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Scott at the Phillips sale, and formerly belonged to Hugh, Viscount Cholraondeley, of Kells, in Ireland, who was born about 1663, succeeded as viscount in 1681, and was created Earl of Cholmondeley on 29 December, 1706. He died 18 January, 1725. The armorial book plate in the volume describes him as Viscount Cholmondeley, so it may bo presumed that he owned it prior to 1706, when he became an earl. Mr. Scott possesses a MS. of David Moysie's 'Memoirs' which has thesamebook-plataof Viscount Cholmondeley. It would therefore appear that he was a collector of Scottish MSS. Can any of your readers inform me how this English nobleman became a collector of Scottish MSS., and how he acquired these two MSS.?

M. J. J. Mackay.

"bully."—This week a hockey match was played in aid of the Reservist Fund at Aberdare, and on the ticket of admission I find the following: "Bully off by David Hughes, High Constable, at 3 P.m.punctually." Is this meaning of the word bully to give the first push to the ball a usual one 1 It is not given in ' H.E.D.' D. M. R.

[" Bully " is the opening of play by the crossing of sticks by two players before hitting tho ball. The use seems similar to " bully," the scrimmage in Eton football, duly given in 'H.E.I).']

Dandy's Gate. — What is known of Dandy's Gate, an old toll in Bermondsey1 Possibly so named from the family or individual who farmed it. Any details will oblige. A. H.

"the Beurre." In his entertaining 'Voyage au Pays des Mines d'Or,' by Raymond Auzias - Turenne, recently published, the adventurous author writes as follows (p. 114) :—

"Rares sont leg Anglais, quoiqu'ils fussent en jmnd nombre au piea du Chilkoot. Les trois quarts sont retournes au contort du sweet home ct k Bible avec du the beurre."

What is the meaning of "the beurre"?

T. P. Armstrong. Timperley.

[" Une beurree" = " une tranche de pain sur Unuelle on a etendu du beurre." Does this help ?]

"\VrrcHKLT = Ill-shod.—I am told by an elderly resident in South-East Lancashire that this word was in use there early in the century. It is related that an old man who travelled on a donkey from village to village (selling blacking, I think) was on one occasion taken through a pool of water, wetting the old man's feet, whereupon he exclaimed to his donkey: "What does tha' tak' me

through th' wayter for, when tha' knows I m witchelt?" Is the word still in use in any part of England, and is there any standard or dialect word of similar meaning to which it is related? Charles J. Bullock.

OLIVER CROMWELL AND MUSIC. (9th S. iii. 341, 417, 491; iv. 151, 189, 276, 310, 401, 499.) Mr. Davey makes fresh assertions which prove his want of knowledge of the subject under discussion. In defence of his unwarranted aspersion of organ accompaniment before the Civil War, ho speaks of the Mulliner MS. as one proof. He forgets to tell us where the MS. is; fortunately I can do so with a very certain knowledge, having purchased it at Rimbault's sale for 84^., and having subsequently handed it over to the British Museum, where it can be seen (No. 30,51.3). That book contains a variety of compositions, including the well-known madrigal "In going to my naked bed," by Edwardes, but has no organ accompaniment of any kind. Next, Mr. Davey asserts that the organist of the Chapel Royal "possessed an old printed score of the well-known service by Orlando Gibbons, as played by Gibbons himself, full of meaningless embellishments." The identical copy possessed by the organist of the Chapel Royal is lying before me; it is merely an organ part, not a score, and was privately published by Mr. Stainer (now Sir John) in 1864; it was copied from a manuscript in Magdalen College, Oxford. Neither the MS. nor the printed copy has a single word suggesting that it was so performed by Gibbons; but fortunately the MS. explains what the music so arranged was intended for. The headings or indexing in the MS. read as follows: "Tallis in D, organ part varied"; "Te Deum, Mr. Tallis, with variations for the organ"; "Te Deum, Mr. Orlando Gibbons, in F fa ut, varied for the organ." Dr. Hopkins, in Grove's ' Dictionary,' says:

"There is little doubt therefore that the versions under notice were not intended as accompaniments at all, but were variations or adaptations like the popular 'Transcriptions' of the present day, and made for separate use; that use being doubtless as Voluntaries. This explanation of the matter receives confirmation from the fact that a second old and moro legitimate organ part of those is also extant, for which no ostensible use would have existed, if not to accompany the voices."

I shall not follow Mr. Davey's excursion into the field of Coloratur or of German singing-ornamentation that does not affect the question of organ accompaniment. Mr. Davey is anxious to learn when psalmsinging became general, and says there is no warrant for it in the liturgy. The Bodleian Library possesses the following book, published in 1566: "The whole Booke of Psalmes collected into English Metre by

Sternhold Newlye set foorth and allowed

to be soong of the people together, in Churches, before and after Morning and Evening prayer: as also before and after the Sermon, and moreover in private houses." Another edition, dated 1667, contains the words "Newly set forth and allowed to be song in all Churches."

I quoted plenty of ovidence of the destruction of cathedral organs, and wait for proof of their smallness and adaptability for taverns. I again ask the name of the French traveller relied on by Mr. Davey in support of his opinion. The specimens of old organ cases still existing do not lend colour to the notion. The beautiful case in old Badnor Parish Church I have seen, and can vouch that it is far too big for erection in a tavern. Let me add to the list of organs destroyed that of Wrexham Church, a building at present attracting considerable attention. A Gazeteer of England and Wales,' temp. Charles II., says: "At Wrexham is ye rarest steeple in y_" 3 nations, and hath had y" fayrest organes in Europe, till y' late wars in Charles y" Ist his raigne. Whose Parliament forces pulled him and them downe with other ceremonial ornaments." Will Mr. Davey tell us where his lists of published music are to be seen?

William H. Cummings.

'an Apology For Cathedral Service' (9th S. iv. 419, 523).—This charming bookcharming to all who rightly appreciate English cathedral worship—was written by John Peach, librarian or the Bristol City Library. In one of the catalogues of J. Russell Smith it may be found wrongly ascribed to Bichard Clark, lay vicar-choral of Westminster Abbey. I had the pleasure in 1846 of meeting Mr. Peach at Bristol, and of being shown over the library by him. He was a man of much reading and great taste, with many old-world ideas, and much dislike of new-world inventions, however useful. In my copy of his delightful book I have inserted a four-page leaflet which he gave me, 'A New Year's Gift to the Choristers of Bristol Cathedral,' signed " A Friend to Young Choristers," which he issued on 1 January, 1840, and which is such in its devout

character as would be looked for from him. I have also, by the gift of a friend, a fine india-proof impression of his book-plate, engraved by H. 8. Storer, giving an interior view of the City Library. In 1844 he published an edition of Sir T. Browne's 'R«ligio Medici'and 'Christian Morals,' and a short biographical notice of him is consequently given by Dr. Greenhill in his most scholarly and complete edition, published in 1881, whore it is stated that Peach was born in 1785 and died in 1861. W. D. Macray.

"To Priest " (9th S. iv. 514).—I have constantly heard the word "priested" used by clergymen in Warwickshire. H. K.

Many generations of clergy have used the word "priested " in the way which seems a novelty to your correspondent. To "bishop" was used in an analogous sense so far back as Latimer. See—what ought to have been seen-the ' H.E.D.' W. C. B.

Is not Mr. Marchant too sensitive? If "bishoped " (Herrick) and "bishoping" (Ant. Trollope), why not "deaconed "and " priested" 1 All three verbs are certainly in use and are found in big dictionaries. C. S. Ward.

Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke.

'Pickwickian Studies' (9th S. iv. 492, 525). —The corrections on p. 493 still need correction. Mr. Fitzgerald is perfectly right in talking of the W«e turban of Mrs. Nupkins. Dickens only made it red later, as Mr. MarShall will see if he looks at an edition of 1837, or the "Bochester Edition" of 1899 (Methuen &, Co.), just published. Is it sufficient to explain that Sam Weller was called one of Frederick William's big grenadiers? Hardly, perhaps; but this is all that the "explanation " offered comes to. Hippoclides.

Boxino Day (9th S. iv. 477).—Among seven examples in the O.E. Pottery Department of the British Museum of the medireval globular earthenware thrift-box only one is unfractured. It is with exceeding rarity that one is encountered on the London medireval "level" by the spade of the excavator, and when one is found it is almost certain to be found fractured, a condition in which it was necessary to place it to realize its contents. When such a receptacle was put to the use of collecting small presents tor Christinas, this money-pot was a "Christmas-box," and the contents were spent, or begun to be spent, on Boxing Dav. Aubrey, in his 'Natural History of Wiltshire' (circa 1670), speaks of a pot in which Roman denarii were found as resembling in appearance an apprentice's earthen Christmas-box, and of analogous objects being in use among the (pagan) Romans. See fosbrooke's 'Encyclopedia of Antiquities,' p. 290; and the Journal of th» British Archreological Association, vol. xxx. pp. 443,444.

In the Northern dialect a benefit or friendly society is called a "box," because of the box in which the funds are collected, and the annual festival of such a society is called a "box dinner." J. H. Macmichael.

"the Appearance"=Electoral NominaTion (9th S. iv. 496).—Surely "appearance" in the sentence is equivalent to show of hands." J. D.

Polking Horn (9th S. iv. 108,214,311,461). —In reply to Mr. Harrison, Kinghorn is a most uncommon name in Cornwall. Dr. Bannister's 'Glossary' of some 20,000 Cornish names—a fairly complete list it must be admitted—does not give it. I have noted since my last communication that, besides the Polkinghorns in Qwinear, there is one in Perranarworthal, and also downs of that name near Qulval. Treganhorne in St. Erth, and Linkinhorne (Lan Tigherne according to the Rev. S. Baring-Gould), a parish in East Cornwall, are similar in their endings.

J. Hambley Rowe.

Swansea: Its Derivation (9th S. i. 43, 98, 148, 194, 370, 433, 496; iii. 470; iv. 37, 110, 230, 407).—I venture the opinion that Col. Morgan, in his last note, has lamentably failed to disprove the arguments or facts in the previous reference. One may be pardoned for being a little surprised at this, because, had lie confidence in his theory, or a wish for it to carry any weight, he ought to have proved, step by step, the fallacy, if it existed, of the statements upon which my charge against his hypothesis was based. It is, however, clear it would be a waste of valuable space to continue the subject until at least the Colonel, has properly arranged his forces, if in existence, fairly to meet, if not demolish, in detail and wholly, what has been placed in opposition to him. Until he does so I am entitled to deduce from his last reply that he has a very weak case, the more so when he takes upon himself to assert that I made statements which have no foundation in fact, and generally— unintentionally no doubt—distorts what I did write. A few illustrations will suffice. I did not sav anything so stupid as that the "castle of -LJangennith" was "omitted from the list because it belonged to the De la Mares," but clearly proved that the fact of

this castle being named as belonging to this family was a sufficient demonstration of its having existed. Again, the Colonel asserts that I "now admit that Scnghenyd in the sixteenth century was mulcted of its penultimate." I never denied or admitted anything of the kind, but. on the contrary, specially named this as his '' conclusion." I did not write anything disclosing a "difficulty" with regard to Prince Llewelyn, ifec. The difficulty, if it exists, must rest with the Colonel, if he says Breos gave the castle to Llewelyn. Then he has much to clear up in Caradoc's history of the transaction, not to mention anything else. One example: "Prince Llewelyn was too good-natured to reject his (Bruce's) submission, and so did not only receive him to his favour, but bestowed upon him also the castle of Senghennyth." How this passage becomes "intelligible " to the Colonel by making De Breos bestow the castle on the prince passes my comprehension, and will doubtless be read with considerable surprise. I cannot help observing it would have been to the purpose had the Colonel confined his attention more to what was written than to what I did not say or "think." The latter would be difficult for even a professional thought-reader to divine. I need only add I do not intend reverting to the subject till the Colonel has categorically disposed of what has been written at 9th S. iv. 230 by ine. Alfred Chas. Jonas.

Shepherdess Walk (9th S. iv. 306, 424).— Mr. M. L. Breslar is mistaken, and Mr. J. W. M. Gibbs perfectly accurate in his recollections. When I was a schoolboy resident in High Street, Islington, in the late forties, Shepherdess Walk and Shepherdess Fields were very much in evidence. We certainly never called them "Shepherd's" (I have known "Shepheard's" since then at Cairo). The correct name seems to stick to the locality. The current number of the 'Post Office Guide,' for instance, defines the place as " Shepherdess Walk, Hoxton, N."

Harry Hems.

Fair Park, Exeter.

Hawkwood (9th S. iv. 454).—In thanking Mr. I. C. Gould for his kind communication, I may be permitted to mention that I was fully acquainted with the statement that the tradition of Sir John Hawkwood. whom contemporary writers call Aucud or Agutus, having been a tailor probably originated in Italy from a corruption of his name, which Matteo Villani spells Gianni della Guglia (" John of the Needle "). However, I beg to direct attention to what Henry Hallam nas written about Sir John in that storehouse of historical fact and original opinion. 'View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages,' twelfth edition, 1868 (Murray), pp. 470-2:—

"This very eminent man had served in the war of hdward III., and obtained his knighthood from that sovereign, though originally, if we may trust common fame, bred to the trade of a tailor. His name is worthy to be remembered as that of the first distinguished commander who had appeared in Europe since the destruction of the Roman empire. He appears to me to be the first real general of modern times; the earliest master, however imperfect, in the science of Turenne and Wellington. Every contemporary Italian historian Bleaks with admiration of his skilful tactics in battle, his stratagems, his well-conducted retreats." Hawkwood, Hallam states, was not only the greatest, but the last of the foreign condottteri, or captains of mercenary bands. Byron alludes to Henry Hallam in his 'English Bards' as

Classic Hallam, much renowned for Greek.

Heney Gerald Hope. Clapham, S.W.

Compensation To Bryan, Lord Fairfax (9th S. iv. 399, 427).—Some particulars concerning the American estates, which lay between the Potomac and the Rappahannock in Virginia, may be seen in 'The Fairfax Correspondence,' London, 1848, pp. cxxvicxxxvii. H. Davey.

The Mint (9"> S. iv. 348, 403, 506).—I do not pretend to be infallible, but I fail to see in what respect my information was inaccurate, unless it be that I referred to Mint Street as still existing, whereas, according to your correspondent Brutus, it is now called Marshalsea Road. In one of the latest London maps in my possession, that which accompanied the newest reissue of 'Old and New London ' in 1897-8, Mint Street is still shown, while Marshalsea Road runs into it at an angle, and only usurps the old title at the easternmost end. The change of name must therefore be of very recent date,* and I can only regret the disappearance of the last memorial of a district which filled so large a place in the satiric literature of the last century. It is almost impossible for any one to keep abreast of the London County Council in its extraordinary mania for changing the names of old and historic streets. I believe the latest victim of this craze, unless sound and saner counsels prevail, will be James Street, Buckingham Gate, which was called after the last of the Stuarts, in whose time it

• I think it will be found that Mint Street still holds a place in the ' Post Office London Directory,' and that St. Saviour's Workhouse is situated in it.

was built, and which is full of interesting associations. Perhaps here I may be told that I am inaccurate, for the Westminster Vestry will, I understand, be actually responsible for the alteration, though the County Council is the head that instigates the arm to do the deed. W. F. Prideaux.

"bridge" (9th S. iv. 497).—The real name is "britch," and the game is supposed to have a Russian origin, which may help philologists to trace the source of the term, if it is unknown. Skat and bridge have little in common. Skat is a three-handed game, a kind of cross between gleek and hombre, with borrowings from other quarters; bridge is an improved dummy-whist for four players, with sundry details likewise borrowed elsewhere. The only semblance between them is that tlic trump is named by the players, and suits have an order of preference, with the trace of a link, perhaps, in the honours and matadores. The objects of the games are quite different (as well as the methods). In whist and bridge, it is tricks numerically ; in that, the values contained in the tricks—which places skat on a higher level of skill than either of the other two games. Can any readers of 'N. & Q.' throw light on the evolution of the game itself {bridge) 1

J. S. M. T.

The Russian term schlem (sch=sh or »), when used in the card-play at whist, is evidently borrowed from the German Schlemm, denoting the total loss, or defeat, inflicted upon the opposite party of the game. Schlemnu again, has been adapted to German after the English whist-term slam, which bears the same meaning (*. Grimm's 'Deutsches Worterbuch,' ed. Heyne, ix. 632). H. Krebs.


The Stafford Family (9th S. iv. 477).—See the many members of it noticed in 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' A. F. P.

"Lowestoft China" (9th S. iv. 498).—Mr. Ratcliffe will find an able discussion upon the subject of his query in 'Marks and Monograms on European and Oriental Pottery and Porcelain,' by Wm. Chaffers (new edition, revised and edited by Frederick Litchfield, 1897). The author has, seemingly, disposed of the theory that the "Lowestoft ware was simply Oriental porcelain, painted only at Lowestoft":—

"Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, in an interesting paper on Lowestoft china, in the Art Journal of July, 1863, has fallen into the same error. He says: 'The best of the productions of the Lowestoft works are painted on Oriental body, but there are many good examples in existence, where the body is of Lowestoft make, which are of very fine quality. The collector will be able to distinguish immediately between the examples painted at Lowestoft on OrUn/aJ body, and those which are potted and painted there/"

Mr. Chaffers continues :—

"There are three' persons now living [18651 who can testify to the fact that nothing passed

out of the factory but what was made in it Let

us also ask those visionary theorists whether they ever saw or heard of such unfinished Oriental white porcelain? When the Lowestoft works ceased in 1802, what became of it all? The country would have been inundated with the supply so suddenly

rendered useless, and waiting to be painted It is

certain that a vast quantity of Lowestoft china still exists, not only in England, but on tho Continent; but from its similarity to the Oriental, it has been

gtwralbj confounded with it With Lowestoft,

no mark was ever used, rarely even a painter's

mark Old inhabitants ridicule the idea of

Oriental china ever having been brought into it [Lowestoft] to be painted for the purpose of sale.

Mr. Studley Martin, nephew of Sir James E.

Smith, who resided at Lowestoft, writes: '1 believe so Oriental china was ever painted, even by adding initials or crests, at Lowestoft, certainly never with flowers, or anything else."'

However, the editor (Mr. Litchfield)appends a note:—

"The question of the place of manufacture of a Urge number of specimens which have been called 'Lowestoft' is a difficult one to settle. Prof. Church has gone so far in the opposite direction to Mr. Chaffers, as to omit from his work on English porcelain any mention of Lowestoft, and in the catalogue of the Schreiber Collection, such specimens as are generally called Lowestoft are classified as 'Oriental porcelain decorated in England.' Sir A. W. Franks has a very limited belief in Lowestoft, and thinks that most of the china so called

by Chaffers was of Chinese manufacture The

Kditor is inclined to believe that nearly all the

services, with coats of arms, monograms, and heraldic devices, were not only made but decorated in China."

See also 'The Ceramic Art of Great Britain,' by Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A. (London, 1887). Herbert B. Clayton.

The Great Oath (9th S. iv. 438).—This term, used in Scotland, appears to apply to the solemnity of the act, and not in contradistinction to a minor or subsidiary form of taking the oath. In ancient writings the "great aith " is frequently referred to. Thus Wyntoun says:—

He swore the great aith bodely, That he suld hald alle lelely, That he had said in to that quhile, But ony cast of fraud or gyle. IX. 20, 85. In Retours, under Brieves of Inquest, issued from Chancery for the service of heirs, recently abolished, the words of form were "Qui jurati dicunt magno sacramento interveniente." In Scotch conveyancing a deed

in regard to heritage or real estate by a married woman requires to be judicially ratified by her before a magistrate, outwith the presence of the husband. In the form of ratification she gives her great oath that she was noways seduced or compelled to grant or concur in the conveyance, but did so of her own free will and motive, and that she will never quarrel or impugn the same, directly or indirectly. A. G. Burn.


"tiffin" (9th S. iv. 345, 425, 460, 506).—I beg leave to point out the fact that, at the first of the above references, I gave in full the title of the work from which I quoted, Grose's 'Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue.' It is therefore not the fact that I obscured the issue by omitting to do that. If I did not repeat the title m extenso in my second note, I only refrained from so doing out of consideration for the space of ' N. & Q.,' and because I thought it unnecessary, after having recited it in full in my former note.

Julian Marshall.

Edgett (9th S. iii. 40"; iv. 177).—This surname is susceptible of several explanations. It may be from edge and gate, as suggested by Mr. Harrison, but scarcely from hedge-gate. for in local names the rules as to A are well observed, and in America this letter is not likely to go etymologically wrong. Mr. Harrison is in error in saying that "edge-gate would make no sense." In Old English ecg meant, in local names, "bluff," "ridge of land," or "cliff," as explained by Mr. Bradley in 'N.E.D.' under 'Edge,' vi. This meaning is preserved in Alderley Edge, co. Chester. Weston-under-Edge, Aston-under-Edge, ana Wootton - under - Edge, co. Gloucester, in addition to tho instances given in the 'N.E.D.' Cf. also Edgehill, co. Warwick. For its existence in O.E. I may cite 'Cartularium Saxonicum,' i. 496, 13 : iii. 151. 2; 155, 1; 587, 40; 590, 14. A Middle-English instance occurs in theGloucester 'Chartulary,' iii. 45, 1, land "super le egge" at Band wick, co. Glouc. In O.E. geat meant, in local names, a gap or opening in high ground, a narrow pass, as in Symond's Yat {*Sigemundes geat), co. Glouc, now erroneously transferred to a point of the rock. It is conceivable that such a gap might be called Ecg-geat, which would yield a modern Edgett quite regularly.

But the word ecg was used in forming compound personal names, and hence appears in local names formed from personal names. In the hypocoristic forms Ecg and Ecga (or the corresponding fem. *£cge) it would in modern names have become undistinguishable

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