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Customs Accounts of Edward V. and Richard III. lb., xviii. 241. PP. 1,898 o.

Kirton-in-Lindsey. — Extracts from Churchwardens' Accounts, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. lb., xix. 18. PP. 1,898 o.

Delaval Papers.—A few entries of wages accounts,

early eighteenth century, lb., xx. 181. PP. 1,898 o.

Kyre Park, Worcestershire. — Extracts from

wages accounts, 1588-1618. lb., xxi. 202; and xxii.

24, 50. PP. 1,898 o.

Wilts Archaeological Magazine. Devizes. — Extracts from Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Mary's, Devizes, sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Wilts Archaological Magazine, ii. 308. Ac. 5,740.

Wiltshire Provision for the Queen's Household, 1553-1588. lb., xiv. 237. Ac. 5,740.

Wulfhall and the Seymours. Article by Canon Jackson, containing extracts from accounts chiefly sixteenth century. lb., xv. 140. Ac. 5,740.

Lady Arabella s Progress. Account of travelling

expenses, early seventeenth century. lb., xix. 217.

Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh:

contains a few extracts from accounts of various

kinds. 76., xx. 60, 185.

Bristol and Gloucester Archceological Society. Leigh. — Extracts from Constables' Accounts, eighteenth century. Bristol and Gloucester Archseological Society, vii. 319. Ac. 5,650-4.

Ruardyn.—Extracts from Churchwardens' Accounts, seventeenth century. lb., viii. 143.

Buckland.—Inventory of farm stock and implements, early sixteenth century. lb., ix. 118.

Bristol. — Extracts from Churchwardens' Accounts of the Parish of St. Ewens, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. lb., xv. 139, 254. Ac. 5,650-4. Books and Tracts. Manchester.—Constables' Accounts from 1612 to 1647, and from 1743 to 1776. Edited by J. P. Earwaker. 3 vols. 010,3581.30.

St. Mary Bourne, Hants.—Extracts from Parish Accounts in J. Stevens's history of this parish, p. 237. 10,3521. 21.

Bassingbourne Churchwardens' Book. Rev. B. Hale Wortham. Mentioned in Walford's Antiquary, i. 143; not in B.M. Catalogue.

Commonwealth Accounts, 1640-42. 'Somers Tracts' iv. 382. 2,072 e.

Dublin.—Account Roll of the Priory of the Holy Trinity, Dublin, 1337-1346. Ed. James Mills. Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. Ac. 5,785-2.

Oxford. — An Undergraduate's Account Book, 1682-8. Oxford Historical Society's 'Collectanea, vol. i. part 5.

Oxford.—Bookseller's Day-book, 1520. Oxford Historical Society's 'Collectanea,'i. 73. Ac. 8,126/5. Chronieon Preciosum j or, an Account of English Money, the Price of Corn and other Commodities for the last 600 Years. W. Fleetwood, 1707. 1,103 a. 1 (1).

Windsor.—An Account of the true Market-price of Wheat and Malt at Windsor for 100 Years (1646 to 1745). W. Fleetwood. 816 m. 12, 64. Sundry Periodicals. Ottery St. Mary's.—Short extracts from Parish Accounts, eighteenth century. The Western Antiquary, i. 105. PP. 1,925 eg.

Morcbatk—Warden's Account Book, 1520-1000. The Western Antiquary, x. 122, 149, 180: xi. 21, &c. ; and xii. 71. PP. 1,925 eg.

St. Mabyn, Cornwall.—Extracts from Parish Accounts, 1620 and onwards. London Society, xliv. 641. PP. 6,004 gp.

Morton, Derbyshire.— A few extracts from Parish Accounts, 1592-1642. The Reliquary, xxv. 17. PP. 1,925 e.

Edinburgh.—A few extracts from old account books, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Leisure Hour, 1883, pp. 204, 693. PP. 6,004 1.

Oxford.—Account Book of R. Freke, 1619-1637. English Historical Review, vii. 88. 2,093 e.

Chester Cathedral.—A few extracts from Treasurers' Accounts, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Chester Archaeological Society's Journal, iii. 179. Ac. 5,627.

Solihull, Warwickshire.— Extracts from Churchwardens' Accounts, chiefly seventeenth century. Solihull Parish Magazine, July, 1882, and following numbers; sixteenth - century extracts, May, 1892, and following numbers.

B. L. Hutchins.

Early History Of The Steam Engine.— The materials for the history of the steam engine in the early years of the eighteenth century are so scanty that the smallest addition is of value. I therefore ask permission to record the following advertisement which appears in No. 945 of the Post Man, 19 to 21 March, 1702:—

"Captain Savery's Engines which raise Water by the force of Fire in any reasonable quantities and to any height, being now brought to perfection, and ready for publick use. These are to give notice to all Proprietors of Mines and Collieries which are incumbred with Water, that they may be furnished with Engines to drain the same, at his Workhouse in Salisbury Court, London, against the Old Playhouse, where it may be seen working on Wednesdays and Saturdays in every week from 3 to 6 in the afternoon, where they may be satisfied of the performance thereof, with less expence than any other force of Horse or Hands, and less subject to repair."

The year 1702, I may point out, is the year in which Savery published his 'Miner's Friend,' which is, in fact, the specification, as we now call it, of the patent which was granted to him in 1698.

The next advertisement is taken from the Daily Courant of 24 July, 1721 :—

"Whereas an Engine to raise Water by Fire, commonly called Savory's Engine requires double the Quantity of Fuel that it ought to do, and besides is liable to burst or break in the using: This is to certify the public that a Remedy is found for both these Faults, and a Scheme for the same has been laid before Persons of Eminence as well asSkill, who have so far approved it as to sign a Certificate that they are of opinion it will fully answer the Author's Design for the Public good: Yet the said Certificate being produced before the Patentees of this Engine, they have wholly slighted the same, and demand that the whole Scheme be laid open without Reserve before Mathematicians (or rather Workmen) of their own, and of far inferior Note to those who had judged of it before, and that the Author rely wholly upon the Event, and upon thoir C4enerosity

for his Reward. Now this will appear an Hazard both t<> himself and the Publick, these Patentees having no Fund for Tryals, nor for assigning a Reward, and besides having lett Leases of their Kn^iries for many Years are wholly regardless whether the same be improved or not. This is therefore to invite those who have purchased such leases, or are Proprietors of such Mines where this F-ngine is or may be useful, to meet at St. Paul's Coffee House on Tuesdays & Fridays between the Hoars of four & seven in the Evening where they will be informed more fully of these Matters, and of some others it may concern them to know."

I am not able to furnish any explanation of this advertisement, but it will no doubt serve to supply a missing link in the chain of the history of the steam engine. It. B. P.

"an End."—Dr. Morris says in his 'Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar' that the expression "an end" sometimes signified "in oon " = continually. I was interested in reading this because my late father used to say that he remembered an old Warwickshire labourer who used the words in this sense. He was accustomed to Spw the buttons on his shirt with the same material as a cobbler would use with his shoes, and when asked by my father why he did so, he answered, "Because they most an i*d stops on." I wonder if any of your readers nave ever heard the expression.

W. A. C.

"mayfair Maeriages."—Curzon Chapel, situated between Chapel Street and Market Street, on the south side of Curzon Street, Mayfair, is about to disappear, as the ground has been secured by the Duke of Marlborough for the purpose of erecting thereon a town house. This ecclesiastical building had an unenviable notoriety in the last century in connexion with clandestine marriages, of which the following conciso account appears in the Dnily Neu's of 27 Dec, 1899:—

"With the disappearance of Curzon Chapel, or 'the little Chapel in Mayfair,' as it was once called, a curious link with the odd customs that prevailed in the middle of last century will be severed. This unlovely building was erected about 1740, and became the scene of the scandalous 'Mayfair marriages,' performed there by the once notorious Dr. Keith. He performed the ceremony when called upon with promptitude and dispatch, and asked Do questions. Accordingly, he did an enormous business. Prices did not rule high, for the charge, inclusive of Crown stamp, minister's and clerk's fees, and certificates, amounted only to the round sum of one guinea. The thoroughly trading spirit in which Dr. Keith conducted these affairs may be judged from the fact that he advertised his chapel and his terms freely in the newspapers of the period. His success, as much as the scandal of the thing, aroused the jealousy of his clerical brethren, and they procured the passing of the Act for preventing Clandestipe Marriages in 1754. In

1742, while there were but forty marriages celebrated at the parish church of St. George's, Hanover Square, the Rev. Alexander Keith had officiated at over seven hundred in his little chapel, and, as Lord Oxford remarked, was securing a very bishopric of revenue. It was hero that the Duke of Hamilton was married to the beautiful Miss Gunning at half-past twelve o'clock at night, the ceremony being performed with the ring of a bed curtain, February 14th, 1752."

The chapel contained a splendidly carved oak pulpit. This, I am glad to learn, is to be preserved, it having been presented to the parish church of Penn, in Buckinghamshire. Q. Yarrow Baldock.

"the Green-eyed Monster."—I doubt if the full force of this well-known Shakespearian phrase has been rightly perceived.

My belief is that the epithet must be taken in the subjective sense; that is to say, it is not the monster which appears green-eyed to others, seeing that green eyes were often considered to be beautiful, but a creature which sees a green colour in all that it looks upon. Hence it is that Schmidt explains it by "of a morbid sight, seeing all things discoloured and disfigured." This explanation tends in the right direction, but throws very little light on the reason for the use of green instead of yellow or red.

With regard to the word green itself, Schmidt defines it as "of a sick and lurid complexion"; with reference to green-sickness, to a "green and yellow melancholy," as in 'Tw. Nt.,' II. iv. 116; "sick and green," 'Rom.,' II. ii. 8; "green and pale," 'Macb.,' I. vii. 37. It also means "inexperienced, raw," as in 'Haml.,' I. iii. 101, <&c. But this is not all; the principal point of the compound epithet is still missea.

This point is that green was well known in mediaeval times as being the special symbol of fickleness and inconstancy, its opposite (as to sense) being blue. The contrast is clearly brought out in the refrain of the 'Ballad against Women Unconstant,' "In stede of blew, thus may ye were al grene." I have explained, in my notes to Chaucer, i. 565, that this refrain is taken from Machault, who expressly says that blue denotes loyalty, green, fickleness, and yelloio, falsehood.

Hence the green-eyed person is one who sees fickleness and inconstancy in the woman whom he watches, and who is thus filled with suspicions; "who dotes, yet doubts; suspects, yet strongly loves." Or, to take the immediate context, "which doth mock [i.e., scorn, feel distaste of] the meat it feeds on."

The same idea throws a strong light on 'L. L. L.,' I. ii. 90, where Armado says, "Green, indeed, is the colour of lovers; bto have a love of that colour, methinks Samson had small reason for it." This Schmidt explains by, "probably as the emblem of youth and hope." But this is very insufficient; and, if that were all, Samson nad very great reason to think himself wise. The whole passage abounds in quibbles; and surely the colour of lovers " implies not only youth and hope, but also inexperience and rawness, not without a further hint at a longing melancholy of disposition. But when Samson is said to have had "a love of that colour," the allusion is obviously to Dalilah's fickleness and treachery. Had she been true and constant, had she oeen of a blue colour, all had been well; but she was "a woman uneonstant," and her colour was green.

Walter W. Skeat.

Boswell's 'Johnson.'—In a very interesting article on copyright in the January issue of the Edinburgh Review the writer says, "Boswell's ' Life of Johnson ' has never been translated into any foreign language, though Dr. Birkbeck Hill has just discovered an abridgment of it in Russ."

Wm. H. Peet.

The Bible Originally Written In Dutch. —This entertaining suggestion was launched into the world by Joannes Goropius Becanus, a physician of Antwerp, in 'Origines Antverpianse' (Antwerp, 1569). An edition of the 'Germania' of Tacitus, by Simon Fabricius (Augsburg, 1580), accepts and quotes the arguments. They are of a mixed order, but a main point is that the Hebrew proper names in Genesis are really German • Adam, for instance, is the German Athem, "breath." Our early literature has several references to Goropius. J. Eliot, in 'Ortho-epia Gallica: Eliot s Frvits for the French' (London, 1593), p. 20, suggests that he would have been good sport for Aristophanes : R. Verstegan, in 'A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence,' 1605,

J. 190, gives some account of the theory; onson, in 'The Alchemist,' and Butler, in 'Hudibras,' honour it with an incidental gibe. But it is startling to discover at the present day that the school of Goropius flourishes in the Transvaal. The Daily News for 2 Jan. lias this amazing story in its 'Notes on the War':

"A missionary was visiting a Boer family, and found that they were daily using, and therefore wearing out, a Bible that had been brought over with the family three centuries or so before from Holland. He pointed out to them that it was a treasure not so to be ruined. They agreed, but did not know where to get another to replace it. He promised to make them a present of one. The old Boer was aghast !' But,' he said, 'the English do not

know anything about the Bible/ However, the book, printed in Dutch by the Bible Society, was duly presented. Of course, instead of the Dutch Anns it had the English Arms on the front )>age. The old man pointed this out. 'That is not the Bible.' he said. A little further examination showed him, however, to his amazement, that this was only a matter of printing, and that otherwise the two were identical. The explanation as to the Arms led to a reference to the translation. 'Translation?' said the old man. 'This is no translation. The words were originally said in Dutch.' Literally, that represents the ordinary state of the upcountry Boer mind. They look upon the promises and threatenings of the Old Testament as personally addressed to themselves and their forefathers. They worship a purely tribal God, who has given over 'the heathen as a prey to their teeth, and they, feeling themselves fully justified in so doing, act towards them accordingly.

Percy Simpson.

"Knobkerrie."—This word and its abbreviation kerrie are of such frequent occurrence in books about South Africa that it is curious neither occurs in any English dictionary. The meaning is a knobbed throwingstick, a favourite weapon with natives. The prefix knob is obviously English. Kerrie appears to be a Bushman's word; at any rate, I find in the Bushman vocabulary, in the appendix to Arbousset's 'Tour in South Africa' (1852), the entry "Club, keri." John Barrow, 'Travels in Southern Africa* (1815X has a third orthography; he calls it " the keerie, or war-club." Peter Kolbe, 'Account of the Hottentots' (1745), has "Kirri, a stick or staff." The Cape Dutch write kieri, knopkieri; for example, Mansvelt, who renders it wandehtok, walking-stick; and in German books on South Africa it is spelled Knopfkirri. James Platt, Jun.

The Marquessate Of Winchestee. (See 9th S. iii. 224, 364.)—Recently in 'N. <fc Q.' I have noticed the absorption of this title in the dukedom of Bolton, which became extinct in 1794 by the death of Harry Powlett, sixth Duke of Bolton, and how the marquessate of Winchester emerged and passed to George Paulet, Esq., of Amport, who thus became thirteenth marquess.

Winchester is the premier marquessate in England, having been originally created in 1551. John Powlett, the fifth marquess, was noted for his gallant defence of Basing House, Hampshire, which was taken by storm in 1645 by the Parliamentarians. His son Charles was created Duke of Bolton by William III. in 1689, and thus absorbed in the dukedom the inferior title of marquess, where it remained until 1794.

Recently we have had to regret besides the deaths of many other gallant soldiers in South Africa that of the fifteenth marquess, Augustus John Henry, true to the traditions of his bouse, of which "Aymez Loyaulte" is the time-honoured motto, and of him it might well be said "non deficit alter." His body has been sent to England for burial with his ancestors at Am port, co. Hants. Some now getting into the afternoon of life will remember Tennyson's fine lines on the death of Lord Raglan in the Crimea in 1855 and his burial, additional pieces from MS. and other sources, and the text carefully revised, witti notes ana a memoir, by William Michael Rossetti "? E. Moxon it Son, 1870, 2 vols. (vol. i. clxxix504; vol. ii. xiv-602 and one page of errata). Was the edition withdrawn for any reason?

Home they brought her warrior dead, &c, as applicable to the event now recorded. Lord Raglan was interred with his ancestors, and the Duke of Malakhoff, his comrade in the command, sent a wreath on the occasion, which was placed upon the coffin.

John Pickford, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.


We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.

"Hudgeh."—This is said to be a Surrey word for a bachelor. Can any one tell me why this unhappy being is so called? Is it a term of pity or reproach I

A. L. Mayhew.


Cromwell's Letters.—Will the possessor of any private or family letters of Oliver Cromwell bearing date 1658 kindly mention the fact in your columns, or privately, by postcard, to W. Q. Thorpe, F.S. A.

30, Larkhall Rise, S.W.

Thomas Powell was elected head from Westminster School to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1621. Can correspondents of 'N. & Q.' give me any further particulars of his career! G. F. R. B.

John Monger was elected from Westminster School to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1620. Any information concerning him will be thankfully received.

G. F. R. B.

The Bottled Ale Of Burton.—Bottled ale as a favourite beverage is at least as old in literary reference as Ben Jonson's 'Bartholomew Fair,' and Burton ale as the Sjwctabyr, in which "wo concluded our walk with a glass of Burton ale, and a slice of hung beef": but when did the bottled ale of Burton first become famous] I find the following advertisement in the London Daily Post and

General Advertiser of 25 May, 1738, which would indicate that it was then well known: "To be Sold, by Thomas Ludford, in Essex-street in the Strand, in Partnership with Mess. Bucknal and Hayne, of Burton upon Trent, Staffordshire, Genuine Burton Ale, Brew'd to the greatest Perfection for Keeping by Sea or Land at 1*. 8a. per Gallon, Beer Measure, in Half Hogsheads,24s.. Km., and 12 Gallon Casks, when returned to be allow d for. Also in Bottles not less than a Dozen at 7*. 6d. (some old of the Beer Kind 8».) allowing 2s. per Dozen for return'd Bottles."

A. F. R.

Sir Henry Morgan.—Where can information be found regarding the descendants of Sir Henry Morgan, the famous buccaneer, who was three times Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica, 1675, 1678,1680? He lived after his retirement on his estate at Laurencefield. Sir Hans Sloane in his work on Jamaica, published 1725, describes him as married, with a family, in 1688, and at that date about forty-five years old. Alex. Forbes.

[He appears from Prof. Laughton's life in the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' to have left no descendant. Consult this, and also Esquemeling.]

French Society In The Last Century.— I should be glad of the following items of information concerning the persons named below, who were prominent inFrench society about 1765:—<1) the maiden name of the ladies mentioned; (2) their title when not indicated (as in the case of Madame de Rochefort); (3) date of marriage; (4) date of death.

Duke and Duchess of Berwick.

Comtesse d'Egmont (the elder).

Comtesso d'Egmont (the younger).

Madame de Rochefort.

Madame de St. Prie (St. Priest ?).

Marechale di'Estrees.

Madame de Brionne.

Princesse de Ligne (her mother was a sister of

General Oglethorpe). Marechale Duchesse de Luxembourg. Princesse de Talmond (a Pole, related to Queen

Marie Leczinska). Duchesse de la Valliere.

"A Far Cry To Loch Awe."—Kindly tell me where I can find the origin of this. Long years ago I remember having read of the rescue of the captive maiden, but cannot trace it and want to refresh my memory.


[It is supposed to have been a saying of the Campbells. Have you looked at the notes to ' Rob Roy'?]

Shelley Bibliography. — What special value, if any, is attached to an edition of Shelley's 'Poetical Works,' "including various

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Wordsworth's 'excursion,' Book 1. 91102.—

Strongest minds Are often those of whom the noisy world Hears least; else surely this man had not left His graces unrevealed and unproclaimed. But, as the mind was filled with inward light, So not without distinction hail he lived. Beloved and honoured—far as he was known. And some small portion of his eloquent speech, &c.

In this passage how are we to take the words I have italicized, "had he lived "? Is the verb subjunctive (vixisset), like "had not left" preceding it? or is it indicative (vixerat), the statement of a fact? The former interpretation seems to accord best with what precedes; the latter with what follows. With the former and more obvious sense, "not without distinction " may mean "highly distinguished "; and "far as he was known has an amplifying force. With the latter both these phrases are restrictive, while "but" must be taken as "nevertheless." Perhaps it may be want of insight that leads me to see an ambiguity here, and if any one who sees more clearly can help me to fix the meaning I shall be obliged.

C. Lawrence Ford, B.A.


Sir Michael Cromie, Bart.—I am wishful for some information as to the above. He had a banking house in Liverpool in the early part of the present century, in partnership with Philemon Pownoll and Isaac Hartman, under the style of Sir Michael Cromie, Bart., Pownoll & Hartman. They issued oneguinea notes headed "Liverpool Bank." There is no notice of them in any Liverpool history or directory; but it is known that their business ceased in 1801. A commission in bankruptcy was issued against Pownoll in 1802, and against Hartman ("now a prisoner in the King's Bench") in 1808, but no record is traceable of Cromie. I find from an old Dublin directory that Michael Cromie, of Stacumine, Kildare, was created a baronet on 25 June, 1776. Perhaps some one who has access to an Irish baronetage can oblige me with further particulars. J. H. K.

Lieut. Van Schaick..—In the year 1804 the 1st West India Regiment, then stationed at Hillsea Barracks, were ordered to Honduras.

No wives were allowed to accompany the troops. Amongst the officers was a Lieut. Van Schaick (whose father had been secretary to the Stadtholder), who left his wife and two children. Some disaster occurred. It appears he was drowned, and the young widow, whose written lamentations remain, was inconsolable. I am anxious to obtain details of the circumstances.

William J. Bayly.

Reade Family.—William Reade was Bishop of Chichester in 1369, and Robert Reade was bishop of the same see in 1397. Can any reader give any particulars of the ancestors, descendants, birthplace, place of burial, or any remarkable points in the careers of these bishops? Was the latter translated from Carlisle? Likewise, can any reader say who was " George Reade of Sarum" in 1808; and were there any descendants? H. G.

Churches Built Of Unhewn Stones.— The church of St. Just-in-Penwith, Cornwall, is built of small rough, unhewn surface-stones. I am informed that in the south of France are other churches having this charming peculiarity, and that they are all supposed to be the work of Freemasons. Can any reader give me names of such churches, and evidence in support of their connexion with Freemasonry? Ygrec.

Engraved Portraits Of Sir W. Ralegh. —According to Walpole's 'Anecdotes of Painting' (ed. 1876, iii. 145-6) and^ to Granger's 'Biographical History of England ' (ed. 1824, ii. 139-40), two portraits of Sir W. Ralegh were engraved by Simon Pass. One of these is found in all editions of his 'History of the World,' 1617-87; the other is thus described in Granger's work, "Sir Walter Ralegh ; Fortunam ex aliis. S. Pass sc. 4to." Will any of your correspondents inform me where a copy of the latter may be seen? There is none in the British Museum collection. T. N. Brushfield, M.D.

Salterton, Devon.

Picture By Lawrence. — Where is the painting of Miss Farren by Sir J. Lawronce which was engraved by Bartolozzi? I have not seen the engraving, but I possess an oil painting (attributed to Turner) which I am told strongly resembles Bartolozzi'sengraving. Is it possible that this picture is Lawrence's work? R. J. Waj.ker.

Bkdingfield Family.—Could any reader give me a clue to the parentage (and descendants, if any) of Capt. Francis Philip Bedingfield, who married, before 1821, Mary

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