fraud, enthusiasm, and narrowness of view, often shape the premises to fit the conclusion.

The beauty of his moral character, his generous impulses and bympathies, were the theme of every tongue.

Babylon and Troy and Tyre, and even early Rome, are passing aiready into fiction.

Age never dims their sight, nor slackens their speed, nor Freakens their force, nor abates their fidelity.

Perfection of mind consists of firmness and mildness, of force and tenderness, of vigor and grace.

On the rich and the eloquent, on nobles and priests, the Puritans looked down with con'empt.

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