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heirloom; but in any case their christening year ago, and I have since found many scheme suggests a feasible manner of upsetting instances of it.

A. T. M. social distinctions, for the titles of “Sir," “Marquis of," “ Lady," "Judge,” or even

Women folks--especially those of country “Lord Justice," might be selected without

I places -- certainly used to consider their infringing any known statute.

married life would be “full of luck” if they Chas. F. FORSHAW, LL.D.

were married at the church where they were

baptized. My mother often spoke of this as There was a Doctor David Dickenson who being a common belief when she was a girl, kept the Waterloo Hotel in Burnley in 1896. and she was a “'98” woman. With men it I noticed while in that town the use of Ad did not signify much, but women ought to be miral, General, Major, and Squire as Christian married, if possible, in the church in which names.

J. HAMBLEY ROWE. they were baptized. There were no railways BROTHERS BEARING THE SAME CHRISTIAN Derbyshire villages into towns in those days.

and other things to take young people from NAME (9th S. i. 446 ; ii. 51, 217, 276, 535; iii.

Thos. RATCLIFFE. 34, 438 ; iv. 74).--Mr. James Gairdner, in his Worksop. introduction to The Paston Letters,' says that John Paston, son of the justice of the “SOFT AS A TOAD" (9th S. iv. 516).—The Common Pleas, temp. Henry VI., “had a con- popular antipathy to the toad is well illussiderable family, of whom the two eldest sons, trated in the story of the rustic who, finding strange to say, both bore the same Christian one in his path, smashed it with his spade, name as their father. They were also both saying as he did so, “Thou varmint! I'll of them soldiers, and each in his time at | larn thee to be a to-ad.” This is said to have tained the dignity of knighthood.”

occurred in this neighbourhood. The word F. L. MAWDESLEY, toady, however, implies no dislike of the The following is perhaps the most remark

creature ; it is merely a corruption of toadable case in England. The sixth Earl Fitz

eater. Does MR. RATCLIFFE know the pudding william had eight sons all named William,

called “toad-in-a-hole,” which used to be a seven of whom had second or third names

favourite dish in farmhouses in Nottinghamalso, by way of necessary distinction. “Wil

"Wilshire? It is, if I remember rightly, a batterliam, son of William," has been perpetuated

pudding with a hole in the middle containing for many generations.

A. H.
wou meat, beef by preference. C. C. B.

Epworth. On p. 45 of a charming book entitled [The rustic's remark and the pudding “toad-in. "Quelques Légendes Poétiques du Pays de the hole" are both widespread.] Soule, par Jean de Jaurgain," printed at Ligugé (Vienne) in 1899 we are told, “II I entirely agree with MR. RATCLIFFE in his ressort donc des conditions de ce retour de statement that toads are capable of appredot que Pierre d'Irigarai mourut le jour même ciating kindness. I have one or two in my où il avait épousé Gabrielle. Ses deux frères garden here, and as we invariably treat them se nommaient Pierre, comme lui.”

with kindness, they seem to be quite fearless,

PALAMEDES. and have occasionally even visited the MARRIAGE AND BAPTISM SUPERSTITIONS

kitchen. I may mention that I have several (9th S. iv. 518).-There is a basis for the usage

times noticed that whistling affects them of bringing babies to be baptized in the

strangely, and from this I judge that in some

small degree they possess a musical ear. As church where the parents were married, which is quite apart from any superstition,

a boy I remember being assured by a farmbut which is worth noting, the more so as it often since found this idea rampant amongst

hand that toads spat fire if teased. I have applies usually only to the firstborn. The mother would go to her parents' house in

children. I have not heard the expression order to be under the care of her own mother din

“a soft toad” or “a silly toad " here, but “a in the first confinement.

dirty toad” and “a nasty toad” are in

Thus it happens that the baptism

common use.

JOHN T. PAGE. of the eldest child of a family will often have to be sought for in the

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. church where its mother was married, even THOMAS BROOKS (9th S. iv. 478).-An when the baptisms of the subsequent children account of Thomas Brooks, with a list of his are to be found in the parish where their works, appears in Calamy’s ‘Abridgment' parents resided. My attention was called to and in Palmer's 'Nonconformist's Memorial,' this usage by a correspondent of N. & Q' 1802, i. 250-53; also in the Rev. A. B. when he was showing me some registers a Grosart's collective edition of Brooks's com

plete works (6 vols.), published in Nichol's fall. I shall be strengthened by what has * Puritan Divines." See N. & Q.,' 3rd S. iv. now passed to stand forward in your interest. 228 ; 4th S. vii. 342, 417.

Read thus, the passage is quite intelligible : EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 71, Brecknock Road.

Your hand!

I lead the vanguard.—If you fall, beside, DELAVAL (9th S. iv. 417, 486). – MR. PITMAN

The better: I am left to speak ! will find accounts of the battles of Plassey

Sometimes ambiguity is caused by the use of and Biderra in Orme's History of Hindo

“beside " when besides might be more explicit stan,' vol. ü.: Stubbs's ‘History of the Bengal and definite. Dr. SPENCE's proposed emendaArtillery,' vol. i.; and in Capt. Arthur tion would make a very good text, and one Broome's "Rise and Progress of the Bengal | not foreign to Browning's method ; but as Army.' Malcolm's “Life of Clive' also gives

the passage is the same in all the editions of accounts of both battles.

the poem, and as it is susceptible of a reasonDUNCAN PITCHER, Col.

able and convincing interpretation, there Gwalior Residency, Central India.

would appear to be no necessity for the alteration.

THOMAS BAYNE. Robert and Henry Delaval were the sons of Capt. Francis Blake-Delaval, R.N., M.P., of The only word that requires explanation Seaton Delaval, co. Northumberland,'by is the word “beside." This I take to be a Rhoda Apreece his wife. Mr. Cole, in his dramatic indication of an unspoken thought 'History of Doddington,' gives a very full of Tiburzio's. I should write his thought account of the family, and on p. 132 states :- at large thus : “Give me your hand! It

"In 1758 we read in a Newcastle paper that would have been good to have had you for a Captain Robert Delaval sailed from Shields with a comrade, but it is something to have so noble number of recruits he had enlisted for the Honor- a foe. Beside, if you fall it will be better able East India Company. According to the that you were matched with a kindred statement of his sister, Lady Mexborough, he lost bis life at the capture of Quebec, in Sept., 1759.

spirit: I shall be there to speak for you. My This is so far confirmed by the fact that his will. duty required me to win you to our side if it dated at his brother John's house, King's Square were possible ; but I am not sorry to have Court, Soho, 11 May, 1758, was proved by his said failed, for you will look gallantly found dead brother John Hussey-Delaval, as sole executor, with that unopened letter in your breast." 16 October, 1759...... Henry, an officer, was killed in battle in the East Indies......He was recruiting

C. C. B. soldiers at Bellingham in 1755, and was a Captain “Howa” (9th S. iv. 308, 385).-See New in the 73rd Regiment from 1757 to 1762. His por- English Dictionary,' s.v. 'Holk.' 0. V. trait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, representing him half-length in a cuirass, is now at Ford Castle, and The following passage from the ‘Antiquary,' has been engraved.”

the scene of which is supposed to be the

V. 1. O. Truins of St. Ruth, near Arbroath, in Forfar" POLDER": "LOOPHOLE” (9th S. iv. 347, 426). shire, may prove illustrative :-Judging by the nature of the locality of “It's travelld earth that,' said Edie, 'it howks the three Polders on the banks of the Forth, sae eithly ;-I ken it weel, for ance I wrought a polder might perfectly well mean marshy

simmer wi' auld Will Winnet, the bedral, and land, the locality indeed being Flanders Moss.

howkit maur graves than ane in my day; but I left

him in winter, for it was unco cald wark ; and then There is a hamlet called Polders in Kent, and

it cam a green Yule, and the folk died 'thick and a description of its locale might be of service. fast-for ye ken a green Yule makes a fat kirk

WALTER M. GRAHAM Easton. yard.'"-Chap. xxiii. BROWNING'S "LURIA' (9th S. iv. 516). —

The meaning of "howk” is, of course, to When Luria declined to open Braccio's

dig. Halliwell in his ‘Dictionary' gives the intercepted letter, Tiburzio instantly ex

meaning as “to dig, to scoop. North.” pressed his appreciation of his magnanimity

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. by asking to be allowed to grasp his hand.

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. Then, he added, “If you fall, beside, the BLEEDING IMAGE IN CHRIST CHURCH, better” ; that is, there is a further reason for DUBLIN (9th S. iv, 127, 311, 407, 527).—Your approval of your attitude, for should you fall correspondent regards Robert Ware as “an when we encounter each other, as no doubt honourable and valuable historical comwe shall do, in the forefront of the battle, piler.” I, on the other hand, have no then I shall be in a position to state and hesitation in expressing the opinion that the uphold your manly and independent resolu- bleeding-image story and much else that he tion. You commend yourself to me by your gave to the world are spurious documents. I present decision, and, besides, should you agree with the late Rev. Ț. E. Bridgett in

thinking that these things formed "a part of Commarin ; and in the evening, or in case of the Titus Oates movement.” The fact that wet, in “la Salle du Château," or great hall Strype, Lingard, and many other con of the castle. I remember some forty or scientious writers have been misled by them forty - two years ago a cherry bough in is to be deplored, but is not surprising. blossom being plucked for the Queen of the Persons who study history in a profitable May. My mother used to tell me that it was manner do so with the sole object of arriving the custom for the young men to place may at truth; they are, however, no more pro- boughs in the windows of their sweethearts. tected from the wiles of the forger than She used to speak also of a song being sung other people. We may smile, but we do not called, I think, 'La Raie d'Amour.' In this seriously blame those who, on their first a "laurel tree" is mentioned. She told me appearance, accepted as genuine relics of the also that when her mother was married the past Macpherson's 'Ossian, Chatterton's then Comte de Vogüé presented her with a * Rowley,' or Ireland's 'Shakespeare.' crimson sash and a wreath of myrtle. To discuss these Ware documents on their

THOMAS J. JEAKES. merits would require many pages, and must Tower House, New Hampton. of necessity lead the writer to dwell on matters unfit for the pages of 'N. & Q.'

“Hoon AFF" (9th S. iv. 517).-- This signifies Therefore, in case I have anything further to

"hold off" or "delay.” Jamieson gives the say on the subject, as possibly I may have, same verb under the form hune, and interthose who desire to follow the controversy

prets it as meaning in Ayrshire "to stop, will have to look elsewhere.

not to go on,” and in Clydesdale “to loiter.” EDWARD PEACOCK.

| The sb. hune, in the phrase“ withoutin hune,” Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

equivalent to “without delay," is quoted by

Jamieson from Dunbar; and the form hone THE GOLD COINS OF THE FORUM (9th S. iv. occurs in Gavin Douglas's translation of 513).—This note well illustrates the facilis ' Æneid, vii. 430. Prof. Saintsbury, in his descensus of money values. The solidus or solid 'Short History of English Literature,' p. 191, coin, not plated, is the French sou. Is it not risks the assertion that Douglas “does not also our shilling? Further, is not the shilling embroider on his text"; but this view seems a true representative of the A.S. silver penny, remarkable for its courage rather than for value 10d., twenty such pennies making a its accuracy. Let us see how the matter " pound Scots" ? Here the survival of the stands here, premising that Douglas's graword “pound "equates the Roman aureus, our tuitous but hone denotes “without delay." pound sterling.

| Alecto, in disguise of Calybe, thus addresses

Turnus : “MEMORIZE” (9th S. iv. 438).–From in

Quare age, et armari pubem portisque moveri quiries made here and in Edinburgh this Lietus in arma para : et Phrygios, qui flumine Americanism does not seem to be in use | pulchro yet, but it will probably find quarters soon, as

Consedere, duces, pictasque exure carinas : Americanisms are readily assimilated by the Celestum vis magna jubet. ordinary Scotch, although they look con- As given by Douglas this passage stands temptuously when a native “puts on his thus :English." The phrase "That takes the Haue done therfor, assembill this cuntre, cake" is in every-day use and has developed

Addres thi fensable men in thair array, some remarkable local forms, such as “That

Enarmyt glaidly move and hald your way

Towart the portis or havynnis of the see, cops the cookie,” “That taks the bannick."

And set apoun zoune same Troiane menze; I suppose the abuse of “awful" came ori Drive thair cheftanis of this land, but hone, ginally from Americans ; for this alone they Thair pantit carvellis birne: so to be done deserve some mild kind of plague in addition The gret power of hevinlye goddis devyne to the “awful" one.

A. F. H. Commandit hes, decret, and determyne. Perth.

See Small's “Works of Gavin Douglas,'

iii. 111; and cp. with huvis=lingers in same “ MAYS” (gth S. iv, 147, 233). — The patronal work, iv. 111, and huvit in i. 92. See also 'Hoo' fête of Châteauneuf coincides with May Day, and “Hove'in Jainieson. THOMAS BAYNE. and is always spoken of as “Le Mai." It is, or used to be, celebrated with dancing on CORRESPONDENCE OF ENGLISH AMBASSADORS “La Chaume," a grassy avenue continuing to FRANCE (9th S. v. 7).- Viscount Scudamore the high street into the coppice woods of was ambassador at Paris 1635-9, and perM. le Comte de Vogüé, the owner of the haps for a longer period. Some of his semi-ryinoys castle, whose own château is at unpublished correspondence will be found in the Additional MSS. for 1897 at the British Ident Christie, which plied between Bergen Museum. In relation to this subject I ask, and (I think) Hull. The family springs from Is there any published list of the English Andrew Christie, born at Montrose in 1620, ambassadors, envoys, &c., to foreign courts who died at Bergen in 1694, and several of prior to A.D. 1700? I know of none. Such a whose descendants were men of distinction, list (say, in Haydn's Book of Dignities’in a especially his great-great-grandson, the presifuture edition) would be of very great use. dent aforesaid.

JOHN CREE. Č. Mason. 29, Emperor's Gate, S.W.

The “Christie” referred to by MR. PICK

FORD is, no doubt, “Stiftamund Christie," 'PICKWICKIAN STUDIES' (9th S. iv. 492, 525; as he is called in Norway. He was born v. 10).—The colour of the turban is not an in 1778, and was the president of the important point. I was aware of the slender first Norwegian Storthing, which negotiated anthority for “blue”; but Dickens was re- with Sweden the constitution of Eidsvold sponsible for the later colour, and in such a passed in 1814.

T. P. ARMSTRONG. case the author's second thoughts are more acceptable. Surely we have grown out of A PASQUIL (9th S. v. 5).-- Please to correct talking about the few slips-Sun Court.” | an error in my note on the above subject. and the rest of the hackneyed list-in the The pamphlet in question, printed in 1533, original edition. I certainly never ventured

like those earlier pasquinades printed 1512to "explain that Sam Weller was called one

1526, and described by Brunet, belongs, of of Frederick William's big grenadiers." I

course, not to the fifteenth, but to the sixleave an explanation of that kind to HIPPO

teenth century, unless the fifteenth century CLIDES and to Mr. Fitzgerald, of whom it is

were understood to be identical with the quite worthy. Since it seems to be necessary

Italian “Cinquecento,” or the period from to return to preliminaries, I may mention

1501 to 1600.

H. KREBS. that “ Prooshan Blue" occurs in chap. xxxiii.;

“THÉ BEURRÉ” (9th S. v. 9).-In Huc's and that it did not refer to Sam, but to his on father. Every idea we have of old Weller,

‘Travels in Tartary,' &c., there is frequent including Dickens's description, only tends to beverage in Tibet. I know this book only in

mention of “buttered tea” as a common prove how applicable a simple explanation would be. England had acquired, through

Hazlitt's translation (London, office of the

ed, through "Illustrated London Library,” 2 vols., n.d.), troublesome experience, some knowledge of

but I presume that thé beurré must be the Frederick William's recruiting methods. It should not be possible to mix the sayings of

original of" buttered tea,” i. e., tea with butter Sam with those of his father. They are quite

in it (vol. i. pp. 39, 49). Poseibly M. Auzias.

Turenne reasons thus: The Tibetans and the separate; but HIPPOCLIDES in his note shows

English are barbarous tea-drinking nations; how easily they may be confounded for pur

the Tibetans put butter in their tea; thereposes of " correction." GEORGE MARSHALL

fore, so do the English. Sefton Park, Liverpool.

S. G. HAMILTON. “ BOER” (9th S. v. 3).—May I direct SIR

THE OLD CHURCH AT CHINGFORD (9th S. iv.

537). — While staying at Buckhurst Hill in the HERBERT MAXWELL's attention to the articles * Bower,' sb. 7, and 'Bowing,' sb., in the ‘New

autumn of 1898 I was conducted to this old English Dictionary'? He will there find the

church, as one of the sights of the neighbour

hood, but could obtain no local information real origin of the words to which he refers,

relating to it. I have no access to any works as well as evidence of the fact that they occur

on Essex, and if the matter has not already in Jamieson.

Q. V.

been treated of in 'N. & Q.;' in which case à STATUE IN BERGEN, NORWAY (9th S. iv. 514). |

repetition would perhaps only take up valu-The statue as to which Me. 'PICKFORD inable space, I shall feel obliged for some quires is that of a member of a well-known

particulars as to the history of the edifice.

At what date was it erected ? family of Bergen which still exists, and is

S. A. D'ARCY, L.R.C.P. and S.I. represented at present-or was a few years

Rosslea, Clones, co. Fermanagh. since--by a distinguished architect of the name. The statue is probably that of Wilhelm JAMES Cox's MUSEUM (9th S. ii. 7. 78 ; iv. Frimann Karen Christie, born in 1778, died 275. 337 : v. 17).-Mr. John HEBB says I am in 1849, who was president of the Storthing,

mistaken in thinking that Wigley's Room in and as such was very popular. His name Spring Gardens stood on the site now occuwas some years since well known to tourists

I pied by the offices of the London County in Norway from that of the steamboat Presi

| Council, offices of which, by the way, MR.

HEBB himself was long one of the greatest

Miscellaneous. ornaments. I confess never to have dreamt that so ambitious and aggressive a body as

NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. the Council in question would be content The Complete Works of John Gower. Edited by with a site so small as that of Wigley's Rooms, G. C. Macaulay, M.A.-Vol. I. The French Works. and I do not contest the statement that the

(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) inultitudinous officials who look after every

Nothing was further from our expectations than a body's business there are partly accommodated

complete edition of the works of John Gower

“Moral” Gower, as he is called by Chaucer; on the site of Berkeley House. Nevertheless,

Ancient” Gower, as he is styled by Shakespeare. as an authority, I prefer the contemporary So well known are the shortcomings of the only woodcut to which I alluded to the Hon. available edition of the 'Confessio Amantis' that Grantley T. Berkeley's rickety recollections, we were prepared for the appearance of an authoas set forth in the Life'named by Mr. HEBB.

ritative text. Such alone was, indeed, meditated by

• Mr. Macaulay when he first approached the Delegates F. G. S.

of the Oxford University Press. To them is due ENGLISH TRAVELLERS IN Savoy (9th S. iv. the extension of the scheme by which we are to 537).-Many English works relating to Savoy I receive, in four volumes, the entire works, in Eng. are mentioned in the ‘Bibliographie Nationale | if not too plenarily inspired, poet whose remains

lish, French, and Latin, of the grave and worthy, Suisse' (fascicule iii., Récits de Voyages '), repose in the chapel of St. John the Baptist in the compiled by A. Woeber, and published by north aisle of the nave of the church of St. Mary K. J. Wyss at Berne, 1899, a considerable Overies.. That such an edition is now in course contribution to the bibliography of travel in on

travel in of publication adds one more to the claims

on our gratitude of that noble and spirited Switzerland and neighbouring countries. The corporation the Oxford University Press, to Catalogue of the Library of the Alpine Club which philology, history, and other branches of (23, Savile Row, London, W.) might also be scholarship are under equal obligation. In the consulted.

H. C. monument to Gower in St. Mary Overies the effigies

of the poet has the head resting upon three worksThe 'Saggio di una Bibliografia Ragionata the “Speculum Meditantis, the Vox Clamantis,' dei Viaggi e delle Descrizioni d'Italia e dei and the Confessio Amantis. Of these works the Costumi Italiani in Lingue Straniere,' ap

last, which was printed by Caxton, and again by pended to Prof. D'Ancona's edition of Mon

Berthelet, is well known. Vox Clamantis, which

treats of the servile insurrection in Kent, is a Latin taigne's journal of his travels in Italy elegiacal poem in seven books, in which Gower (published at Città di Castello), might be con describes himself as “senex et cæcus." It was sulted. It, however, only contains books printed in 1850 by H. 0. Coxe for the Roxburghe before 1815. The edition of D'Ancona's book | Club from the fine MS. in the library of All Souls'

I College, Oxford. The “Speculum Meditantis,' mean. which I have is that of 1889, but a second

while, has long been regarded as lost. Gower's edition has been published.

R-N. latest biographer, Mr. Sidney Lee, declares, so late

as 1890, that it“ has disappeared and left no trace." “WITCHELT”=ILL-SHOD (9th S. v. 9).--I | This work, originally called “Speculum Hominis,' strongly suspect that there is a regular Mr. Macaulay has recognized in the ‘Mirour de muddle as to this supposed use. Surely the l’Omme,' upon which he came during his researches word referred to is the perfectly common

among the Cambridge MSS. That he is right in word often pronounced nearly as wetchud,

his judgment that the two works are the same

there is no reason to doubt, and no controversy on though it really should be wet-shod, i. e., wet the point is to be expected. This recovery of a in the feet, well known in Lancashire and mislaid treasure of literature-for such, in a sense, Yorkshire. In Shropshire it is wetchet, and the book is--is a subject of congratulation. Not in Oxfordshire watcherd. Wet-shod occurs in | quite perfect is the MS., five opening leaves, con• Piers Plowman' c xxi . and dochod jo prising, it is supposed, 564 lines, having been cut

out. A few leaves are also wanting from the end, and in our Bibles, Isaiah xi. 15.

there are other shortcomings. These deficiencies WALTER W. SKEAT. are to be deplored, though the reader who misses a This is apparently a form of wet-shod=wet

few hundred lines from a poem extending to some

thirty thousand may be congratulated upon his in the feet, which is very common all over

very compinon all over appetite. Now that the title under which the book the Midland counties as wetched. A child appeared is known it is possible that other MSS., paddling about in boggy places will say, “It filling up the lacuna, may be traced. “Mirrors' won't hurt me, I've got good boots on; I

were common in mediæval literature: see the shan't get wetched.

‘Miroir de lame,' the 'Mirouer de lame Pecheresse,' C. C. B.

the Mirouer des Femmes Vertueuses,' the ‘Miroir AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (9th S. iv.

du Temps,' and many others before we come to our

• own 'Mirour for Magistrates.' The work is a species 499). —

of religious allegory concerning Sin and its offspring, His time a moment, and a point his space. the influence of these latter upon various classes of Pope, ‘Essay on Man,''Epistle 1. line 72. human beings, and the manner in which man is to

E. YARDLEY. | be reconciled to his Maker, Mr. Macaulay fails,

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