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from the common noun. But in Edgware, can only be settled by documentary evidence, co. Middlesex, and Edgeworth, co. Glou- which possibly does not exist. cester,* we have records of the masc.

W. H. STEVENSON. ending -es, so that these names must be from

| “CORDWAINER” (9th S. iv. 436).- This word, men's names, the gen. sing. of the common noun being ecge. I suspect that a personal

| in the form of cordiner, is applied to the craft name occurs in the Domesday Book name

of shoemakers in Scotch burghs. It is said to for the hundred of Christ Church, co. Hants.

be derived from Cordova, in Spain, noted for It is written Ege-iete (i. 516, col. 1), Eghe-iete

its leather manufactures. Tanned horse (i. 386, col. 2, 43b, col. 1, 44, col. 2), and

| leather is known in Scotland as cordovan. Eghe-iet (46, col. 2). The latter part of the

Jamieson says that the name of cordwainer name is undoubtedly O.E. geat, dat. geate,

was generally given in Europe to one who and the first part is ecg plus a vowel (Eghe,

wrought in foreign leather. French cordon

nier, corduannier ; 264, col. 2, 264b, col. 1, now Edge, co. Chester,

Swedish corduwansrepresents the dat. sing. Ecge). By the time

makere, a leather-dresser. A. G. REID.

Auchterarder. of the Survey the weak-ending -an had sunk down in compounds to -e, so that this may BOUDICCA REPULSED AT VERULAM (9th be an O.E. * Ecgan-geat (cf. Wigheiete, i. 166b, S. iv. 457).-There is no ground for supposcol. 2= Wiggangeat, Wyegate, co. Glouc., ing that Verulam was the scene of the defeat *Cart. Sax.,' iii. 585, 23). It might represent of Boudicca (Boadicea). Tacitus ('Ann.,' xiv. an Ecges-geat, for the gen. sing. masc. is 31-37), in relating the battle, does not menfrequently given as e in Domesday and in tion any place. Merivale (* History of the later records. Later forms do not throw any Romans,' ch. li.) conjectures that it was light upon the origin. It occurs as Eggieta fought near Camulodunum (Colchester); for (Latinized) in Pipe Roll, 14 Hen. II., 182 ; I this view he refers to Mr. Jenkins in ArchæoEggiet(h)e in the rolls 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, logia, 1842, and to the Quarterly Review, 21 Hen. II. But whatever the original form vol. xcvii. Orelli on Tacitus, ' Ann., xii. 32, of this local name may have been, we have mentions the opinion that Camulodunum in it a form that would regularly yield was Maldon, near Colchester ; but this view Edgett. A natural feature that could give is decidedly disapproved by Hübner in its name to a hundred might easily be Pauly's “Real - Encyclopädie,' new ed., art. recorded in a family name.

| Camulodunum. Verulam was taken by the Edgett is, moreover, derivable from the Britons and the population slaughtered in masc. name Ead-gēat (written Eddiet in the insurrection.

B. H. Domesday), since hundreds of these 0.E. personal names are still preserved as family

I cannot agree with Mr. HOOPER that it is names. Nor does this exhaust the possibilities,

"a mere duty” to use “ Boudicca" instead of for, by the processes referred to above,

“ Boadicea" as "the more correct name." He * Eadan-geat, *Eades-geat, compounds of geat

may not know that the MS. evideuce is very with hypocoristic forms of names beginning

conflicting. In the ‘Annals, xiv., it is as with Ead-, might also produce a modern

follows : "Boodicia” (31), “Bouducca” (35), Edgett. Probabilities are in favour of the

“Boudicca” (37). On the other hand, both Hampshire local name or the personal name

the MSS. of the ‘Agricola' of Tacitus Ead-gēat, I and the question which it really is a V.

|(16) have the a, reading “Voaduca” and

“Voadicca.” Orelli, the best editor, reads * The former, an 0.E. * Ecges-wer (written Ægces- |

“Boudicea " ; but there seems to me quite wer in an eleventh-century Westminster charter sun

sufficient evidence to warrant in current dated 978, Cart. Sax.,' . 605, 12), occurs in the speech a retention of the form which has Pipe Roll, 15 Hen. Il., p. 173, as' Eggeswera; in been fixed as English. Such changes in 1168-1173 as Egges-were'(* Cat. of Ancient Deeds,' names are often attempted, but hardly ever A 2097); Eges-were, A 2146 ; in 1266, Egges-were, A 1737, &c. The Gloucestershire village, O. E. * Ecges

carried through where a word has become a weorð, appears in Domesday, i. 166b, col. I, 167b,

national English possession apart from its col. 2, as Egeis-uurde, Eges-worde.

use by the learned.

HIPPOCLIDES. + It is noteworthy that there was an Eces-geat, possibly miscopied for Ecges-geat, in Bicingtun, or||

| May Road WELL, ACCRINGTON (9th S. iv. Bickton, par. of Fordingbridge, co. Hants (“Cárt. 396, 464).--I do not like to destroy the pious Sax.,'iii. 252, 3, from the Liber de Hyda,' where it is inferences which the theories of your correwrongly identified by Dr. Birch with Bighton, which is phonologically improbable), in the vicinity | Germanic tribal name Gautóa, the Gautar whose of the hundred in question.

name is preserved in the Swedish province of I The gēat of this name has nothing to do with Götland (O.N. Gaut-land), Germanic au having geat, but represents either the deity Gēat or the developed into 0.E. za.

spondent prompt, but I am afraid they are remember in the year 1854. The first verse not correct. I know the neighbourhood and ran thus :the well intimately. I have known many Britannia, the pride of the ocean, who have gone on the first Sunday in May to The home of the brave and the free, dilute their potations with its water. I think The shrine of each sailor's devotion, the practice has entirely died out. In Lan

No land can compare unto thee.

Thy mandates make heroes assemble, cashire the use of the “apostrophe s" when

With Vict'ry's bright laurels in view ; speaking in the possessive case is largely Thy banners make tyranny tremble ignored. Not far from the well is a hill When borne by the Red, White, and Blue. known as “John Hoyle coppice”—the coppice The second verse was much as stated, but of John Hoyle. The well is known as “Mary the third concluded quite differently, viz. :-Hoyle well”-no doubt, in my mind, mean

May the French from the English ne'er sever, ing the well of Mary Hoyle. Who John Hoyle

But each to their colours prove true, was I cannot ascertain, but I opine that John The Army and Navy for ever, . and Mary were of one family, and that while (And?) Three cheers for the Red, White, and to the one is assigned the “coppice,” to the

Blue. other is assigned the well.

B. S. I do not think there can be any doubt that

I your correspondent S. J. A. F. is right about "A PICKLED ROPE" (9th S. iv. 479).-In the its having been originally an English song. phrase in Fletcher's ‘Bonduca,' “A pickled

F. W. 8. jope will choke ye,” Petillius, who has pre- I am emboldened to make a suggestion viously told his soldiers, ungraciously enough, which may settle this controversy. Your to eat turf, timber, old mats, or shoes, ex

correspondent T. A. O. mentions (iv. 338) the horts them further to fall in love, a state coincidence of the above song, at the time of which in war is assumed to stimulate bravery, land following the

gravery; and following the Crimean War, with the and calculated to make them forget all about

equally well-known 'Cheer, Boys, Cheer !' eating, failing to do which they may expect M

ay expect My own recollection is to the same effect; and a rope's-ending for cowardice. Hence the if

nce the if reference could be made by any of your phrase appears to mean a castigation (with

correspondents who may be in a position to à pickled rope) will correct the cowardice

| do so to the veteran author of the lastthat is assumed to characterize one who has

named song, Mr. Henry Russell, whose neither this incentive to courage nor that of

residence is 18, Howley Place, W., I have having enough to eat. Compare a “rod in

| little doubt his well-stored memory could pickle," i. e., soaked in brine to keep it supple

authoritatively intervene. I well remember for chastening purposes, and the phrase

hearing Mr. Henry Russell sing 'Cheer, Boys, " to rope's-end," i.e., to chastise with the

| Cheer !' in his entertainment at some date "whipped” end of a rope, formerly a punish

| prior to May, 1856, and my recollection is ment much resorted to illegally at sea :

that I was familiar with that song and The Buy a rope's end ; that will I bestow Red, White, and Blue' in about an equal Among my wife and her confederates For locking me out of my doors by day.

degree for a good while before then. Some •Comedy of Errors,' IV. i. 16.

time since I read Mr. Russell's book of "To choke" liere means to correct, reprove.

reminiscences, a good part of which deals A “choke-pear" is figuratively a reproof, |

with America and the friends he made there;

and whether the origin of the song is British correction, a check by which one is put to silence; and to "choke a person off," i. e., to

or American I am pretty certain he would know,

W. B. H. stop his garrulity, is still a vulgar expression. J. HOLDEN MacMICHAEL

(Further contributions on this subject not invited.] THE AUTHORSHIP OF THE RED, WHITE, PREFACES (9th S. iv. 479).—Isaac D’Israeli, AND BLUE' (gth S. iv. 164, 231, 312, 338, 426. in his ‘Curiosities of Literature,' says 502).-With regard to the above song, I have that long before the days of Johnson it had always understood it was written in honour of been a custom with many authors to solicit for this the “Allied Armies” during the Crimean

department of their work the ornamental conWar. At all events, I distinctly remember

tribution of a man of genius Cicero tells his

friend Atticus that he had a volume of prefaces or it then, as a child of some ten years old ; and introductions always ready by him to be used as the cover of the song was adorned with the circumstances required.” Union Jack and the French tricolour flags. A correspondent in ‘N. & Q.' (6th S. xii. 427) Wherever the word “Columbia" occurs in the asked, “When were prefaces first introduced ?” song as printed in your issue of December and stated that Howell, in his preface to ‘An 16, it was “Britannia" in the version I Institution of General History,' asserted that

“the French first introduced this custom into Jersey." The “reappearance,” likely enough, the work of writing prefaces before the was at some charitable performance or the works of others." To this query no reply like, but the Era's paragraph seems to imply has appeared.

| that our English novelist had previously EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. | played as a regular actress. 71, Brecknock Road.

J. W. M. GIBBS. In "The Antiquary's Portfolio,' vol. i.) HANNAH LEE (9th S. iv. 477).-I believe p. 97, I find that “the haughty Wolsey con- that this "pretty,” or, to speak by the descended to write a recommendatory pre-card, most affecting story, is narrated in face" to William Lily's “ well-known Latin 'The Snowstorm,' one of the tales in ‘Lights Grammar."

ALFRED J. KING. and Shadows of Scottish Life,' by Prof. 101, Sandmere Road, Clapham, S.W.

Wilson, and may be found in vol. xi. p. 48

of his collected 'Works,' edited by his son-inTAE SURNAME MORCOM (9th S. iv. 148, 312, law, Prof. Ferrier, Edinburgh, 1865. 406, 467).-If Sır. HERBERT MAXWELL will

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. refer to iv. 312, he will see that he is not quite Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. justified in saying that I hazarded a remarkable "assertion” regarding the derivation of

“HOASTIK CARLES” (9th S. iv. 477).—“HoasMalcolm. An assertion I take to be a plain tik carles” are Austwick men. Austwick is declaration of fact or belief. I made no such in Craven, and its folk have a reputation declaration. I thank him for his reply, which akin to that which has made the wisdom of is highly interesting to me, and probably to those of Gotham proverbial for all time. others who know no Gaelic ; but his letter They, too, tried to hedge in a cuckoo ; and would have been just as valuable without the several other absurd stories are told of them. first six lines. FRANK PENNY, LL.M.

They are said to have had but one knife or Fort St. George.

whittle, which they kept under a tree. Once,

when some labourers wished to save themMARGARET BLOUNT (9th S. iv, 287, 355).--Inselves the trouble of carrying it back, they addition to what Mr. J. POTTER BRISCOE has stuck it in the ground, and, seeing a black said at the last reference, I can put before cloud immediately overhead, thought that BRUTUS the following extract by Mar- the place was sufficiently marked; but the guerite Blount herself. It forms the title tool was never found again. A farmer, wishand prefatory paragraph of a short story by ing to get a bull out of a field, asked nine the American authoress, and was published neighbours to help him to lift it over the in Reynolds's Miscellany (Lond.) in 1858 or gate, and they being unequal to the task, one 1859:

of the number went through the gateway to “The Funeral at School. A Reminiscence of look for further aid. It then struck somemy Early Life. By Marguerite Blount. - Though body that the bull might leave the field by now in England and writing for Reymoltls's the same way. Another carle lifted a wheelMiscellany, I must remind the reader that (as he may have, however, gathered from some of

barrow over twenty-two stiles rather than my previous contributions to this periodical) I am take it by a road which was about a hundred an American by birth. It is, therefore, to the yards further round than the path across the United States that the ensuing scenes and incidents fields. See Clouston's "Book of Noodles, belong. With this brief, yet necessary preface, I pp. 53. 54. enter on my little narrative."

St. SWITHIN. Marguerite Blount published several storiesIt is a pity that Lucas did not know better at about the dates 1855-59 in Reynolds's than to begin guessing that the carles “are no Miscellany. They were, however, I think, doubt spirits of the woods." They are simply short stories mostly. No doubt this reply, the people of Austwick, a village near Clapwith that before given by Mr. BRISCOE, will ham, in Yorkshire, who are credited by their convince BRUTUS that he was wrong in neighbours with having been the originals of assuming that she and Miss Braddon * are the “wise men of Gotham." The walling-in the same.” Nevertheless, it has often been of the cuckoo arose from their attempt to said that some of Miss Braddon's earliest secure perpetual summer by building a wall work appeared in Reynolds's Miscellany, as around the bird. Just as the wall was finished it has likewise been said that before the first the cuckoo flew away, and “they had never of her great successes ('Lady Audley, 1862) | thought o' that." The favourite name for Miss Braddon appeared on the stage. Both these folk is "mooin-rakers," because they statements have been denied, and yet I have tried to rake the reflection of the moon out read in the Era, under a date in 1876, that of a pond, thinking it was a big cheese. By “Miss Braddon reappeared on the stage at the way, has any one collected all the places

cry

supposed to be the original home of the about two feet above the ends of the stacks, “Gotham” stories? H. SNOWDEN WARD. and free to move in the wind. I have taken Austwick, near Settle, is the “Gotham” of

them to indicate that a new stack-thatcher Yorkshire, and Austwick people are usually

of artistic tastes has been at work in the spoken of as “Austwick carles.” The walling-li

district recently ; and it may be said for in of the cuckoo is attributed to the folk of

him that his thatching is very good work.

H. SNOWDEN WARD. many sequestered places, but there is in the first series of William Dobson's 'Rambles by Not many years ago I saw some beautiful the Ribble' (Preston, 1864) a diverting folk- stack finials at Bishopthorpe, near York. tale to the disadvantage of the “carles,” | Cocks I think they were, and I believe they which may be new to your readers. At p. 40 (or their descendants) are still presiding over Mr. Dobson writes :

the ricks in the yard I have in mind. I dare "A common joke against Austwick people is to

| say Miss FLORENCE PEACOCK knows what Whittle to the tree. When knives and forks Mr. Baring-Gould says about these things in were somewhat more of luxuries than at present, 'Strange Survivals.

Sr. SWITHIN. and their use had not penetrated into...the northern dales, it is said that a 'whittle'...was the only knife

Is not this word-like “Dosset” for Dorset, in Austwick. It was common to the township, and or “fossick" for fore-seek, which would when those who used it had done with it they had appear to have been the original meaning of to put it in a tree in the centre of the village. If it the latter-a corruption of “dorsal,” somewas not there when wanted, the person requiring thin it went through the village calling out, 'Whittle

13 | thing placed on the back of an object, such to th' tree; Whittle to th' tree.' The whittle at as a corn-stack, to protect it from the last was lost. It was taken once by a numerous ravages of the birds--in short a scarecrow, farty of workmen to the adjoining moor (Swarth- or rather a bird-scare? I remember being moor) to cut up their pies for dinner. To save them told of an old gentleman who was accustomed the trouble of taking it back, they discussed where they should put it, so that they could find it when

| to suspend a tin semblance of a cat from his they came next day. Looking round for some object fruit trees, presumably to scare the birds to know the locality by, for then, as now, trees away. By the way, the dialect word “fossick” were a rarity on Swarthmoor, it was at last agreed still means also to “fore-seek" or "prospect" to stick it in the ground under a very black cloud, for gold in new ground, as well as in abanwhich was the most remarkable object in sight.de This was done. When next they went to Strath

: doned workings. moor it was a fine day, the cloud had moved off,

J. HOLDEN MacMICHAEL. and the whittle could not be found."

“MIDDLIN'” (9th S. iv. 416, 495).-C. C. B. Q. V.

| is certainly correct in saying that this word “Dozzil” OR “DOSSIL” (gth S. iv. 479).- is not a peculiarity of the Manx dialect. Nor My father, a Lincolnshire man, remembers was its use in England confined to the North. these objects, which he calls “dossels,” being “Pretty middlin” was formerly, in West in use over forty years ago. They were then, Surrey and in Hampshire probably the he tells me, very common, being inade of usual answer to an inquiry after the health wood or tin, in the shape of a “cockerel,” of a countryman.

R. L. and usually served as vanes. It was also customary, I am informed, to fix at each JAMES Cox's MUSEUM (9th S. ii. 7, 78; corner of corn-stacks, in an upright position, iv. 275, 337). — “The great room in Spring a bunch of corn “heads." These also were Gardens," otherwise Wigley's Auction Room, called “dossels."

stood, according to F. G. S., at the southI remember seeing a “dozzil” at Clee- west corner of Spring Gardens, and on one's thorpes last summer, not on a stack, but right hand on passing from that street fixed to the top of a long pole standing in (which was never a thoroughfare for vehicles) the back-yard of a house outside the town. into the park. The Incorporated Society of It was in the shape of a cock and made of Artists of Great Britain exhibited here until tin, serving as a vane.

H. ANDREWS. 1780. Wigley's Auction Room was burned Gainsborough.

down 2 April, 1785, during a representation

of Mount Vesuvius at Cox's Museum. F. G. S. Figures such as are mentioned in this elsewhere states that Wigley's room occupied query, but very well made of straw, are more the site of the London County Council numerous this winter than I have seen them offices ; but in this he is mistaken, the before, on stacks around Mill Hill, in the Council's offices occupying the site of district between Edgware and High Barnet. Berkeley House, which was purchased from They are mostly imaginary fowl, particularly the Government by the Metropolitan Board strong about the tail, elevated on sticks of Works in ļ862, and the present building

erected on the site (see Hon. Grantley T. 1882, noticing the Beckford sale, second part, Berkeley, 'Life,' &c., vol. i. p. 78, &c.). Cox's indicates that the “painted interstices” and Museum appears to have stood on the site the "scrolled tooling” were used with the of No. 13, Spring Gardens, a house built by “Portio mea” motto. On the whole it would Mr. Decimus Burton for his residence, ad- seem that the painted bindings were, at any joining the Council's offices to the northward, rate, of the middle, if not of the later, period. and now in the Council's occupation.

ARTHUR MAYALL. JOHN HEBв. Canonbury Mansions, N. .

Miscellaneous. “ KING OF BANTAM” (9th S. iv. 419, 488, 526). -I should like to make an addition to my

NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. note. In reference to Congreve's Present A Life of William Shakespeare. By Sidne Majesty of Bantam,' there is a tale by Aphra

1 (Smith, Elder & Co.) Behn, called “The Court of the King of Ban

* With a celerity all but unparalleled, and with an

absence all but complete of 'serious opposition, Mr. tam.' In it a rich noodle, Mr. Would-be, Lee's 'Life of Shakespeare' has established itself believes himself the King of Bantam, and is in supreme authority. A year or two ago it was duped thereupon in true Restoration fashion. but a solitary article-although naturally the longest If MR. PERCY SIMPSON will refer, he will find and most important in that great work, now on the that Congreve very clearly had Mrs. Behn's

hod'vro Behn'point of completion, the 'Dictionary of National

Biography. A few months later it appeared in the tale in his mind. GEORGE MARSHALL.

convenient shape in which it will still be most read, It is good, as MR. GEORGE MARSHALL says,

and now, with illustrations that throw all the light

Ys, obtainable upon our early stage and upon Shaketo see Jonson and Congreve quoted, but Mrs:speare's associates and friends, it comes forth in an Aphra Bebn should not be forgotten, for did illustrated lib

t be forgotten, for did | illustrated library edition, fitted to grace the handnot that illustrious lady write 'The Court of somest and best-furnished shelves. So far as regards the King of Bantam,' which can be read with the text, Mr. Lee's scholarly and monumental work

has undergone little alteration. Such errors and interest even now ? ALFRED F. ROBBINS.

misprints as have been detected have been corThe “descent” seems to imply a sort of

rected; the remarks on Shakespeare's autographs

and handwriting have been expanded; a descripae supersuIVIOn Tuanze | tion is now given in the bibliography of the Sibin the Christian “resurrection” and Plato's thorp first folio, recently brought to light, with immortality. These people were probably its presentation from William Jaggard, the printer, Buddhists, so it represents an “avatar-ship,”

to his friend and ally Augustine Vincent, the or new birth, a form of metempsychosis.

' herald; and further details have been supplied

concerning certain of Shakespeare's printers and

A. n. publishers. None of these things affects, however, GROLIER BINDINGS (9th S. iv. 518).- The the original scheme of the work, nor has Mr. Lee, painted bindings are probably of a later date

hobiv of later data though some of his opinions have elicited, as was

but natural, expressions of dissent and disagreethan the others. Mr. Herbert P. Horne, 'The

| ment, felt called upon to modify any of his more Binding of Books,' p. 89, dates this style of important conclusions, and the book is practically work as belonging to the middle of the six the same that we reviewed little more than a teenth century. One may possibly put a twelvemonth ago (see gth S. ii. 458). similar interpretation upon the sentence

As a work of reference, and as a handsome and

desirable volume, the work in its new shape gains referring to Groner, at vol.. !Y: P: 41,01 the greatly. Its beautiful cover, as a note inserted 'Encyclopædia Britannica,' which reads, “Some infornis us, is taken from a fine binding of English of his later covers were resplendent with gold workmanship of the sixteenth century in the British and coloured ornament, most elaborately | Museum, originally executed for Robert Dudley, tooled." This, however, is so general in its

the famous, or infamous, Earl of Leicester, Shake

speare's crest, in its proper heraldic colours, being reference that it is scarcely evidence. The

substituted for that of the earl. The frontispiece sequence of usage of the different mottoes is

consists of the monument affixed to the north wall some help. It is most likely that the "ami- of the chancel of Stratford-on-Avon Church, which corum” motto, previously used by Maioli, is given in the colours believed to have constituted came first (Quarterly Review, July, 1893,

its original adornment. Four other likenesses are

reproduced-the Droeshout (or “ Flower”) portrait, p. 189). The motto "Æque difficulter," with

the engraved portrait on the title of the first folio, the cloud, nail, and hillock design, came next the Ely House portrait, and the seventeenth('Bookbindings Ancient and Modern,'Joseph century bust in the Garrick Club. Then follow Cundall, p. 34); and afterwards the “Portio portraits--all carefully selected by the author, with mea Do ! mine sit in terra vi / venti , um”

a view of facilitating the study of the poet's lifelegend. There were others occasionally used. and anonymous picture of Queen Elizabeth, from

of Shakespeare's closest acquaintances; the quaint See 'The Binding of Books,' supra, p. 78. An the painting at Ditchley; the Earl of Southampton, article in the Saturday Review for 30 Dec., I from an original painting at Welbeck; Burbage,

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