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Scott at the Phillips sale, and formerly through th’ wayter for, when tha’ knows I'm belonged to Hugh, Viscount Cholmondeley, of witchelt?” Is the word still in use in any Kells, in Ireland, who was born about 1663, part of England, and is there any standard succeeded as viscount in 1681, and was created or dialect word of similar meaning to which Earl of Cholmondeley on 29 December, 1706. it is related ? CHARLES J. BULLOCK. He died 18 January, 1725. The armorial book plate in the volume describes him as Viscount Cholmondeley, so it may be presumed

Beplies. that he owned it prior to 1706, when he became an earl. Mr. Scott possesses a

OLIVER CROMWELL AND MUSIC. MS. of David Moysie's 'Memoirs' which has (9th S. iii. 341, 417, 491 ; iv. 151, 189, 276, 310, the same book-plate of Viscount Cholmondeley.

. 401, 499.) It would therefore appear that he was a MR. DAVEY makes fresh assertions which collector of Scottish MSS. Can any of your prove his want of knowledge of the subject readers inform me how this English nobleman under discussion. In defence of his unbecame a collector of Scottish MSS., and how |

warranted aspersion of organ accompanihe acquired these two MSS. ?

ment before the Civil War, he speaks of the Æ. J. J. MACKAY.

Mulliner MS. as one proof. He forgets to tell “BULLY.”- This week a hockey match was us where the MS. is; fortunately I can do so played in aid of the Reservist Fund at with a very certain knowledge, having purAberdare, and on the ticket of admission I chased it at Rimbault's sale for 841., and find the following: “Bully off by David having subsequently handed it over to the Haghes, High Constable, at 3 P.M. punctually." | British Museum, where it can be seen Is this meaning of the word bully to give the (No. 30,513). That book contains a variety first push to the ball a usual one? It is not of compositions, including the well-known given in ‘H.E.D.'

D. M. R.] madrigal “In going to my naked bed,” by [“ Bully" is the opening of play by the crossing of

Edwardes, but has no organ accompaniment sticks by two players before hitting the ball. "The of any kind. Next, MR. DAVEY asserts that use seems similar to “bully," the scrimmage in Eton

the organist of the Chapel Royal “possessed football, duly given in ‘H.E.D.') .

an old printed score of the well-known service

by Orlando Gibbons, as played by Gibbons DANDY'S GATE. – What is known of hy,

| himself, full of meaningless embellishments.” Dandy's Gate, an old toll in Bermondsey ? | The identical cony Possibly so named from the family or indi

The identical copy possessed by the organist vidual who farmed it. Any details will

of the Chapel Royal is lying before me; it is

merely an organ part, not a score, and oblige.

A. H.

| was privately published by Mr. Stainer (now "THE BEURRÉ.” – In his entertaining

Sir John) in 1864; it was copied from a manuVoyage au Pays des Mines d'Or,' by

script in Magdalen College, Oxford. Neither Raymond Auzias - Turenne, recently pub

the MS. nor the printed copy has a single lished, the adventurous author writes as

word suggesting that it was so performed by follows (p. 114) :-

Gibbons ; but fortunately the MS, explains

what the music so arranged was intended "Rares sont les Anglais, quoiqu'ils fussent en grand nombre au pied du Chilkoot. Les trois

for. The headings or indexing in the MS.

for quarts sont retournés au confort du sweet home et

| read as follows : “ Tallis in D, organ part La Bible avec du thé beurré."

varied ”; “Te Deum, Mr. Tallis, with variaWhat is the meaning of “thé beurré”? tions for the organ”; “Te Deum, Mr. Orlando


Gibbons, in f fa ut, varied for the organ.” Timperley.

| Dr. Hopkins, in Grove's ‘Dictionary,' says : ["Une beurrée" = "une tranche de pain sur

“There is little doubt therefore that the verlaquelle on a étendu du beurre.” Does this help ?] sions under notice were not intended as accom

paniments at all, but were variations or “WITCHELT=ILL-SHOD.-I am told by an adaptations like the popular “Transcriptions of elderly resident in South-East Lancashire that the present day, and made for separate use; that this word was in use there early in the cen

use being doubtless as Voluntaries. This explanatury. It is related that an old man who fact that a second old and more legitimate organ

tion of the matter receives confirmation from the travelled on a donkey from village to village part of those is also extant, for which no ostensible (selling blacking, I think) was on one occa- use would have existed, if not to accompany the sion taken through a pool of water, wetting the old man's feet, whereupon he exclaimed I shall not follow Mr. DAVEY's excursion to his donkey : “What does tha’ tak’ me into the field of Coloratur or of German

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singing-ornamentation that does not affect character as would be looked for from him. the question of organ accompaniment. MR. I have also, by the gift of a friend, a fine DAVEY is anxious to learn when psalm-india-proof impression of his book-plate, singing became general, and says there is engraved by H. S. Storer, giving an interior no warrant for it in the liturgy. The view of the City Library. In 1844 he pubBodleian Library possesses the following lished an edition of Sir T. Browne's Religio book, published in 1566 : “The whole Booke Medici' and 'Christian Morals, and a short of Psalmes collected into English Metre by biographical notice of him is consequently Sternhold......Newlye set foorth and allowed given by Dr. Greenhill in his most scholarly to be soong of the people together, in and complete edition, published in 1881, Churches, before and after Morning and where it is stated that Peach was born in Evening prayer: as also before and after 1785 and died in 1861. W. D. MACRAY. the Sermon, and moreover in private houses.” Another edition, dated 1667, contains the

“To PRIEST” (9th S. iv. 514).—I have conwords “Newly set forth and allowed to be stantly heard the word “priested” used by song in all Churches."

clergymen in Warwickshire. H. K. I quoted plenty of evidence of the destruc- Many generations of clergy have used tion of cathedral organs, and wait for proof of their

ait for proof the word“ priested " in the way which seems smallness and adaptability for la novelty to your correspondent. To “bishop” taverns. I again ask the name of the

was used in an analogous sense so far back French traveller relied on by MR. DAVEY inlas Latimer. See-what ought to have been support of his opinion. The specimens of old organ cases still existing do not lend

seen-the ‘H.E.D.'

W. C. B. colour to the notion. The beautiful case in Is not MR. MARCHANT too sensitive? If old Radnor Parish Church I have seen, and “bishoped ” (Herrick) and “bishoping” (Ant. can vouch that it is far too big for erection Trollope), why not "deaconed"and" priested”? in a tavern. Let me add to the list of organs All three verbs are certainly in use and are destroyed that of Wrexham Church, a build- found in big dictionaries. C. S. WARD. ing at present attracting considerable atten Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke. tion. A Gazeteer of England and Wales,' temp. Charles II., says : “At Wrexham is ye

PICKWICKIAN STUDIES' (9th S. iv. 492, 525). rarest steeple in yo 3 nations, and hath had

| --The corrections on p. 493 still need correcye fayrest organes in Europe, till ye late wars

tion. Mr. Fitzgerald is perfectly right in in Charles ye Ist his raigne. Whose Parlia

talking of the blue turban of Mrs. Nupkins. ment forces pulled him and them downe with

Dickens only made it red later, as Mr. Marother ceremonial ornaments." Will MR.

SHALL will see if he looks at an edition of Davey tell us where his lists of published

1837, or the “Rochester Edition" of 1899 music are to be seen ?

(Methuen & Co.), just published. Is it suffiWILLIAM H. CUMMINGS.

cient to explain that Sam Weller was called one of Frederick William's big grenadiers ?

| Hardly, perhaps ; but this is all that the “ex"AN APOLOGY FOR CATHEDRAL SERVICE'I planation ” offered comes to. HIPPOCLIDES. (9th S. iv. 419, 523).--This charming bookcharming to all who rightly appreciate BOXING DAY (9th S. iv. 477).--Among seven English cathedral worship-was written by examples in the O.E. Pottery Department of John Peach, librarian of the Bristol City the British Museum of the mediæval globular Library. In one of the catalogues of J. earthenware thrift-box only one is unfracRussell Smith it may be found wrongly tured. It is with exceeding rarity that one ascribed to Richard Clark, lay vicar-choral is encountered on the London medieval of Westminster Abbey. I had the pleasure “ level” by the spade of the excavator, and in 1846 of meeting Mr. Peach at Bristol, and when one is found it is almost certain to be of being shown over the library by him. He found fractured, a condition in which it was was a man of much reading and great taste, necessary to place it to realize its contents. with many old-world ideas, and much dislike When such a receptacle was put to the use of new-world inventions, however useful. In of collecting small presents for Christinas, my copy of his delightful book I have this money-pot was a “Christmas-box," and inserted a four-page leaflet which he gave the contents were spent, or begun to be me, 'A New Year's Gift to the Choristers of spent, on Boxing Day. Aubrey, in his Bristol Cathedral,' signed “A Friend to Young Natural History of Wiltshire' (circa 1670), Choristers," which he issued on 1 January, speaks of a pot in which Roman denarii 1840, and which is such in its devout were found as resembling in appearance an apprentice's earthen Christmas - box, and of this castle being named as belonging to this analogous objects being in use among the family was a sufficient demonstration of its (pagan) Roinans. See Fosbrooke's ‘Encyclo- having existed. Again, the COLONEL asserts pædia of Antiquities,' p. 290, and the Journal that I "now admit that Senghenyd in the of the British Archäological Association, sixteenth century was mulcted of its penulvol. xxx, pp. 443, 444.

timate.” I never denied or admitted anyIn the Northern dialect a benefit or friendly thing of the kind, but, on the contrary, society is called a “box," because of the box specially named this as his “conclusion." I in which the funds are collected, and the did not write anything disclosing a “diffiannual festival of such a society is called a culty” with regard to Prince Llewelyn, &c. "box dinner.” J. H. MacMICHAEL. The difficulty, if it exists, must rest with the

COLONEL, if he says Breos gave the castle to “THE APPEARANCE"= ELECTORAL NOMINA- | Llewelyn. Then he has much to clear up TION (9th S. iv. 496).--Surely “appearance” in Caradoc's history of the transaction, not in the sentence is equivalent to “show of to mention anything else. One example : hands."

J. D. “Prince Llewelyn was too good-natured to

reject his (Bruce's) submission, and so did not POLKINGHORN (9th S. iv. 108, 214, 311, 461). I only receive him to his favour, but bestowed --In reply to MR. HARRISON, Kinghorn is a l upon him also the castle of Senghenny th." most uncommon name in Cornwall. Dr. How this passage becomes “intelligible” to Bannister's 'Glossary’of some 20,000 Cornish

20,000 Cornish the COLONEL by making De Breos bestow the names--a fairly complete list it must be

castle on the prince passes my comprehenadmitted-does not give it. I have noted

sion, and will doubtless be read with consince my last communication that, besides siderable surprise. I cannot help observing the Polkinghorns in Gwinear, there is one

it would have been to the purpose had the in Perranarworthal, and also downs of that COLONEL confined his attention more to what name near Gulval. Treganhorne in St. Erth, I was written than to what I did not say or and Linkinhorne (Lan Tigherne according “think.” The latter would be difficult for to the Rev. S. Baring-Gould), a parish in East even a professional thought-reader to divine. Cornwall, are similar in their endings.

I need only add I do not intend reverting to J. HAMBLEY ROWE. I the subject till the COLONEL has categorically SWANSEA : ITS DERIVATION (9th S. i. 43, 98. disposed of what has been written at gth S. 148, 194, 370, 433, 496 ; iii. 470 ; iv. 37, 110, iv. 230 by me. ALFRED CHAS. JONAS. 230, 407).-I venture the opinion that Col.

SHEPHERDESS WALK (9th S. iv. 306, 424).-

s, MORGAN, in his last note, has lamentably v

MR. M. L. BRESLAR is mistaken, and MR. failed to disprove the arguments or facts in

J. W. M. GIBBS perfectly accurate in his rethe previous reference. One may be pardoned for being a little surprised at this, because,

collections. When I was a schoolboy resident had he confidence in his theory, or a wish for it

in High Street, Islington, in the late forties, to carry any weight, he ought to have proved,

Shepherdess Walk and Shepherdess Fields step by step, the fallacy, if it existed, of the

were very much in evidence. We certainly

never called them “Shepherd's” (I have statements upon which my charge against his hypothesis was based. It is, however,

known “Shepheard's ” since then at Cairo).

The correct name seems to stick to the clear it would be a waste of valuable space

locality. The current number of the ‘Post to continue the subject until at least the

Office Guide,' for instance, defines the place COLONEL has properly arranged his forces, if in existence, fairly to meet, if not de

as “Shepherdess Walk, Hoxton, N.”

HARRY HEMs. molish, in detail and wholly, what has been

Fair Park, Exeter. placed in opposition to him. Until he does so I am entitled to deduce from his HAWKWOOD (9th S. iv. 454).—In thanking last reply that he has a very weak case, MR. I. C. Gould for his kind communication, the more so when he takes upon himself I may be permitted to mention that I was to assert that I made statements which fully acquainted with the statement that have no foundation in fact, and generally, the tradition of Sir John Hawkwood, whom unintentionally no doubt-distorts what I contemporary writers call Aucud or Agutus, did write. A few illustrations will suffice. having been a tailor probably originated in I did not say anything so stupid as that the Italy from a corruption of his name, which "castle of Llangennith” was “omitted from Matteo Villani spells Gianni della Guglia the list because it belonged to the De la ("John of the Needle"). However, I beg to Mares,” but clearly proved that the fact of direct attention to what Henry Hallam has

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written about Sir John in that storehouse of was built, and which is full of interesting historical fact and original opinion, View of associations. Perhaps here I may be told the State of Europe during the Middle Ages,' that I am inaccurate, for the Westminster twelfth edition, 1868 (Murray), pp. 470-2:- Vestry will, I understand, be actually respon

“ This very eminent man had served in the war sible for the alteration, though the County of Edward III., and obtained his knighthood from Council is the head that instigates the arm to that sovereign, though originally, if we may trust do the deed.

W. F. PRIDEAUX. common fame, bred to the trade of a tailor. His name is worthy to be remembered as that of the “BRIDGE” (gth S. iv. 497).-The real name first distinguished commander who had appeared in Europe since the destruction of the Roman

is “britch," and the game is supposed to have empire. He appears to me to be the first real a Russian origin, which may help philologists general of modern times; the earliest master, how to trace the source of the term, if it is unever imperfect, in the science of Turenne and known. Skat and bridge have little in comWellington. Every contemporary Italian historian mon. Skat is a three-handed game, a kind of speaks with admiration of his skilful tactics in battle, his stratagems, his well-conducted retreats.”

5. cross between gleek and hombre, with borrowHawkwood, Hallam states, was not only the

ings from other quarters ; bridge is an imgreatest, but the last of the foreign condot

proved dummy-whist for four players, with tieri, or captains of mercenary bands. Byron

sundry details likewise borrowed elsewhere. alludes to Henry Hallam in his 'English

| The only semblance between them is that Bards' as

| the trump is named by the players, and suits Classic Hallam, much renowned for Greek.

| have an order of preference, with the trace

of a link, perhaps, in the honours and mataHENRY GERALD HOPE. Clapham, S.W.

dores. The objects of the games are quite

different (as well as the methods). In whist COMPENSATION TO BRYAN, LORD FAIRFAX

and bridge, it is tricks numerically ; in skat, (9th S. iv. 399, 427).-Some particulars con

the values contained in the tricks—which cerning the American estates, which lay places

places skat on a higher level of skill than between the Potomac and the Rappahannock

either of the other two games. Can any in Virginia, may be seen in The Fairfax readers of ‘N. & Q.' throw light on the Correspondence,' London, 1848, pp. cxxvi

evolution of the game itself (bridge)?__ cXxxvii. H. Davey.

J. S. M. T. THE MINT (9th S. iv. 348, 403, 506).-I do I used in the card-play at whist, is evidently

The Russian term schlem (sch=sh or s), when not pretend to be infallible, but I fail to see

borrowed from the German Schlemm, denoting in what respect my information was inaccurate, unless it be that I referred to Mint opposite party of the game. Schlemm, again,

the total loss, or defeat, inflicted upon the Street as still existing, whereas, according to

has been adapted to German after the English your correspondent BRUTUS, it is now called

whist-term slam, which bears the same meanMarshalsea Road. In one of the latest Lon-ling (s. Grimm's Deutsches Wörterbuch,' ed. don maps in my possession, that which | Hevne. ix. 632).

H. KREBS. accompanied the newest reissue of ‘Old and Oxford. New London’in 1897-8, Mint Street is still shown, while Marshalsea Road runs into it at THE STAFFORD FAMILY (9th S. iv. 477).-See an angle, and only usurps the old title at the the many members of it noticed in ‘Dict. Nat. easternmost end. The change of name must | Biog.'

A. F. P. therefore be of very recent date,* and I can only regret the disappearance of the last! "LOWESTOFT CHINA” (9th S. iv. 498).—MR. memorial of a district which filled so large a RATCLIFFE will find an able discussion upon place in the satiric literature of the last cen- the subject of his query in 'Marks and Monotury. It is almost impossible for any one to grams on European and Oriental Pottery keep abreast of the London County Council and Porcelain,' by Wm. Chaffers (new edition, in its extraordinary mania for changing the revised and edited by Frederick Litchfield, names of old and historic streets. I believe 1897). The author has, seemingly, disposed the latest victim of this craze, unless sound of the theory that the “Lowestoft ware was and saner counsels prevail, will be James simply Oriental porcelain, painted only at Street, Buckingham Gate, which was called | Lowestoft”:after the last of the Stuarts, in whose time it “Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, in an interesting paper examples in existence, where the body is of Lowes- in regard to heritage or real estate by a toft make, which are of very fine quality. The

on Lowestoft china, in the Art Journal of July, * I think it will be found that Mint Street still 1863, has fallen into the same error. He says : ‘The holds a place in the ‘Post Office London Directory,' best of the productions of the Lowestoft works are and that St. Saviour's Workhouse is situated in it. I painted on Oriental body, but there are many good

married woman requires to be judicially collector will be able to distinguish immediately

ratified by her before a magistrate, outwith between the examples painted at Lowestoft on Oriental body, and those which are potted and

the presence of the husband. In the form of painted there.""

ratification she gives her great oath that she Mr. Chaffers continues :

was noways seduced or compelled to grant “There are three' persons now

living (1965) or concur in the conveyance, but did so of

living (1865) who can testify to the fact that nothing passed

| her own free will and motive, and that she out of the factory but what was made in it...... Let will never quarrel or impugn the same, us also ask those visionary theorists whether directly or indirectly.

A. G. REID. they ever saw or heard of such unfinished Oriental

Auchterarder. white porcelain? When the Lowestoft works ceased in 1802, what became of it all? The country would “TIFFIN” (9th S. iv. 345, 425, 460, 506).—I have been inundated with the supply so suddenly rendered useless, and waiting to be painted...... It is

beg leave to point out the fact that, at the certain that a vast quantity of Lowestoft china still first of the above references, I gave in full the exists, not only in England, but on the Continent; title of the work from which I quoted, Grose's but from its similarity to the Oriental, it has been • Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue.' generally confounded with it......With Lowestoft, It is therefore not the fact that I obscured no mark was ever used, rarely even a painter's mark......Old inhabitants ridicule the idea

of the issue by omitting to do that. If I did

of Oriental china ever having been brought into it not repeat the title in extenso in my second (Lowestoft] to be painted for the purpose of sale. note, I only refrained from so doing out of ......Mr. Studley Martin, nephew of Sir James E. consideration for the space of 'N. & Q.,' and Smith, who resided at Lowestoft, writes : 'I believe because I thought it unnecessary, after having RO Oriental china was ever painted, even by adding initials or crests, at Lowestoft, certainly never with

recited it in full in my former note. flowers, or anything else.”

JULIAN MARSHALL. However, the editor (Mr. Litchfield)appends EDGETT (gth S. iii. 407; iv. 177). This sura note:

| name is susceptible of several explanations. ". The question of the place of manufacture of It may be from edge and gate, as suggested by a large number of specimens which have been Mr. HARRISON, but scarcely from hedge-gate, called • Lowestoft’ is a difficult one to settle. Prof. for in local names the rules as to h are well Church has gone so far in the opposite direction to observed and in America this letter is Mr. Chaffers, as to omit from his work on English |

observed, and in America this letter is not porcelain any mention of Lowestoft, and in the

likely to go etymologically wrong. MR. catalogue of the Schreiber Collection, such speci- HARRISON is in error in saying that "edge-gate mens as are generally called Lowestoft'are classified would make no sense.” In Old English ecg as Oriental porcelain decorated in England.' Sir meant, in local names, “bluff,” “ridge of land," A. W. Franks has a very limited belief in Lowestoft, and thinks that most of the china so called

or “cliff," as explained by Mr. Bradley in by Chaffers was of Chinese manufacture...... The

‘N.E.D.' 'under Edge,' vi. This meaning is Editor is inclined to believe that.....nearly all the preserved in Alderley Edge, co. Chester, services, with coats of arms, monograms, and heraldic Weston-under-Edge, Aston-under-Edge, and devices, were not only made but decorated in Wootton - under - Edge, co. Gloucester, in China."

addition to the instances given in the See also ‘The Ceramic Art of Great Britain,'|N.E.D. Cf. also Edgehill, co. Warwick. by Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A. (London, 1887). For its existence in O.E. I may cite Car

HERBERT B. CLAYTON. | tularium Saxonicum,' i. 496, 13; iii. 151, 2 ; THE GREAT OATH (9th S. iv. 438).- This 155, 1; 587, 40 ; 590, 14. A Middle-English term, used in Scotland, appears to apply to instance occurs in the Gloucester 'Chartulary,' the solemnity of the act, and not in contra- | iii. 45, 1, land “super le egge" at Randwick, distinction to a minor or subsidiary form of co. Glouc. In O.E. geat meant, in local names, taking the oath. In ancient writings the a gap or opening in high ground, a narrow "great aith" is frequently referred to. Thus pass, as in Symond's Yat (*Sigemundes geat), Wyntoun says :

co. Glouc., now erroneously transferred to a He swore the great aith bodely,

point of the rock. It is conceivable that That he suld hald alle lelely,

such a gap might be called Ecg-geat, which That he had said in to that quhile,

would yield a modern Edgett quite regularly. But ony cast of fraud or gyle. IX. 20, 85. But the word ecg was used in forming In Retours, under Brieves of Inquest, compound personal names, and hence appears issued from Chancery for the service of heirs, in local names formed from personal names. recently abolished, the words of form were In the hypocoristic forms Ecg and Ecga (or “Qui jurati dicunt magno sacramento inter- the corresponding fem. * Ecge) it would in veniente.” In Scotch conveyancing a deed modern names have become undistinguishable

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