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objects in the form of animals and triangles, I should like to know whether they are thick and very plainly designed; but the connected with the De Benstedes of Bencharacter of each is quite clear, though only nington, co. Herts. I may say that I have the upper part of the animals is developed, seen Clutterbuck's ‘History of Hertfordshire' the lower being a solid mass; and thus each and also Morant’s ‘History of Essex. The can stand upright like chessmen. The life of a Mr. Bensted was given in Temple animals are:-1. Bull, with the horns lying Bar as discoverer of the big ichthyosaurus tiat on the head. This, therefore, I conclude described by Dr. Mansel. I should very cannot be Apis, for his horns are upright, so much like to know the exact reference. Any as to receive the disc, moon, or world between notes relating to this family would be greatly them. I identify this with Taurus. See esteemed.
Chas. H. CROUCH. drawings of Apis and Serapis (or Osiris) in Nightingale Lane, Wanstead. Sharpe ( Egyptian Mythology, 1863, pp. 15, 12). Length i} in. 2. Sheep, or Aries. 3. Goat, or Capricornus. 4. Lion, or Leo. 5.
Beplies. A thick triangle, like a well-stuffed cushion ;). from its two top corners proceed two infant | THE ORIGIN OF THE ENGLISH COINAGE. heads. The lower angle is surrounded by a
(9th S. iv. 431, 504.) cord-like mark as of a string or ribbon, the I BEG to offer some additional notes on two ends being shown. This would be this subject. But first let me thank PLANGemini-two infants made one by being TAGENET for his very useful reference to the wrapped together in one case, swathed as fact that in Wiltshire a bay of a barn is infants used to be, and still are by some in known as a skilling. France, probably in honour and imitation of Prof. Maitland has made calculations which Artemis of Ephesus (see engravings of this show that “some force, conscious or unconArtemis on medals of Antoninus and Com-scious, has made for 'one pound, one hide.'"* modus in 'De la Religion des Anciens It will hardly be doubted that the force was Romains, pp. 85, 86). The string below conscious, or that the correlation of houses, would be to tie the swathings. 6. Two more acres, and monetary units was the result of bulls. 7. Another sheep. 8. Three triangles design. larger than the former, and without heads. It has been seen that in my table the pound These have concentric rings round them corresponds to the hide of 120 acres. In the numbering four and five. Would these refer | Domesday of St. Paul's,' compiled in the to planetary orbits, the numbers denoting to year 1222, the sums paid by the various the initiated what planets they referred to, tenants exactly correspond, in many cases, and to be used in magical rites and incanta- to the sums given in the table. Thus on p. 4 tions ? As to the animals, it seems the a list of the libere tenentes and the sums paid Egyptians played for money at chess (see an by each is given :-engraving of this game in the Art Journal,
8. d. 1863, vol. ii. P. 6) and at draughts. The The first tenant holds half a hide, and pays 10 0 immense antiquity of chess is undoubted. The second tenant holds two out of three See its connexion with the zodiac and
nel parts of a virgate, and pays ...
The third tenant holds a virgate and a half, planets in a sheet entitled “The Zodiacal
and pays .... Chess-Board,' by J. H. S. (Taunton, Barnicott, The fourth and fifth tenants hold a quarter of 1899). The owner of the objects, after a virgate each, and pay respectively ... 13 consideration, inclined to the view of their Then some variations follow, and afterwards being zodiacal, and remarked that they the same scale of payment begins again. showed signs of having been kept in a bag. Such payments are sufficiently numerous to A set of Indian chessmen I possess came to deserve notice. me in their native silk bag instead of-as For fiscal or other purposes land with its with us-in a box. Is this a correct con-appurtenances is regarded as worth so much clusion; and are similar objects in any a year. Thus we find such expressions as public museum ?
A. M. solidata terrct a shillingsworth of land, or
| deneriata terrce, a pennyworth of land. DE BENSTEDE OR BensTED FAMILY.-I am “There seems no room for doubt," says collecting all the information I can regarding Prof. Maitland, “that híwisc and the more this family, and shall be very grateful for abstract híwscipe mean a household, and very any particulars your readers may have. The name Bensted frequently occurs in the
* * Domesday Book and Beyond,' p. 465. registers of All Saints', Maidstone, Kent, and
| + “Solidatus, a shyllyngworth” (Wright-Wülcker,
little room for doubt that hid springs from 240 square ft., like the Roman and English a root that is common to it and them and bay. has the same primary ineaning."* Again, It will have been noticed that the building relying on Mr. Stevenson, he says, " The described by Saxo Grammaticus is 240 ft. little evidence that we have seems to point long, and also that it is divided into to the greater antiquity in England of a 12 bays, each of which is 20 ft. square.* reckoning which takes the 'house land'Each of these bays may accordingly be rather than the plough land’ as its unit.”+ divided into 20 rectangular divisions, each The hide is sometimes described as “terra measuring 4 ft. by 5 ft., and corresponding to unius casati," a casatus being a person to the 20 pennyweights which make the ounce, whom a casa, or house of some kind, has and the whole building may be divided into been allotted.
240 such divisions. It is obvious, then, that Let me now refer to evidence which helps the whole building corresponds to a pound, to fix the normal size of the bay.
and that the 12 bays represent the 12 ounces The size of the Roman bay is given by into which the pound was divided. Palladius, whose work on husbandry is | The Frisians had a land measure, or ascribed to about A.D. 210. This author, in measure of surface, which they called giving directions about the building of ox- pundemeta,+ literally a pound measure. They houses, says :
had also a measure of land called enze, an “Octo pedes ad spatium standi singulis boum ounce, which was the twelfth part of the paribus abundant, et in porrectione xv.”+
pundemeta, and they spoke of so many Each pair of oxen should have a length of
* ounces of land." In Friesland therefore, 8 ft. for standing room : that is, the bay as in England, the monetary system tlowed should be 16 ft. long, and the breadth should from the measures or values of houses and be 15 ft. Here, therefore, we have a bay
land. with a superficies of 240 (Roman) ft.
The Gallic and the Welsh pound of silver, The English bay may now be compared to
as well as the Frisian pound of silver, was the Roman.
divided into 12 ounces each of a score pence, The size of the English bay in the twelfth |
and there were 12 pence in the shilling. century is given in «Boldon "Buke' (Surtees
An ancient writer has the following definiSoc.), p. 33 :
tion :“In Quykham sunt xxxv. villani, quorum
“Juxta Gallos vigesima pars unciæ denarius est unusquisque tenet j bovatam de xv. acris, et
et duodecim denarii soliduin reddunt...... Duodecim solebant...... in operatione sua facere unam domum
unciæ libram xx. solidos continentem efficiunt. longitudinis xl. pedum et latitudinis xv. pedum.”
Sed veteres solidum qui nunc aureus dicitur
nuncupabant." I As English bays were 16 ft. long, this house contained 23 bays, and accordingly each definite area from the fact that hay and corn
We may infer that the bay had a fixed or complete bay was 16 ft. long and 15 ft. broad. Each bay, therefore, contained 240
were estimated by the bay. In Derbyshire square ft.
hay has been commonly sold by the bay in In France, as in England, buildings were
the present century, and pay yet continue estimated by the bay. Thus in a document
to be sold in that way. Palsgrave, in his of the year 1548 we have "une grange-con
'English-French Dictionary, 1530, mentions tenant trois Espasses."S
| a “goulfe of corne, so moche as may lye
The usual French word was travée, which Cotgrave defines as
bytwene two postes, otherwyse a bay," but “A Bay of building ; the space, and length,
gives no French equivalent. The “two postes ” betweene two beames, or the two walls
engn: are the pillars or “forks" which separate thereof; in breadth about twelue foot, in
Sone bay from another. In Norfolk, according to length betweene nineteene and twentie.''ll
Forby, every division of a barn is called a "goafeA bay 20 ft. long by 12 broad would contain
i Du Cange renders the mediæval dispendium by
detour, and it seems impossible to interpret Saxo's * Op. cit., p. 359.
words in any other way. + Ibid., p. 398.
+ Richthofen, ‘Altfriesisches Wörterbuch,' s.v. De Re Rustica,' i. 21. Other measurements In ‘Pauca de Mensuris' (Lachmann and Rudorf, and further details are given in my 'Evolution of 'Gromatici Veteres,' p. 373), quoted by Mr. the English House.
| Seebohm in the English Village Community,' $ Du Cange, s.v. 'Spatium.'
p. 292. Mr. Seebohm, on the same page, says, “The il ‘A Dictionarie of the French and English | division of the pound into 240 pence was very conTongues,' 1632. I think I have read somewhereveniently arranged for the division of a tax imposed that French churches are longer in proportion to upon holdings of 240 acres, or 120 acres, or 60 acres, their breadth than English.
or the 10 acres in each field.”
stede." If the bay or “goulfe" had been of lish house of twenty bays, we shall see that, uncertain area, or even if the cubic contents whilst the pound was the highest unit of of bays had varied materially, it would have value in both cases, the Frisian bay, or seg. been impossible to sell or appraise hay or ment of a house, represents twenty pence and corn in this manner. But if the bay had an not a shilling. If the Frisian pundemieta of ascertained area, such as 240 square ft., it land had been equivalent to the English hide would only have been necessary in such cases of 120 acres, the Frisian bay of 400 square to take the height. During the sixteenth | ft. would have corresponded to ten acres, and seventeenth centuries there are so many that is, to the “ounce of land." The relationinstances, both in literature and unpublished ship of the house-room to the holding in documents, of the estimation or valuation of arable land would have remained unaffected. buildings by the bay, that one can hardly The quantity of house-room attached to the doubt the wide prevalence of a standard and pundemeta would have been the same as the well-understood size of bay during those quantity attached to the hide, and so on periods.
through the various divisions of these two A solicitor interested in antiquarian matters land measures. In other words, the arithtells me that bequests of bays are common in metical relationship of acres to house-room old wills.
would have been the same. It appears from the Ancient Laws and The substitution of the shilling for the Institutes of Wales' that houses were esti-ounce appears to me to point to a change in mated by the “fork,” in Anglo-Saxon called architecture. There were two main kinds of gafol. Thus in the Dimetian Code we are houses -- the winter house and the summer told that “the worth of a winter-house, for house--the winter house being the ordinary every fork which supports the ridge-beam, [is] / village house, and the summer house being twenty pence.”* And again, in the 'Leges the more slightly built summer residence on Wallice' the following statements occur in the hills, where the cattle went to pasture in the section “De fractione domus et com- summer. The winter house, like the summer bustione":
house, was supported by forks or "gavels,” "I. Precium hyemalis domus est xxti denarii de each pair of forks supporting a room conanaquaque furca que sustinet laquear, et de laqueari taining 240 square ft. But the winter house xla denarii.
had an aisle. If we take the English bay of “Il. Si denudetur, tertia pars totius precii red- 16 ft. by 15, and put an aisle measuring 16 ft. datur. "II. Domus estiualis, xii. denarii.”+
by 10 on the long side, we shall have made
an excellent oxhouse for four oxen. The Estimation by the “fork" or gafol is equi
heads of the oxen would, of course, be turned valent to estimation by the bay, for the
in wards, and they would be fed from the surveyor would not count both ends, so that main floor. Or if we take the French bay of in counting "forks" he would really be count- 20 ft. by 12, and put an aisle measuring 20 ft. ing bays. Thus a house of six bays would
| by 8 on the long side, we shall get a similar contain seven "forks," and the surveyor
oxhouse for five oxen. In both cases we shall would leave out the first, just as in framing I have added 160 square ft. to one of the a scale or foot-rule a man would begin with sides, and thus made up the total area of 400 zero.
square ft. It appears that the Anglo-Saxon gafol, fork, or "crutch," as it is sometimes called in
It is true that the aisle or lateral cattleYorkshire, and gafol, tribute, are identical.
stall annexed to a house or other building
continued to be built down to a late period. * It further appears that the word gavelkind implies a division of the house and its appur
But it is also true that the introduction of tenances among the heirs by the "gavel," began at an early date. As the monetary
separate cattle-stalls and other outbuildings which was equivalent to division by the bay. Lunits followed the divisions of houses and It implies the actual or physical partition of houses and land. “Gavelage" is the pay
land, the shilling took the place of the ounce
pay; of twenty pence when the ounce had ceased ment or estimation of tribute by the "gavel.”
to represent the typical bay. The quantity If we compare the Frisian house, as de- of house-room remained unaffected, at all scribed by Saxo Grammaticus, and its twelve events for fiscal purposes. This is, of course, bays, containing 4,800 square ft., to the Eng- only a conjecture, but at present I can think
of nothing so likely to be right. • Op. cit., p. 579.
+ Ibid., ii. 802. A shieling is a summer house or temporary summer hut, usually of one bay. Does a * See the section in my · Evolution of the English Scotsman ever call a shilling a shieling?
House,' p. 75.
Since the Frisian house described by Saxo “Up, GUARDS, AND AT THEM !" (9th S. iv. Grammaticus was divided into 12 bays, repre- 497, 543.)-There are not many people alive senting the 12 ounces into which a pound of still who heard what passed froin a witness silver, or in older times a pound of copper, of the scene. I am one who questioned was divided, we may be led to suspect that General Alava himself, now more than fifty the word “ounce” means “bay." The Latin years ago, as to what ground there was for uncia, Old Frisian enze, may be related to the story. The general told me that he áykov, a bend, bay, and to a ykos, a bend or never knew the Duke show excitement but hollow, a word which, according to Liddell | twice. The first time was at Vittoria, when and Scott, is akin to the Latin uncus. We he drew his sword and waved on the line; have seen that the English bay, used as an the second time was at Waterloo, on the architectural term, was otherwise known as occasion in question, when he took off his a "goulfe.” In Old Norse, too, this division of cocked hat and signalled to the line to stand a building is called gólfi* Evidently the up and advance, saying to Alava, “Now or comparison of this section of a building to a never.”
H. R. GRENFELL. gulf, bay, or recess was widely spread, and had taken deep root in the mind. There “PAPAW” (9th S. iv. 515).—This is more must have been some reason for the division learned than lucid. At first glance I fancied of the as, libra, or pound into 12 ounces ; and we were dealing with the Americanized paper, if a certain number of bays, such as 12 or but the botanical papaw is defined as an 20, were taken as the principal unit of value, American production, the Carica papaya, a the name of this regular and well-defined "native” of South America, whence it seems architectural division would naturally become to have spread ; so the root word may be the name of a lower unit of value.
accepted as Transatlantic in preference to This equation of ounce and bay is sup- Asiatic. So many Aztec words can be traced ported in another quarter. According to to Sanskrit that communication must have the 'H.E.D.' the A.-S. gafol means interest on subsisted ; the argument here is botanical. money, as well as tribute. The 'Epinal
A. H. Glossary 'of A.D. 700 has "ære alieno, gæbuli.”
See the account in Yule's ‘Hobson-Jobson,' And then we have gaveller, a usurer, and which shows that, as early as 1598, it was gavelling, usury. Amongst the Romans the law of the Twelve Tables in B.C. 451 having been taken thence to India by way of
regarded as a West-Indian name, the fruit established unciarum fenus, i.e., a twelfth the Philippines and Malacca. According to part of the principal or 85 per cent., pay: 1 Oviedo, the Cuban name was papaya; and able yearly, as the normal rate of interest.f the Carib name is said to have been ababai. If the Roman bay had a fixed size, and if the
WALTER W. SKEAT. Romans, like ourselves, sold hay or corn by the bay, it would be easy to pay interest in ARTISTS' MISTAKES (9th S. iv. 164, 237, 293). hay, and by the "gavel," or by the bay. - The admirable “Border Edition” of the And we know that they often paid interest Waverley novels is disfigured by some rein corn. It is remarkable that fenum meansmarkable instances of the failure of artists hay, and fenus interest. Cotgrave gives a to make sure that their drawings are not French proverb, “De mauvais payeurs foin, merely pretty, but illustrative of the text. ou paille”-from a bad payer take hay or We read: "There was among the ranks straw, i.e., get what you can. So English of the Disinherited Knight a champion in lawyers speak of a poor inan as a man of black armour, mounted on a black horse.” straw. These sayings are reminiscences of a The illustration, 'The Knight at the Hermit. time when debts were paid in cattle and the age' ('Ivanhoe'), represents the horse as produce of the field. I hope to deal with the being white ; besides, the knight had dispenny in a subsequent article.
mounted when he “assailed the door of the S. O. ADDY. | hermitage with the butt of his lance.” A
| few pages further on Cruikshank, in his * The word is usually rendered as “ floor," interior view of the hermitage, gives us the "room," "apartment.”. But it clearly means a bay black horse of the story. In the illustration of building. Thor's hall in the Edda is said to have | Edie (Antiquary') is barefooted, notwithconsisted of 540 golfa and to have been the biggest stay house that had ever been made. Compare “In
biggest standing that he tells us a moment before he My Father's house are many mansions" (uovai), appears at the window of Knockwinnock John xiv. 2.
Castle that he wears hobnailed shoes ; also + One ounce in twenty, or one bay of hay in see Edie in prison. In Roland and Cathetwenty, would have been 5 per cent.
rine' ('Abbot') Roland should be seated on a
chair, which he tries to move closer to Cathe- drawing a crocodile with a tongue. But this rine's. 'Roland Dismissed' is dramatic, but must not be deemed an artist's, but a correincorrect. When the lady became angry spondent's mistake, according to the following Roland fell at her feet, and when he finally extract from a work on natural history : took his leave she was in an almost fainting “Crocodile......the tongue fleshy, flat, and so condition. In the frontispiece of vol. i. much attached to the sides of the under jaw, (Woodstock ') the lady is without a veil, that the ancients supposed it to be wanting.” although we are told on p. 264 there should May I recommend MR. HEMS to purchase a be represented a lady completely veiled; the modern work on the subject? story tells why this is necessary. Also in
T. N. BRUSHFIELD, M.D., F.S.A. describing the Burial of Tomkins' (* Wood- | . Salterton, Devon. stock') mention is made of the body of a man
WORCESTERSHIRE DIALECT (9th S. iv. 476). — wrapped in a deer's hide. In "The Mon-lv astery' the Sub-Prior should be shown with
Mon. Your correspondent W. C. B. may be intera beard. The Cruikshank illustrations are
ested in a Yorkshire example of tombstone correct in this respect, but in the other illus
verse which scarcely corresponds with the
teachings of those who when we were young trations the beard is omitted. In 'Count Robert of Paris' the Countess Brenhilda
professed to instruct us in the arts of speaking appears to be a knight brilliantly equipped
and writing our own tongue with "ease, when she and her husband meet Agelastes in
elegance, and propriety.”. I saw and copied it their stroll to the city ; the artist gives us
some years ago in the churchyard of Wath, the costume probably worn later on at court.
near Rotherham. It was on an upright stone The combat between the Crusader and the the
standing, if my memory be not at fault, near Saracen (*Talisman') shows Kenneth not
the south-east corner of the burial-ground: with the barred, flat-topped helmet of the Ta
“To the memory of Betty, wife of Christopher
ne Tayler, of Wath, who died Nov. 29, 1820, aged 20 tale. An artist cannot hope to meet the con- years. ception of each reader, but he should at least Here lies she who has his wife, follow his text in matters of detail.
A tender mother and a virtuous wife ;
Free from all hatred and sedition ;
Happy are they that dies in her condition." Apropos of authors', or rather artists', mis
ASTARTE. takes, permit ine to call attention to a print which was reproduced in the Sunday at Home BLACK JEWS (9th S. iv. 68, 174, 234, 312). --My for 1888, p. 665, entitled The Entry of the father, who was the son of a Portuguese of Prince of Orange into London,' where Old | the Malabar coast, used to tell me that the St. Paul's, destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. | Portuguese of India were blacker than the figures conspicuously in the background. It natives. V. Heber's 'Journal,' 1. 67-9. is described as a “ reduced facsimile of a por
THOMAS J. JEAKES. tion of a print, bearing date 1689, by Romein The Poet PARNELL (9th S. iv. 495).- In the de Hooge." It would look as if the artist | Cheshire Notes and Queries for Septeinber, inserted the structure for purposes of effect, 1896, is a pedigree of the Parnell family by notwithstanding that it had been non-existent an amateur hand. It is obviously tentative for twenty-three years.
as no doubt its compiler, Mr. Thomas Cooper, ALEXANDER PATERSON, F.J.I.
would be the first to allow; neither does it Barnsley.
settle the exact date of the poet's death; the A picture entitled 'Eve Tempted' in the
editorial foot-note appears to do that if any permanent collection of the Manchester Cor
reliance at all is to be given to parish register poration Art Gallery encloses the garden of
extracts. Mr. Cooper gives the year as 1718, Eden with a brick wall that would do credit to
but no month or day is mentioned. The any suburban back garden. CASHIER.
object of this note is attained in calling the
attention of any interested in Parnell to Several mistakes of neglecting to reverse the attempt at a pedigree which some might lettering appear in the engravings by the make conclusive.
R. L. author appended to Lockinge's Historical ! Urmston. Gleanings on the Memorable Field of Naseby'| (London, 1830).
| St. MILDRED's, POULTRY (9th S, iv. 478, 528).
John T. Page. West Haddon, Northamptonshire.
- Your correspondent G. S. P. will find copies
of the monumental inscriptions and notes Under this heading your correspondent from the registers of the above church in Me. Hem accuses Tenniel of making a Mr. Milburn's History of St. Mildred the blunder in one of the Punch cartoons, for Virgin, Poultry. If, however, G. S. P. is