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104.82 having been expended for district libraries and school apparatus. Of the schools before mentioned, 35 are for colored children, in which upwards of 4000 children have been taught, at an aggregate expense of $5,016.57; of which $2,149.60 were contributed on rate bills by those sending the children to school. Considering the usually very limited means of our colored population, this large proportionate contribution voluntarily paid by them, shows a most commendable desire, on their part, to secure to their children the benefits of education. The Report of the Superintendent of Common Schools, wiłł probably suggest some amendments to be made to the existing laws. A trust that they will be such as will commend themselves to your favorable consideration. The Normal School was removed, on the 31st of July last, to the large and commodious edifice which the State has recently erected for its use, at a cost of $25,000. The benefits resulting from this institution, are fully justifying the warmest anticipations of its friends, and are making themselves manifest in the improvement ahready esfected among the teachers of Common Schools. The whole number of pupils admitted to the institution since its organization, has been 1129; of whom 428 have graduated, nearly all of whom are now engaged in the duties of common school teachers. The present number of pupils is 217. A proposition will, as I am informed, be made to you to authorize the instruction at this school of a limited number of Indians, in the hope, by this means, of introducing a higher order of education and of civilization among the small remnants of the Aboriginal race which are left within our borders. I solicit for this proposition your attentive and favorable consideration, as a measure not only prompted by the dictates of humanity and benevolence, but demanded alike by considerations of high policy, and upon principles of justice toward a class of our population, who, from having once been the lords of our soil, and the founders of a beautifully simple and essentially republican government, have gradually wasted before the advances of the white race, and have dwindled in energy and in mumbers, and have sunk into a state of tutelage which demands the fostering care of the Government. In pursuance of a concurrent resolution of the Legislature, passed on the 6th of April last, I appointed a board of commissioners to mature a plan for the establishment of an Agricultural College and Experimental Farm, and to prepare a statement of the probable expense of such an institution, and a detailed account of the course of studies and plan of operations recommended. The board entered zealously into the views of the Legislature, and has gratuitously devoted much time and labor to advance the important object contemplated in the passage of the resolution. I submit herewith their report. It is eloquent, and powerfully argues in behalf of the advancement of agricultural science. It is not improbable that differences of opinion will exist with regard to the details, and to the extent and variety of the branches of knowledge which it is proposed to embrace within the course of instruction. But I most earnestly hope that no such differences, and that no other cause, may prevent the establishment and the endowment, upon a wise and comprehensive system, of an institution so beneficient in its design, and so promising of enduring and beneficial results, as a school for instruction in practical and scientific agriculture, and in the mechanic arts. There is a growing interest on the part of the people in the advancement of agricultural science. The Fair of the State Society, held at Syracuse, in September last, was attended by a . number of persons than had ever before been assembled on a similar occasion in this State. And the exhibition of the various implements and products afforded a gratifying evidence of the success of this society, in the advancement of the great objects which it aims to accomplish. The nature of the circulation issued by banks, as the representative of the precious metals, often forces it upon those who are incapable of exercising a discrimination as to its value, or whose necessities compel them to forego that exercise. Our laws have, therefore, provided safeguards for its integrity and its redemption; and the paper currency of our state may be regarded as healthy and sound. Some further legislation is deemed advisable for the prevention of abuse in the organization under the General Law, of institutions, designed rather to profit from the mere issue of notes, than to furnish banking facilities to the business community. The time will soon arrive when it will become necessary to consider whether the securities required by existing laws, to be hypothecated for the redemption of the circulating bank notes, will be sufficient in amount to furnish a basis for the circulation that will be requred to be issued upon that pledge, when the charters of the several incorporated banks shall exF. and they shall be o under the provisions of the General aw. The operation of the Sinking Funds is gradually but certainly withdrawing our State Stocks, and will eventually render necessary the substitution of some other securities. The Report of the Comptroller will present some important suggestions with reference to these matters, to which I solicit your careful attention. The large influx of the precious metals, which is pouring in from the Pacific regions, is adding rapidly to the amount of coin in circulation, and furnishes another and a pressing reason for a demand from this State upon the General Government, for the establishment of a Branch Mint, or for the removal of the principal Mint to our great sea port, which is the point of arrival of nearly all the gold introduced from California. It is earnestly hoped that Congress will no longer delay an act so imperatively demanded by the interests of the country. In my Annual Message to the Legislature last year, I presented to their consideration several subjects, in my opinion, worthy of their attention, accompanied with such remarks as were deemed appropriate. I will not detain you by a repetition of what was then said; nor will I enlarge upon the reasons which induced me to present them to the notice of your predecessors. I shall merely allude to the subjects, and take the liberty to refer you to the views with respect to them, which I submitted to the Legislature, and to renew the recommendations then made. These subjects were— The restoration of the office of County Superintendent of Common Schools. A revision and alteration of the laws under which taxes and assessments for local improvements are imposed and their payment enforced. An amendment to the laws so as to ensure a more general and equal taxation of personal property. A reduction of the compensation authorized by law to be received by the Health officer of the city of New-York. The establishment of Tribunals of Conciliation, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. A modification of the criminal code, so as to abridge, in proper cases, the terms of imprisonment; to reduce the minimum of sentence to the State Prison to one year; and to increase the limit prescribed by law for the division between grand and petit larceny. The benefits of the provisions of the act in relation to pardons, passed at the last session of the Legislature, have been manifest. In several cases, the publication has induced information with respect to the prisoner, which would probably never have been brought to the knowledge of the Executive, had the pendency of the application not been made known to the public; and there is reason to believe, that many applications have been withheld under the certainty that the advertisement would attract attention and ensure opposition. The number of persons pardoned during the year, from the State prisons, has been 27; and from the local prisons, 7. I communicate herewith the statement required by the Constitution, of the pardons granted *. year. In the month of August last, I received a certificate from the Commissioners for the erection of the Western House of Refuge for Juvenile delinquents, that the house was in readiness for the reception of persons committed thereto; and in pursuance of the 15th section of the act authorizing the establishment, I made an order designating the counties which should thereafter send juvenile delinquents to this house. It has now thirty-one inmates. The building, as now completed, affords accommodation for about one hundred io, and for the officers and persons employed in the establishment. A plan of building was adopted, such as to be perfect as now finished, and yet admitting the erection of three more wings of equal capacity with that now completed, without marring the proportion of the whole. Each of these wings will accommodate about a hundred inmates. It will be seen from the rapidity with which the house is filling up, that its capacity will soon be exhausted, and another wing will be required, the cost of which, it is represented, will be from ten to twelve thousand dollars. During the past summer, the male department of the House of Refuge in the city of New-York had become so crowded, that its

managers issued a notice that no more boys could be received at present. The whole number of children received in this house from its establishment to December 12, 1849, was 4,690. At this latter date, there were 334 children in the house. Without more extensive accommodations, this number is larger than is consistent with the proper classification of the children, for the separation of those less hardened in crime from the influence of the more depraved. Such classification is necessary to the object of the institution, which is the reformation rather than the punishment of those youthful delinquents, who may have been drawn thoughtlessly into the commission of crime, from which parental influence or good advice kindly administered, might have restrained them. Should the Legislature determine to enlarge the Western House of Refuge, it will be advisable to authorize the transfer to that establishment, from the one in New-York, of those inmates now in the latter, who may have been sent thither from the counties which are now designated to send delinquents to the former. The number of prisoners in confinement in the several prisons of the State, on the 1st December, 1849, was 1,483, being an increase of 174 over the number on the corresponding day of the previous ear. y The earnings and expenditures of the several prisons during the fiscal year ending 30th September last, together with the daily average number of prisoners in each, were as follows:

Earnings. Expenditures. Daily average of prisoners. Auburn Prison, ... $67,613 79 $56,777 99 535 - - 6414 males. ( †: Sing Sing “ ... 66,379 84 68,793 64 81 females. Clinton “ ... 10,976 22 50,126 47 143%

A large proportion of the expenditure of the Clinton County Prison, is stated to have been for extraordinary objects, not constituting a part of the regular expenses of the prison. The officers of the prison return these at $22,479.52. The deduction still leaves an excess of expenditure over the earnings of this prison, of $16,670.73, and it may be questioned whether some of the expenditures which are classed as extraordinary, will not be found to be frequently recurring. The annual Report of the Inspectors will present the condition of the prisons more in detail, and I respectfully refer you to it. The financial condition of the State Lunatic Asylum, is represented to be prosperous. The receipts from the board of patients have been adequate to defray all the ordinary expenses for the year. From the opening of this institution, 2,376 patients have been admitted; 1,017 of whom have left the asylum cured. This institution was under the superintendence of Dr. Amariah Brigham from its first opening, in January, 1843, until his labors were arrested by death, in September last. In the death of this devoted and philanthropic man of science, the cause of humanity has sustained a serious loss. The large number of recoveries .. under his management, is an eloquent testimonal to his skilful and devoted attention to the trust confided to his charge. The several institutions encouraged and sustained in a large de#. by the State, for the education of the Blind and of the Deaf and umb, and the New-York Hospital, are prospering, and are efficiently carrying out the benevolent objects contemplated by their establishment. The present condition of these several charities will be more fully shown by their respective reports, which will soon be presented to you, and will furnish a gratifying exhibition of the fidelity with which the trust committed to their several boards of directors has been discharged, and an inducement to continue the aid which the State has heretofore extended to these charitable objects. The amount of payment to these institutions last year exceeded $111,000; but as that sum included payments for buildings and permanent objects, it is hoped that the claims for the future will be much reduced. The liberality of the State in its endowments of various charities which have been cherished by its munificence for the support and maintenance and for the education or relief of those who are not blessed with God's choicest gifts of the reasoning and perceptive faculties, has been rewarded with a measure of success in the several objects to which it has been directed, which encourages the inquiry, whether there be not yet a class of unfortunates who labor under a dispensation that imposes upon the State the duty of undertaking their physical, intellectual and moral improvement, and the advancement of their comfort, and of their means of usefulness and of enjoyment. The census of 1845 shows a return of 1620 Idiots within the State, and there are reasons for the belief that this number is far short of the reality. The success which has attended the efforts made of late years to resuscitate the mind of the Idiot, and to elevate him in the scale of human beings, has demonstrated, at least with sufficient certainty to call for the active aid of the State, that these unfortunate creatures, the most afflicted as a class of all whom the heavy dispensation of a wise Providence has visited, are susceptible within definite limits, of mental and physical development and improvement. The State has already recognized the obligations resting upon it, to provide for the education of its children, and has made liberal provision for the education of those deprived of the organs of sight, and of hearing and speech, as well as for the improvement and reclamation of the lunatic. The efforts of the Legislature should not be intermitted, until they have secured to all classes and conditions such an education as they may be capable of receiving, and may qualify them for the duties pertaining to their respective pursuits and condition in life. The number of Idiots exceeds that of either the Blind or the Deaf and Dumb. While the State has made liberal provision for the care and education of the latter, it has done nothing for the improvement

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