Imagens das páginas

Zu A. 2. Sc. 6.


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Zu A. 3.

Pry. Speake Benuolio who began this fray? Ben. Tibalt heere slaine whom Romeos hand did slay.

Romeo who spake him fayre bid him bethinke
How nice the quarrell was.

But Tibalt still persisting in his wrong,
The stout Mercutio drewe to calme the storme,
Which Romeo seeing cal'd stay gentlemen,
And on me cry'd, who drew to part their strife,
And with his agill arme young Romeo,
As fast as tung cryde peace, sought peace to make.
Zu A. 3.

Enter Nurse hastely.

Nur. Madame beware, take heed the day

is broke,

Your mother's comming to your chamber, make

all sure.

She goeth downe from the window.

Enter Juliet's mother, Nurse.
Moth. Where are you daughter?
Nur. What ladie, lambe, what Juliet?
Jul. How now, who calls?
Nur. It is your mother.

Rom. My Juliet welcome. As doo waking eyes (Cloasd in nights mysts) attend the frolicke day, So Romeo hath expected Juliet, And thou art come.

Jul. I am (if I be day)

Come to my sunne: shine foorth, and make me faire. All beauteous fairnes dwelleth in thine eyes.


Jul. Romeo from thine all brightnes doth arise.
Fr. Come wantons, come, the stealing
houres do passe

Defer imbracements till some fitter time,
Part for a while, you shall not be alone,
Till holy church haue ioynd ye both in one.
Rom. Lead holy father, all delay seemes long.
Jul. Make hast, make hast, this lingring
doth vs wrong.

Fr. O, soft and faire makes sweetest worke
they say.
Hast is a common hindrer in crosse way.
Sc. 1.

While they were enterchanging thrusts and blows,

Vnder yong Romeos laboring arme to part,
The furious Tybalt cast an enuious thrust,
That rid the life of stout Mercutio.
With that he fled, but presently return'd,
And with his rapier braued Romeo:
That had but newly entertain'd reuenge.
And ere I could draw forth my rapyer
To part their furie, downe did Tybalt fall,
And this way Romeo fled.
Sc. 5.

Moth. Why how now Juliet?
Jul. Madam, I am not well.
Moth. What euermore weeping for your

cosens death:

I thinke thoult wash him from his graue with

Jul. I cannot chuse, hauing so great a losse.
Moth. I cannot blame thee.

But it greeues thee more that villaine lines.

Jul. What villaine madame?
Moth. That villaine Romeo.

Jul. Villaine and he are manie miles a sunder

Moth. Content thee girle, if I could finde

a man

I soone would send to Mantua where he is, That should bestow on him so sure a draught, As he should soone beare Tybalt companie. Jul. Finde you the meanes, and Ile finde such a man:

For whilest he liues, my heart shall nere be light Till I behold him, dead is my poore heart. Thus for a kinsman vext?

Moth. Well let that passe. I come to bring thee ioyfull newes?

Jul. And ioy comes well in such a needfull time.

Moth. Well then, thou hast a carefull fa

ther girle,

Zu A. 4. Jul. Farewell, God knowes when wee shall meete againe.

Ah, I doo take a fearfull thing in hand.
What if this potion should not worke at all,
Must I of force be married to the countie?
This shall forbid it. Knife, lye thou there.
What if the frier should give me this drinke
To poyson mee, for feare I should disclose
Our former marriage? Ah, I wrong him much,
He is a holy and religious man:

And one who pittying thy needfull state,
Hath found thee out a happie day of ioy.
Jul. What day is that I pray you?
Moth. Marry my childe,

The gallant, yong and youthfull gentleman,
The countie Paris at saint Peters church,
Early next Thursday morning must prouide,
To make you there a glad and ioyfull bride.

Jul. Now by saint Peters church and Peter too, He shall not there make mee a ioyfull bride. Are these the newes you had to tell me of? Marrie here are newes indeed. Madame I will not marrie yet.

And when I doo, it shal be rather Romeo whom I hate, Than countie Paris that I cannot loue.

Sc. 3.

I will not entertaine so bad a thought.
What if
should be stifled in the toomb?
Awake an houre before the appointed time:
Ah then I feare I shall be lunaticke:
And playing with my dead forefathers bones,
Dash out my franticke braines. Me thinkes I see
My cosin Tyball weltring in his bloud,
Seeking for Romeo: stay Tybalt stay.
Romeo I come, this doe I drinke to thee.
She fals vpon her bed within the curtaines.

Zu A. 5. Sc. 1.

Well Juliet, I will lye with thee to night.
Lets see for meanes. As I doo remember
Here dwells a pothecarie whom oft I noted
As I past by, whose needie shop is stufft
With beggerly accounts of emptie boxes:
And in the same an Aligarta hangs,
Olde endes of packthred, and cakes of roses,
Are thinly strewed to make up a show.
Him as I noted, thus with my selfe I thought:
And if a man should need a poyson now,
(Whose present sale is death in Mantua)
Here he might buy it. This thought of mine
Did but forerunne my need: and here about
he dwels.
Being holiday the beggers shop is shut.
What ho apothecarie, come forth I say.
Enter Apothecarie.

Apo. Who calls, what would you sir?
Rom. Heeres twentie duckates,

Give me a dram of some such speeding geere,

As will dispatch the wearie takers life,
As suddenly as powder being fierd
From forth a cannons mouth.

Apo. Such drugs I haue I must of force confesse,

But yet the law is death to those that sell them.

Rom. Art thou so bare and full of pouertie, And doost thou feare to violate the law? The law is not thy frend, nor the lawes frend, And therefore make no conscience of the law: Vpon thy backe hangs ragged miserie, And starued famine dwelleth in thy cheekes. Apo. My pouertie but not my will consents. Rom. I pay thy pouertie, but not thy will. Apo. Hold take you this, and put it in anie liquid thing you will, and it will serue had you the lives of twenty men.

Rom. Hold, take this gold, worse poyson to mens soules

Than this which thou hast given me. Goe hye
thee hence,

Go buy the cloathes, and get thee into flesh.
Zu A. 5.
Paris strewes the tomb with flowers.
Par. Sweet flower, with flowers I strew
thy bridale bed:

Sweete tombe that in thy circuite dost con


Come cordiall and not poyson, goe with mee
To Juliets graue: for there must I use thee.

Sc. 3.

The perfect modell of eternitie:
Faire Juliet that with angells dost remaine,
Accept this latest fauour at my hands,
That liuing honourd thee, and being dead
With funerall praises doo adorne thy tombe.

Trotz der Verschiedenheit der beiden Texte, die es nicht verstattet, wie doch manche Herausgg. versucht haben, ganze Verse aus Q. A. an die Stelle anderer Verse der zweiten Recension zu setzen oder gar solche mitten in den verbesserten Text einzuschieben, ist doch eine Benutzung der Q. A. für die Verbesserung mancher Druckfehler, die aus einer späteren Q. in die andere und endlich in die Folio übergegangen sind, von besonderem Gewicht. Die Noten unter unserm Texte liefern zahlreiche Beweise dafür, wie oft in Q. A. allein die wahre Lesart des Dichters zu finden ist.

Nimmt man eine doppelte Bearbeitung des Dramas an- und selbst Collier, der die Q. A. in anderm Lichte betrachtet, *) räumt die Möglichkeit von Aenderungen und Verbesserungen ein, welche Sh., nachdem er das Drama auf die Bühne gebracht, damit vorgenommen haben möge so wird auch die chronologische Frage nach der Entstehung von Romeo and Juliet eine zwiefache. Wenn Tyrwhitt's Vermuthung richtig ist, dass in der Rede der Amme (A. I. Sc. 3. Vgl. dazu Anm. 6) eine Anspielung auf ein Erdbeben in England im Jahre 1580 liege, so musste, da diese Anspielung schon in Q. A. sich findet, die erste Bearbeitung in das Jahr 1591 fallen. Und als eine Jugendarbeit des Dichters, also dieser Zeitperiode, wenn auch nicht gerade diesem Jahre angehörig, charakterisiren auch der Styl und Versbau das Drama. Diese Eigenschaften hat der Dichter auch nicht verwischt bei der zweiten Bearbeitung, welche immerhin einige Jahre später, vielleicht 1596, wohin Malone und Collier die Abfassung des Dramas überhaupt setzen, vorgenommen sein mag. Nur kann der Umstand, den Malone für diese Zeitbestimmung anführt, dass Lord Hunsdons Servants“ welche nach dem Titel von Q. A. das Schauspiel darstellten, diesen Namen


Er sagt darüber: We think that the manuscript used by the printer or the printers
(no bookseller's or stationer's name is placed at the bottom of the title-page) was made
up partly from portions of the play as it was acted, but unduly obtained, and partly
from notes taken at the theatre during representation.
We do not of course go

the length of contending that Shakespeare did not alter and improve the play, subsequent to
its earliest production on the stage, but merely that the quarto, 1597, does not contain
the tragedy as it was originally represented. - Dass das Drama niemals so verstümmelt
und entstellt, wie Q. A. den Text liefert, aufgeführt wurde, lässt sich leicht einräumen,
ohne dass damit die ursprüngliche Identität des ersten und zweiten Textes bewiesen wäre.

nur vom Juli 1596 bis zum April 1597 geführt, nachher und vorher aber the Lord Chamberlain's Servants geheissen hätten, nichts weiter beweisen, als dass in dieser Zwischenzeit Q. A. gedruckt wurde, nicht aber, dass das Drama damals erst auf die Bühne gekommen sei. Das Titelblatt von Q. A. bezeichnet eben die betreffende Schauspielergesellschaft so, wie sie zu der Zeit hiess, als das Buch erschien.

Als Quellen benutzte Sh. zwei Werke, die, obgleich in verschiedener Form abgefasst, doch wiederum ihren Stoff einer gemeinsamen Quelle, einer italienischen Novelle des Bandello, entlehnt hatten: ein im Jahre 1562 erschienenes episches Gedicht von Arthur Brooke: The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet, written first in Italian by Bandell, and nowe in Englishe by Ar. Br., und eine Novelle in der von Shakspere mehrfach benutzten Sammlung The Palace of Pleasure von Paynter: The goodly history of the true and constant love betweene Rhomeo and Julietta. Paynter verdankte diesen Stoff nicht unmittelbar dem italienischen Original, sondern einer französischen Bearbeitung in Boisteau's Histoires Tragiques. Shakspere

hat sich näher dem Gedicht A. Brooke's angeschlossen, als der Novelle Paynter's, obwohl kein Zweifel sein kann, dass auch diese ihm vorlag. In welchem Masse er aber das Erstere benutzt hat, ergiebt sich am besten aus einigen Auszügen, die wir mit Verweisung auf die betreffenden Acte und Scenen hier folgen lassen. Schon das von Brooke vorangeschickte Argument zeigt in Umrissen, wie genau Sh. seinem epischen Vorgänger gefolgt ist. Es lautet folgendermassen:

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Love hath inflamed twayne by sodayn sight,
And both do graunt the thing that both desyre;
They wed in shrift by counsell of a frier;
Yong Romeus clymes fayre Juliets bower by night.
Three monthes he doth enioy his cheefe delight:

By Tybalt's rage, provoked unto yre,

He payeth death to Tybalt for his hyre.

A banisht man, he scapes by secret flight:

New mariage is offred to his wyfe:

She drinkes a drinke that seemes to reve her breath;

They bury her, that sleping yet hath lyfe.

Her husband heares the tydinges of her death;

He drinkes his bane; and she, with Romeus knyfe,

When she awakes, her selfe (alas) she sleath.

Das erste Zusammentreffen der Liebenden erzählt Brooke so:

The wery winter nightes restore the Christmas games,

And now the season doth invite to banquet townish dames.

And fyrst in Capels house, the chiefe of all the kyn
Sparth for no cost, the wonted use of banquets to begyn.

No Lady fayre or fowle was in Verona towne,
No knight or gentleman of high or lowe renowne;

But Capilet himselfe hath byd unto his feast,

Or by his name in paper sent, appoynted as a geast.

Yong damsels thether flocke, of bachelers a route,

Not so much for the banquets sake, as bewties to searche out.

But not a Montagew would enter at his gate,

For as you heard, the Capilets, and they were at debate.
Save Romeus, and he, in maske with hydden face:

The supper done, with other five did prease into the place.
When they had maskd a while, with dames in courtly wise,
All did unmaske, the rest did shew them to theyr ladies eyes;
But bashfull Romeus with shamefast face forsooke
The open prease, and him withdrew into the chambers nooke.

At length he saw a mayd, right fayre of perfecte shape,
Which Theseus or Paris would have chosen to their rape.
Whom erst he never sawe, of all she pleasde him most;
Within himselfe he sayd to her, thou justly mayst thee boste
Of perfit shapes renoune, and beauties sounding prayse,
Whose like ne hath, ne shalbe seene, ne liveth in our dayes.
And whilset he fixd on her his partiall perced eye,

His former love, for which of late he ready was to dye,
Is nowe as quite forgotte, as it had never been:

The proverbe saith, unminded oft are they that are unseene.
And as out of a planke a nayle a nayle doth drive,

So novell love out of the minde the auncient love doth rive.

This sodain kindled fyre in time is wox so great,

That onely death and both theyr blouds might quench the fiery heate. When Romeus saw himselfe in this new tempest tost,

Where both was hope of pleasant port, and daunger to be lost:

He doubtefull, skasely knew what countenance to keepe;

In Lethies floud his wonted flames were quenchd and drenched deepe.

When thus in both theyr harts had Cupide made his breache:
And eche of them had sought the meane to end the warre by speache,
Dame Fortune did assent theyr purpose to advaunce:

With torche in hand a comly knight did fetch her foorth to daunce;
She quit herselfe so well, and with so trim a grace,

That she the cheefe prayse wan that night from all Verona race, The whilst our Romeus a place had warely wonne,

Nye to the seate where she must sit, the daunce once beyng donne. Fayre Juliet tourned to her chayre with pleasant cheere,

And glad she was her Romeus approched was so neere.

At thone syde of her chayre her lover Romeo,

And on the other syde there sat one cald Mercutio;

A courtier that eche where was highly had in pryce,

For he was coorteous of his speche, and pleasant of devise.
Even as a lyon would emong the lambes be bolde,

Such was emong the bashfull maydes, Mercutio to beholde.

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