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May we not therefore conclude that Peter Ellis, juriscoruidtus, has been run to ground? But if so, what is the meaning of "1st" attached to his name?

George T. Kknyon.

I most gratefully acknowledge the value and aid of your paper in this inquiry. It has brought out the tact that Peter Ellis was a great authority, a distinguished lawyer, and, as his work shows, a most careful genealogist. His will accounts for many of the owners of the book. Humphrey Lloyd, who possessed it after him, was nis executor. He was one of the Masters in ChanceryExtraordinary; he died 1673.

I have proof now of Peter Ellis's handwriting (independently of the book itself) from his will (1637) in the P.C.C. and a paper bound up with the book: it is probably his autograph and a copy of Edward Puleston's. I wish to record my thanks to the Hon. G. Kenyon, to Mr. H. K. Hughes (of Kennel Park), and most especially to Mr. Alfred Neobard Palmer (the learnecf author of the ' History of Wrexham '), for their most valuable information. This Peter Ellis MS. ought to be properly edited. Though not an official document or the work of a Herald, it is a careful copy of many Welsh authorities now, unfortunately, lost or inaccessible, and each author is carefully vouched and annotated, and thus it throws a clear light over the confused and badly compiled Welsh authorities, and enables a searcher to grope his way amongst them with some degree of certainty.

Since writing my previous letter I have had an opportunity or comparing my notes and

Shotographs oi several pages of the Prothero ISS. in the Bodleian with the volumes in the College of Arms, and it is clear that they form part of the same collection, and are by the same writer. I feel no doubt that my other surmise, that this was the work of David Edwards, the Deputy Herald, is accurate; but the difficulty is to find examples of his handwriting. If any possessor of undoubted MSS. of his will kindly communicate with me I will send him photos to compare. The point is of very great importance, since, if my view is accurate, these volumes are official records, and binding upon the College. I am happy to say that Mr. Watkin, Portcullis, appears to assent to my views.

I have made considerable progress with investigations into the origin of 'Trie Golden Grove Book,' and feel no doubt that it is the work of Evan Evans, a great genealogist and poet, whom, unfortunately, the editor of

the 'Dictionary of National Biography' has noticed, but chiefly to record his vices, which ought to have been forgotten—he was a Protestant clergyman. There is evidence, from the book itself, that it was compiled between 1752 and 1771; pp. B294, 297, 304-16, prove this. Evan Evans initials it himself; the water-mark is George Rex. Mr. Horwood, in his report to the Historical Commission, states that it was the work of Hugh Thomas, the Deputy Herald. Can any one give me the date of his will? There is a curious connexion between this book and the Peter Ellis MS., and Hugh Thomas bequeathed one volume (which is a copy of that work, and of Mr. Wynne's Peniarth volume) to the Earl of Oxford. Possibly his will, if it could be found, would give a proper description of it. Evan Evans's MSS. remained at Pan ton until the death of the late Major Priestley, when, it is said, they were sold, and I am unable to get access to any specimen of his handwriting. Will any correspondent state where they now are? Pym Yeatman.

"in Gordano" (9th S. v. 126, 254).—The family of Gorges, many of whom lie buried in Wraxall Church, co. Somerset, held lands in that parish in the fourteenth century, and, I think, also in the neighbouring parishes or Easton, Weston, and Walton in Gordano. They bore for their arms Argent, a gurges (i.e., whirlpool) azure. Now, in later Latin, Gorgus and Gordus were synonyms of Gurges (see Du Cange, s.v.), and Gordanus would be naturally the derivative adjective of Gordus. I read, therefore, "in Gordano" as short for "in agro Gordano" — in the land of the Gorges. Aldenham.

St. Dunstan's.

Goat In Folk-lore (9th S. v. 248).—As a very general rule the small farmers in many parts of Ulster keep a goat to graze along with their milch cows. It one makes inquiry as to the reason he will very often be informed either that there is none in particular, or, less frequently, that "it is lucky." It is well known, however, that the real origin of the custom is due to the belief that the goat eats some herb which, although innoxious to this animal, is harmful to the cows. I have often endeavoured to ascertain what particular plant this could be, but have completely failed to do so up to this, and should be much obliged for any suggestions as to its nature. The theory that the goat's effluvium "has an effect on microbes " is, I think, quite untenable, otherwise the same reason might be adduced for the occasional residence of the pig with the family in Paddy's cabin, where in virtue (!), or in spite, of his presence the inmates are often very healthy. I have never met with an instance of a goat being kept with sheep.

S. A. D'akcy, L.R.C.P. and S.I. Rosalea, Clones, co. Fermanagh.

A few weeks ago a strange donkey strayed into my orchard. On making inquiries I found it had been bought that day by a neighbouring farmer, and I was told that it was considered beneficial to the milch kine to have a donkey with them. This is in Worcestershire. W. C. B.

T. F. Thiselton-Dyer, in his ' English Folklore,' say 8 :—

"There is a popular notion relative to goats; they are supposed, says Brand, never to be seen for twenty-four hours together; and that once in that space they pay a visit to the devil, in order to have their beards combed. This is common both in England and Scotland. Martin, in his ' Description of the Western Islands,' says it was an ancient custom among them to hang a he-goat to the boat's mast, in order to ensure by this means a favourable wind."

'N. & O.,' 3rd S. ix. 118, 330, contains a letter published in the Manchester Courier of 29 January, 1866, showing the belief in goats keeping diseases from farmyards which formerly prevailed.

Everard Home Coleman.

71, Brecknock Road.

I have not read that in days of old it was the office of the goat to resist witches. The goat, however, was sometimes their support: for the devil was said to take the form ot this animal. He often presided at their nightly meetings in the form of a black goat. The leaders of the witches were supposed to be the pagan gods and goddesses become devils. And one of these leaders was Bacchus, who used to change himself into a goat, as he did when Typhceus frightened the gods out of heaven. E. Yardley.

Twenty - Four - Hour Dials On Clocks (8th 8. xii. 9, 109,171, 292,494; 9th S. v. 234).— I wonder that, in correcting the misprint of "Sous " for Sono, I did not also correct the misprint in the same sentence (which Mr. Pierpoint indicates) of "ventre" for venti. I certainly wrote "venti," as did the author whom I quoted. Aldenham.

St. Dunstan's.

Grammatical Usage (9th S. v. 288).—The answer to the question is that we must not depend upon logical considerations, but condescend to examine it historically. If readers

would consult such historical grammars as those by Matzner, or Koch, or Fiedler and Sachs, they would frequently find that these points have long ago been considered and illustrated by long lists of examples.

Of the construction in question I have observed several examples in the works of King Alfred, especially in his translation of Orosius. The actual historical usage is carefully ignored in many English grammars, because the writers will not condescend, as a rule, to examine what forms of syntax were actually in use in the Middle-English and Anglo-Saxon periods. If instead of lookw at such a question logically we really consult our old authors, we shall find a usage which may be thus formulated. When a verb occurs as the second word in a sentence, and is preceded by such words as it, that, what, where, here, and the like, such a verb is usually employed in the singular number, irrespective of the number of the substantive which follows it. Examples of such usaee are common, from the ninth century onwards. Hence a ballad may begin with It was a lover and his lass," or we may begin & sentence with "There is tears" or "Here is

Sansies." There are many examples in our ramatists. This is the right explanation of the famous line in 'The Tempest': "What cares these roarers for the name of king! Yet the commentators have sometimes quarrelled over it; and, if I remember rightly, the form cares has been explained as "a Northern plural." But what had a Warwickshire man to do with a Northernplural! Walter W. Skeat.

A Shield Of Brawn (9th S. v. 247).—For the meaning of the expression "a shield of brawn," with quotations for its use, sec * N. & Q.,' 7th S. x. 129, 235, 353.

Everard Home Coleman.

71, Brecknock Road.

Horse Equipment (9th S. v. 148, 213).-It is possible only to give approximate dates for the separate parts.

Saddles, in some form, are of the greatest antiquity. Under Tigiath-Pileser IIL the Assyrian cavalry were provided with tbem (see Prof. Sayce's 'Babylonians and Assyrians: Life and Customs'): and the early Romans used a covering of cloth, hide, or skin, which was no doubt very similar. These early examples would probably represent light saddles. The heavy war-saddle seems to be much later, one of the earliest instances of its use being by the Visigoths in A.d. 340. Theodosius the Great, fifty years later, effected great improvements.

Bridles were also in use in very distant ages. Ancient Thessalian coins often represent a horse with a long rein touching the ground. The young Romans were trained to ride and mount unassisted, but the use of the bridle was known from the first. According to Livy, Aulus Cornelius, in a battle with the Fidenre, ordered the Roman cavalry to unbridle before charging, probably to give them more weight. At the battle of the Ticinus, Hannibal's Numidian horse had no bridles, and were drawn up on the wings, while the heavy cavalry, with bridles, were in the centre.

Stirrups were about two hundred years later than saddles, the first mention being by the Emperor Mauritius towards the end of the sixth century. In earlier times the Greeks mounted by means of a cramp-iron attached to the lance, while the young Romans leaped, spear in hand, from either side of the horse. The younger Gracchus adopted the Greek method of placing large stones at intervals along the roads to assist horsemen to mount.

Spurs were probably little earlier than the first feudal times. The great importance of the spur in the days of chivalry seems to point to its having been a late invention. The barbarous goad—a single spike, which was the earliest form—was replaced in the fourteenth century by the large rowelled spur.

Horseshoes are of uncertain date, and have caused some discussion among military historians. Nailed shoes were not known by the Greeks, for Xenophon gives minute instructions for hardening the hoof. Nor did the Romans use them. Nero had mules shod with a plate of silver fastened by crossed thongs to the hoof. With Poppsea, his later wife, it is said these plates were of gold. The earliest positive evidence of nailed snoes is furnished by the skeleton of a horse found in the tomb of Childeric I. (458-481) at Tournay, in 1653.

No doubt Prof. Oman's book on the 'Art of War' would be an excellent authority on this subject. Davidson's 'History of Cavalry' is another work that might well be consulted. George Marshall.

Sefton Park, Liverpool.

There is a very early instance of ornaments being used on bridles to be found in Homer, 'Iliad,' book iv. 141 et seq.:— fls &' on Tts T' (\i<pavra yvtnj (polviKi p.irjvy Myovis, i)t Kdapa, iraprj'iov ipptvai iitirmv Kcitcu S' iv daKdfitf 7roA.tes rk piv r)prj<Tavro liririjes <pop€tiV /3acrt.\.rj'C St Kcitou dyaXpa, dp.<p6Ttpov} Kuir/ws ff iinrif (karTJpl re Kcsos.

This occurs in the description of the breaking of the truce by the wounding of Menelaus, and the probable date is B.c. 1183. Liddell and Scott s 'Lexicon' gives the meaning of Traprj'Cov "irirav as "the cheekornament of a bridle."

John Pickford, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

The 'law List': Andrew Steinmetz (9th S. v. 165).—I regret that no mention of him appears in the ' Dictionary of National Biography.' Can any readers supply a complete list of his published works? I frequently meet with mention of them in second-hand book catalogues, and from the prices named it seems that they invariably command a goodly sum. Among an extensive collection of works on tobacco I have "Tobacco: its History, Cultivation, Manufacture, and

Adulterations By Andrew Steinmetz,

Esq., of the Middle Temple, Barrister-atLaw. London, 1857."

Chas. F. Forshaw, LL.D.

Hanover Square, Bradford.

F. E. Accum (9th S. v. 267).—This name is so uncommon in literature that only one possessor of it is to be found, and that was Frederick Christian Accum, whose name in the usual British manner 'A Biog. Diet, of Living Authors,' 1816. pp. 1 and 407, misspells. He was a foreigner, who for imitating another British custom—tearing leaves out of library books—had to leave the country. _ As he had considerable reputation as a chemist, and was at 11, Old Compton Street, London, it is very probable that the boy inquired for was his son. I should have thought the registers of Westminster School would have given some information. He died 1838.

Ralph Thomas.

"byre" (9th S. v. 6, 277).—Let me assure St. Swithin that there is not the remotest danger in this instance of his being annihilated by the scorn of critics, though I would not positively affirm that he is equally safe from an entirely different and more effective weapon. I do not profess to be a combatant, so that I have some confidence in pointing out to him that he seems to have not fully apprehended the point of the Aberdeen man's onslaught. He thinks the Aberdonian lacks "humour," and goes on to infer what the line "implies." Now the fact is that the Aberdonian is not excited about what the line "implies "; the fun appears in what it " says "; ant] I question if less than ten to the dozen of Scotchmen who saw the line did not have a good laugh at it. No Scotchman would have penned such a bull. "Welsh hearths and Scottish byres" is just as good and appropriate as "Scotch hearths and English stables "; in fact, the latter is more appropriate, for by the law of association our minds promptly revert to the yeomanry, whereas the Scotch in general are foot soldiers, and, as far as I am aware, do not necessarily visit the byre or cowshed before departing on warlike expeditions unless to hear the dairymaid asking in soft accents, "Wull ye no come back again?" If this is what the line "implies," we can understand it, certainly; but the old blood is sure to rise at such an imputation, and St. Swithin may be in danger from weapons more tangible than "scorn" (not the other weapon referred to at first). But St. Swithin has a big job on hand if he has mounted Rosin-ante or Buey-ante to whitewash Cockney blunders about Scotland. They are a standing jest among us—from those of the Times down to the plum-pudding wit and humour of the sheet called Punch. If an Aberdeen poet described the English rank and file as swarming from "stables," the numerous Cockney penny-a-line war critics would have something commensurate with their powers to rave about. P. F. H.


Curiosities Of Collaboration (9th S. iv. 475; v. 214).—This kind of piece-writing is not always so successful as Mr. Hannigan seems to think. I have long been of opinion that 'The World's Desire,' written conjointly by Messrs. Eider Haggard and Andrew Lang, would have been more effective from one pen. Such partnership is invariably nothing better than patchwork. One can generally trace the fine Roman hand of the dominant and the crabbed one of the sleeping partner. This unnatural marriage of styles is altogether undesirable. A passage from Mrs. Oliphant's letter to Wm. Blackwood (25 August, 1892) is interesting in this connexion :—

"I should like to say my mind about Louis Stevenson's 'Wrecker' and the 'Naulakha,'both of which are striking instances of the evils of collaboration, and I think would furnish good materials for a little slashing. As I am very fond of theprincipal authors in both cases, I should not go too far."

Whether the "little slashing" was ever administered the 'Autobiography' of that prolific author sayeth not. It was certainly needed. J. B. Mcgovern.

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester.

Lists Op Northern Fighters At Flodden (9th S. v. 126,257).—In 'The Battle of Flodden Field,' edited by Charles A. Federer, L.C.P.

(Manchester, Henry Gray, 1884), is a list of "' Craven Men who fought at Flodden, taken from the Battle Boll at Bolton Abbey, in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire." Probably the list of the followers of the Percy may be there also. G. H. Thompson.

Flemish Weavers (9th S. v. 288).—The names of many of the early Flemish weavers who came over with John Kemp, temp. Edward III. and later, are given in 'The History of Wool,' by John Smith, LL.B., 1747, a copy of which is in the British Museum (959 c. 19). See also Rymer's 'Feeders,' torn. iv. p. 496, &c. The names also appear in 'Nidderdale' (Stock), in a list of Yorkshire trades five centuries ago.

Fred. Hitchin-kemp.

Beechfield Road, Catford.

"Nimmet " (9th S. iv. 438,506; v. 51).—Jamieson gives " Yimmet, a. A piece, a lunch, several yimt of food." But one cannot accept his derivation from A.-S. qemete without question. The form is, however, interesting as providing a second word to nimmet, consonant, ana with a similar meaning, but with a different origin. The case, however, would be much simplified if one could assert that yimmet was an echoic form of nimmet and that yim had nothing to do with it.

Arthur Mayali*

Town Gates Outside London (9th S. V. 228).—The amount of wall and the area of different cities would be interesting points connected with this question. Most English cities were, like London, bounded partly by a river. London had a mile and a quarter of river and about two miles of wall. Though the Lord Mayor's district may be a square mile, the walled city was barely a third thereof. York, though not so large, claimed, being walled all round, more wait I believe. Next in size, I think, were Chester and Canterbury, also walled all round. Winchester approaches half the size of London— one hundred acres. It keeps two gates of five—the West, and St. Swithun's, which King John rebuilt with the church over it, and it is hence called King's Gate. The others, North, South, and Durn Gates, only give their names to streets. The North and South were on the Roman road from Silchester to Southampton, the last twenty miles of which, from Popham to Southampton, are still in use. except about a quarter of a mile in Winchester, which has been shifted about fifty yards eastward. Southampton keeps its North Gate and about one hundred yards of western wall. Salisbury, being founded in 1220, never attained, like other English cities, to walls. The Cathedral close, about ninety acres, is half bounded by river and half by walls, about fifteen feet high and five thick, with a moat. They have four gates, three for the public and one for the bishop. None of them is vaulted, and only three have rooms over them.

E. L. Gakbett.

In this city we have Miller Gate, Hustler Gate, Ive Gate, West Gate, Kirk Gate, North Gate, Queen's Gate, Emma Gate, Anne Gate, Hannah Gate, Harper Gate, South Gate, John Gate, Jonas Gate, Norton Gate, Park Gate, Denholme Gate, Tyersal Gate, West Gate (Eccleshill), West Gate (Baildon), West Gate (Low Moor), West Gate (Shipley), Kirk Gate* (Shipley). At Malton we have Yorkers Gate, Wheel Gate, Castle Gate, Old Malton Gate, and Green Gate. The names of these only remain. Chas. F. Forshaw, LL.D.

Hanover Square, Bradford.

Berwick-on-Tweed has a well-preserved wall and five gates. The chief gates are known as the Scotch Gate, the English Gate, and the Cowgate.

Canterbury has Worthgate, Northgate, Westgate, Burgate, Queningate, Ridingate. A part of the city is called Northgate. Bureate survives in the name of a street, and the West Gate is still standing.

Carmarthen had four gates. Some remains exist.

Carnarvon has a North Gate and an East Gate still visible.

Chester has Eastgatc, Northgate, Bridgegate, and Watergate. The last mentioned derives its name from the fact that the tide once flowed up to it.

Conway has three principal gates flanked with towers. They are Forth Uehaf, the upper gate; Porth Isaf, the lower gate; and Porth-y-Felin, the mill gate. There are also two posterns, the Porth-y-Adfor and Porth Castell.

Dundee has the Cowgate Port still standing. Nethergate, Seagate, Overgate, and Murraygate are among the names of its streets.

Glasgow had no walls, the outermost row of houses serving as a fortification; but it had several gates or ports. Names survive in the Gallowgate and the Trongate, where the place of weighing was.

Monmouth has only one gate left. It is known as the Dixton or East Gate, and is "perhaps the most perfect relic of its kind."

* To say nowt abaht "get aht o't gate."

The other gates were known as Monk's Gate, Wye Gate, and West Gate.

Newcastle, according to Mr. Tomlinson. has '"the Sally-port or Carpenter's or Wall Knoll Tower, the only gate now standing."

Perth had the Spey Gate near the Spey Tower, a now vanished part of the fortifications.

York has several gates or "bars" dating back, for the main part, to the fourteenth century. They are Micklegate Bar, Bootham Bar, Monk Bar, Walmgate Bar, Fishergate Bar, and Victoria Bar. The last is a modern erection. T. P. Armstrong.

In this ancient city of Chichester, of which Camden says, "Foure gates it hath opening to the foure quarters of the world." the names of the gates, the last of which disappeared at the end of last century, are yet retained, and the prolongations of the main streets leading to the gates, when they get beyond the city walls, are known as North Gate, South Gate, East Gate, and West Gate, respectively. E. E. Street.


Prince Of Wales As Duke Of Cornwall (9th S. v. 4, 215).—I should have mentioned what these titles are in the reply which appeared on p. 215. They are, in addition to Carrick, Earl of Cunynghame, Kyle, and Kilmarnock. The first is an older royal dignity than Baron of Renfrew, so far as Renfrew is on record, and the title Baron of Ardmannock is also older than Renfrew, and both Cunynghame and Ardmannock are likewise older than Lord of the Isles. Nothing has taken place to reduce the Prince of Wales from the use of these ancient ancestral titles—Cunynghame, Kyle, Kilmarnock, and Ardmannock, and there is, therefore, no reason why, in what are generally supposed to be, or pass for, official narrations of his titles, they should not be given in full. The Earldom of Kilmarnock was alienated in 1661, by patent, to William, ninth Lord Boyd, but returned to the Prince and Steward of Scotland on the attainder of the fourth Boyd Earl in 1746. The Earl of Errol was created Baron Kilmarnock in 1831; but the higher dignity remains with the Prince and Steward. With due consideration of the peculiar privileges of the High Stewards of Scotland it is perfectly certain that the Crown itself, without first attainting the Heir Apparent, could not rightly deprive the Prince of Wales of these ancient titles, which were borne by his ancestors before they were Dukes of Rothesay and Lords of the Isles. Yet Garter and Lyon have presumed to do so. Why? Dairy,

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