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that your abdication has become necessary. We brine you the document to sign.'
"The emperor drew back a little behind his very large table. It was a heavy piece of furniture j on the emperor's left hand a chandelier of five branches lighted the letter he had begun to write; in front was a malachite paper-press formed of a great ball fixed on a very massive rectangle.
"During Count Pahlen's speech, pronounced in a very firm voice, the five men had progressively advanced towards the edge of the table; the second taper was set down beside the inkstand, while the emperor, who was placed on the other side, recoiled involuntarily to increase the distance which separated him from these men.
"' Yes,' he said; 'you are deficient in respect for me: you think I am too severe with you, and you want to take my place in order to give it to my
more yielding successor. I shall resist that I
shall resist that 'and, as he uttered these words,
the emperor pushed back his chair towards the partition against which he had been almost leaning, and which was close to the wide fireplace in which some embers were dying out.
"' Sire, we wish for your abdication at any cost; we require it for the public good.' At the moment he pronounced these words Count Pahlen, a tall and powerful man, passed his arm over the table with sufficient rapidity to seize the emperor's hand. The latter recoiled hastily, and endeavoured with his other disengaged hand to open a door pierced in the wall behind him, a secret door by which he probably expected to escape.
"These very violent struggles tilted the table; the two tapers placed upon it fell off and were extinguished, and Count Pahlen, seizing the paperpress with his right hand, struck the emperor on the temple with it while he dragged him towards himself with all his strength. The emperor, whose skull was fractured, sank backwards. The table was rearranged, and Count Pahlen, aided by his accomplices, took the hand of the dying emperor, put a pen into his fingers, and thus signed the abdication of the Emperor Paul I.
"During all this horrible scene I stood there with eyes wide open, motionless and stupefied, and I held in my hand the taper which alone had lighted that chamber of crime. It was by the light of that taper that I saw the posthumous signature affixed."
The day following this sinister adventure my aunt left the palace and fell ill of the shock. Afterwards when, restored to health, she recalled those dramatic episodes, it was always impossible for her to analyze the efficient causes of her movements. She has assured me that she felt herself transformed into an automaton all whose movements were obligatory. It would have been impossible for her to have acted of herself. No conscious liberty was left her.
I point out this fact because of the rarity of the case, for my aunt was a woman of great powers and of much acuteness of intellect, like most of the women of the eighteenth century, and knew how to observe and to analyze with judgment and sagacity. I have also thought it right to fix this page of tenebrous history, which giveB the true version of the so-much-debated end of the Emperor Paul I. Indeed, my aunt was the only witness of the scene, and I have written her narrative as she dictated it.
J. LORAINE HEELI8.
9, Morrab Terrace, Penzance,
Dr. Johnson And Vestris.—Apropos of the note concerning Dr. Johnson and Vestris, 9th S. iv. 452, the following may be interesting. The late Sir Henry Russell, in some MS. notes of his father's life, says :—
"My father asked Dr. Johnson one day where he had passed the preceding evening. 'Sir,' he said, 'I went to the Opera'; and seeing my father looked surprised, he said, 'Yes, Sir, I went to the Opera' to see Vestris dance. I like to see any man do anything that he does better than all the world beside.'"
"international Library Op Famous Literature."—I would warn intending subscribers to this work that it contains American spelling in its most irritating form. I wish some one had warned me. Also it has what I suppose are American emendations, unless they are gross misprints; for instance, "Far from the maddening crowd " in the place of the well-known line that has been classic for some hundred and fifty years; "That Timour" instead of "Thou Timour" in Byron's ' Ode to Napoleon.' For a work so much vaunted as this has been, the misprints are singularly numerous. The following are a few instances: Humphry Clinker, when he gets into prison, is made to pay "gareish" instead of garnish; Diderot is stated to bo the son of a master "cutter" instead of cutler; Nelson's famous signal is stated to have been "competed " instead of completed. A Latin quotation from 'Cranford' figures as follows: "Dum spiritus regit aruts. It took me some little time to find out what "aruts" meant; it is a misprint for artus. This is really a very careless misprint. Surely Cowper never put into Johnny Gilpin's mouth the following line (when he got to Ware): "I came because your horse could come." It must have been would, but I have not a copy of the poem handy to refer to. An extract from Saintine's 'Picciola' is introduced in this language: "Charney, a political prisoner, has fixed his affections on a flower that grew between the stone of his prison " instead of "between the stones" (I believe really it ought to be "between the flags of his prison ). Omissions are conspicuous (if I may be allowed a bull). 'Hohenlinden' is left out, but some dozen pages of the 'Pleasures of Hope' are in. Brilliant diamond the one; somewhat ponderous, and nowadays not much appreciated metal, the other. Not a word is said about "Junius," though his letter to the king is inserted; nor of Wolfe, or how his famous 'Burial' came to be written ano| given to the world. As regards the prints, there is one illustrative of ' Robinson Crusoe' called "the footprint on the sand," which is ludicrous. Crusoe, who ought, according to the story, to be wild with terror, instead of looking at the immense footprint within a vard of him, is shading his eyes witli his hands, and, quite calm and placid, not a bit agitated, is gazing at Africa or some other place far away in the distance. Johnson, at a literary party, all the members of "the Club" being present, is haranguing away (as usual), but looking at none of them. There is a print of Goldsmith's house, stated to have been in the "Strand," whereas it was near the little Old Bailey, spelt in one place in the book "Brecknock Stair (in the singular), in another " Breckneck," which is interesting, if one only knew what the authority is for it; but in no other account of Goldsmith's life have I ever seen this print before. If it is from any authentic source in the British Museum or elsewhere it ought to have been stated. The same applies to a print—rather say a caricature—of Johnson in his Hebridean dress. Did Johnson really ever wear such a dress as this? Who saw it? Who drew it? Who printed it? The best print to ray mind is Catiline in the senate house (the authority for which is given) listening to Cicero's famous oration, "quousque tandem," and looking very uneasy under it. In addition to the above defect*, the volumes have this disadvantage, they are too heavy to hold in one's hand in an armchair over the fire, the pleasantest way of reading, and yet scarcely heavy enough to require a table. But the principal drawback is, what I mentioned at the commencement, the irritating American spelling; a secondary one, that though there are probably some four hundred prints in the work, there is not, so far as I can find, any index to them. To refer to Goldsmith's house just now, I had to look through the contents of some fifteen volumes before I came to it, and then found it placed with his 'Traveller' (this, I need hardly say, spelt 'Traveler'). To those "about to purchase" I would give, not one word of advice, but two—"Caveat emptor." W. O. Woodall.
"Hopping The Wag."—The following appeared in the Daily Telegraph of 15 Dec, 1899 :—
"Another slang phrase was registered in the Penge Police Court, when a small boy was brought up for neglecting to attend school. He confessed that he had been 'hopping the wag,' which, being translated, means playing truant. The School Board representative acted as interpreter, and said it was
street vernacular. It is rather a picturesque phrase, and might bo more generally used."
"Playing the wag," "hopping it," and "playing the hop" are synonymous terms very common in this district.
"Chiaus."—The note on the origin of this word in the ' Historical English Dictionary' is very interesting. The usual explanation is that of Gifford, given in a note on the 'Alchemist,' I. i.:—
What do yon think of me?
"In 1609, Sir Robert Shirley sent a messenger or chiaus (as our old writers call him) to this country, as his agent, from the Grand Signior, and the Sophy, to transact somo preparatory business. Sir Robert followed him, at his leisure, as ambassador from both those princes; but before he reached England, his agent had chiaused the Turkish and Persian merchants here of 4,000/. and taken his flight, unconscious, perhaps, that he had enriched the language with a word of which the etymology would mislead Upton and puzzle Dr. Johnson."
The 'Historical English Dictionary' comments upon this:—
"But no trace of this incident has yet been found outside of Gifford's note; it was unknown to Peter Whalley, a previous editor of Ben Jonson, 1756, also to Skinner, Henshaw, Dr. Johnson, Todd, and others who discussed the history of the word. Yet most of these recognized the likeness of chouse to the Turkish word, which Henshaw even proposed as the etymon, on the ground that the Turkish chiaus ' is little better than a fool.' Gifford's note must therefore be taken with reserve."
I cannot offer any further explanation of the word, but I have traced Gifford's authority, and this may yield a clue. Gifford copied without acknowledgment a note on p. 15 of W. R. Chetwood's 'Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Ben. Jonson, Esq.,' Dublin, 1756:
"Chiaus, a Turkish Messenger that was in England in the year 1610, sent by Sir Robert Shirley as his Agent from the Grand Seignor and the Persian King. Shirley followed in two Years after as Ambassador from both those Princes; but his Agent, in the mean Time, had choused the Turkish and Persian Merchants out of 4,000/. and had gone off. Thence, we conjecture, is derived the Word chouse, to cheat; for the Turkish Word Chiaus is pronounced as wo pronounce chouse, to bite or cheat."
This carries the explanation back to 1756; but it is admittedly a conjecture, and no authority is cited for the story of the agent.
Portrait By The Marchioness Of Granby. —In 'LTroage de la Femme,' noticed by your reviewer 9th S. iv. 549, the portrait by the Marchioness of Granby alleged to be Mrs. Langtry is in fact, as a moment's observation will show, Mrs. Patrick Campbell.
"Flannelized."—In a recently published novel ('Jasper Tristram,' by A. W. Clarke) a youth is referred to as having "flannelized," meaning that he had dressed himself in cricketing or boating flannels. As this is the first time I have noticed this expression in any work of literary pretensions it may be worth while recording it in the pages of 'N. <fe Q.' Frederick T. Hibgame.
"boytry."—In Robert Ashley's translation from the French of Louis le Roy, entitled 'Of the Interchangeable Course or Variety of Things' (1594), there occurs, in fol. 86b, "puerilitie or boytrie." Only a single quotation (1542) for what seems to be the same word, boytrye—but undefined, and apparently in a different sense—is given in the ' Oxford Dictionary.' As regards the epenthetic t in its -try, boytry is like deviltry, current in East Anglia and the United States. F. H.
"Bathetic."—Coleridge is generally credited, but on insufficient grounds, with this unhappy invention. Edward Du Bois, in his 'Piece of Family Biography' (1799), vol. iii. p. 16, writes of "a phalanx of authors or authorlings, pathetic and bathetic," adding, in a foot-note: "Why not bathetic, from bathos, as well as pathetic, from pathos?" For one reason, because, as Dr. Murray remarks, pathetic is not from pathos. F. H.
The Discoverer Of Photography.—I note in your highly interesting historical sketch of ' N. & Q.'s' jubilee (9th S. iv. 365) you quote Mr. John Macray in 'N. & Q.' for 8 Dec, 1860, who there gives Lord Brougham as the discoverer of photography. In Miss Meteyard's book on china I remember reading that Tom Brierly, Wedgwood's partner at the latter end of the last century, was credited with the discovery, which happened during his attempts to give to earthenware a silver "ustre. In her book is given a representation of a photograph taken of a tea service made in this silver lustre by Brierly. It would be interesting to know for certain who was the first discoverer.
Harold Malet, Colonel.
Church Older Than St. Martin's.— In the grounds of the Kent and Canterbury Hospital at Canterbury (which was formerly a cemetery) there is an interesting ancient chapel, evidently of Roman origin. It is I
called St. Pancras's Church. I inspected it, at the invitation of the secretary of that institution; it is a small building, but appears to be a genuine remnant of antiquity.
G. A. Browne. Camberwell.
Enigma By W. M. Praed. —The short prayer attributed to Bishop Atterbury (see 9th S. iv. 68, 137) reminds me of the poetical charade by the above-named author in its brevity and appropriateness. The answer is said to be unknown, though many guesses have been hazarded. W. M. Praed died in 1839 :—
Sir Hilary charged at Agincourt,
And though in that old age of sport
The rufflers of the camp and court
"Tis said Sir Hilary muttered there
Two syllables by way of prayer.
My first to all the brave and proud
Who see to-morrow's sun;
Before to-day's be done!
John Pickford, M.A.
"hanky Panky."—Thefollowing announcement, which appeared in the Monthly Mirror, July, 1796, p. 192, is worth quoting as a footnote to the expression "hanky panky": "Married.—Capt. Hankey, of the first regiment of Foot Guards, to Miss Pankey, of Bedford Square." W. Roberts.
We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.
"seek" Or "seeke." —"Blow the seek" occurs twice in the' Oxford Dictionary,' under the verb blow, as if seek were a wind-instrument. As in the quotations referred to. so in two others, all of them being from Bishop Richard Mountagu, the context throws no light on the meaning of seek. What does it signify? F. H.
Sutty, Bookseller, 1700-1730.—In vol. iii. of Dibdin's 'Bibliographical Decameron' some account of this man is given, apparently on the authority of Schelhorn, which I have never yet succeeded in tracing to its
real origin. He is said to have been an English bookseller who travelled through Germany and Switzerland, visiting various monastic and other libraries, wherever he thought it likely that he might pick up MSS. and early printed books, lor which—being supplied with ample means—he was enabled to offer liberal prices. All this, and somewhat more to the like effect, Dibdin gives as a quotation from Schelhorn's 'Amcenitates Littrarise,' a work not often met with in this country, I believe. It was published in 14 vols. (1730-2). Whence Dibdin derived the information which he pretended to copy from this work I cannot imagine; but one thing is very certain, namely, that from the first to the last page of these fourteen volumes there is not one word about it; nor does the name of Butty ever once occur. Can any one enlighten me on the subject 1
Dress Of Charterhouse Scholars. — In the regulations drawn up in 1618 for " apparell for the schollers " appear these entries :—
"For a Somer suite, viz* vii yardes di. of Fustian for the outside and to lyne the skirt att ii«. iid. a yard, xvi*. Hid"
"For a Winter suite, viz* ii yardes di. and di. q'ter of Fustian for the outside of the dublett ana to lyne the skirtes att xixrf. the yard, iiiis. id. ob."
I should be glad of an explanation of these two points: 1 Why did the summer suit require 7i yards, while the winter suit required 2§ I 2. Why should the former be of more expensive material than the latter 1
A. H. Tod. Charterhouse, Qodalming.
[The same question is put by the Rev. H. B. Le Bas.]
Nursery Rimes.—Any information (or reference to sources that may be relied upon) respecting the origin, author, or history of the following rimes is urgently wanted :—
The North Wind doth blow, &c.
Little Robin Redbreast sat upon a Tree.
Handy, Spandy, Jack-a-Dandy.
Baa, Baa, Black Sheep.
Old Mother Hubbard.
Little Miss Muffet.
Hiccory, Dickory, Dock.
Pat a Cake, Baker's Man.
Little Polly Flinders.
Wee Willie Winkee.
Little Betty Blue.
Pussy-cat, where have you been!
Humpty-Dumpty sat on a wall.
[We gladly insert your query, but fear that information beyond the meagre supply to be found in Halliwell is scarcely to be hoped. See also Mrs. Gomiue on 'Children's Singing Games.']
"dan" Chaucer.—By what authority is Chaucer called " Dan " by Spenser and Tennyson? Tennyson's epithet Morning Star" is not original but taken from Sir John Denham, in his lines on Cowley, in 1709.
Raymonde. ["Dan" = Lat. dominue, master.]
Walter Holmes was elected from Westminster School to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1612. Any further particulars concerning him would be of service. G. F. R. B.
Peter Travers was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, from Westminster School in 1617. Can any correspondent of 'N. & Q.' give me any information concerning him 1
G. F. R. B.
Emery Family. — A copy of Baret's 'Alvearie,' 1580. in my possession, formerly belonged to Richard Emery. At the end of the preface is written : "Richard Emery in the Countey of Bedd. and dwelling in the Towne of Arlosey doth owe this booke. Witnesses Richard Emery and Jesper Emery." A few pages further on is written: "In the name of God let none stele this booke from Richard Emery the sone of Richard Emery sittuating in arlesey." In another place: "Richard Emery truly possesseth this booke given by his Grantather." In another place :—
Si Dominum istius Cupias cognoscere libri
S. O. Addy.
United Empire Loyalists.—A note on this subject in 9th S. iv. 456 refers to "the passing of Lord Dorchester's 'order in Council' at Quebec in 1789." Who was Lord Dorchester in that year, and what office did he hold 1 Politician.
[General Sir Guy Carleton (1724-1808) for services during the American War was created in 1786 first Baron Dorchester. In 1789 he was Governor of Quebec. See Burke's 'Peerage' and 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' ix. 93.]
Wharton.—Did Philip, Duke of Wharton, who died in 1731, leave any family 1 If so, particulars of same are wanted.
J. T. Thorp. [See the 'D.N.B.' as usual, vol. Ix. p. 412.]
Holbein Gateway In Whitehall.— Would you kindly inform me whether in old Westminster the gallery in the Holbein Gateway, Whitehall, communicated with Westminster Palace or St. James's Palace, and in what book of reference an account of it may be found] J. M. Stone.
"hail, Queen Of Heaven, The Ocean Star."—Who is the author of this most popular Catholic hymn? In 'Hymns for the Ecclesiastical Year' (Art and Book Co., 1895) it is ascribed to Dr. Lingard.
S. Gregory Ould, O.S.B.
"Farntosh."—This appears to be the name of some Scottish dish or delicacy. It is coupled by J. W. Boswell, writing in 1828, with"crowdy" and "haggis" in a poetical skit upon Burns. The word is unknown to the Oxford and Dialect dictionaries and to Jamieson. Can any one explain it 1
Fall Of The Roman Empire.—Gibbon, 'Decline and Fall,' chap, xxx., says :—
"The Chinese annals, as they have been interpreted by the learned industry of the age, may be usefully applied to reveal the secret and remote causes of the fall of the Romm Empire."
Has any author, either in a separate treatise or as part of another work, dealt exhaustively with this subject? A. F. H.
William Duff. — Among manuscripts,
Bapers, <fco., belonging to the late Thomas aines, F.R.G.S., the African traveller, I came across a book of blacklead drawings and water-colour sketches (Graham's Town, Algoa Bay, ifcc.) signed " G. Duff," and dated 1843-5. Who was the artist, and was he in any way related to William Duff? H. J. Hileen.
"Tankage."—The following sentences are taken from the United States 'Year-Book of the Departmentof Agriculture, 1898,'pp. 283-4:
"If the surface soil does not already contain sufficient available plant food, this should be supplied in the form of barn-yard manure or commercial fertilizers; those containing large percentages of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in readily available forms are most valuable. Among such are muriate of potash, ground bone, cotton seed meal, and tankage."
"Tankage," I surmise, means urine or liquid manure; if so, has the word been often used in this sense in English technical works? It. Hedoer Wallace.
Dr. Hayden, Of Dublin.—George Thomas Hayden, a medical graduate of T.C.D., living 1854, was author of several medical works as well as of 'The Present State of Ireland: a Brief Dialogue between an Irishman and an Englishman.' Any particulars regarding him will be appreciated. Sigma Tau.
'the Book Of Praise,' &c—Who was it that said, holding 'The Book of Praise' in one hand and 'The Golden Treasury of Songs
and Lyrics' in the other, that while the former contains scarcely anything that is good, the latter contains scarcely anything that is not good? It was recently attributed by a London daily paper to Mr. Gladstone, but I have always heard it attributed to Dr. Martineau. C. C. B.
Father Gordon.—Of what family was Father Gordon, who was at the head of the Scotch College in Paris in the middle of the last century? H. T. B.
Slang, When First Used.—When did this word become one of the expressions in constant use 1 I find it in Woty's 'Fugitive and Original Poems' (1786), p. 28. The passage runs as follows :—
Did ever Cicero's correct harangue
And a note adds, "A cant word for vulgar language" W. P. Courtney.
Taltarum, A Surname.—One of the most famous cases in the history of the common law is that of Taltarum, in the twelfth year of Edward IV., wherein it was decided that a common recovery might be applied to the barring of an estate-tail. Whence did the odd name of Taltarum originate; and is it extinct? Du Cange gives Talterium as equivalent to Silva ccedua; and this may possibly furnish the reply to my first query. Richard H. Thornton.
"Anchylostomeasis." — This word, I am told, represents a disease from which the Belgian miners suffer, and inquiry is being made from the Home Office as to whether the disease is known among Welsh miners. Can any reader give me the meaning of the word? It is not given in the 'H.E.D.
D. M. R.
William Cecil, Lord Burleigh.—What authorities can I consult, other than Froude's and Lingard's histories,'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' and Macaulay's essay upon Nares's and Hume's 'Lives,' for biographical details relating to this statesman? W. B. Gerish.
[Surely Nares's ' Life of Burleigh.']
Egyptian Chessmen.—While visiting a private museum in Camber well I became much interested in some remarkable objects, such as I have not noticed elsewhere. I was informed that they were very rare and of ancient Egyptian origin. They are made of alabaster, and consist of about a dozen